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JePHSON (Robert), the author of some dramas and 
poems of considerable merit, was a native of Ireland, where 
he was born in 1736. He appears to have profited by a 
liberal education, but entered early into the army, and 
attained the rank of captain in the 73d regimt^ot of foot 
on the Irish establishmcDt. When that regiment was 
reduced in 1763, he WD }t. In 1763 

he became acquainted Gerard Ha- 

milton, esq. who was c ss of fancy 

and uncommon talents, s they lived 

together in the greaie 1 intimacy; 

Mr. Jephson usually sp< Mr. Hamil- 

ton at his house at Ha giving hint 

much of his compHny in town duriug the winter. In 1767, 
Mr. Jephson married one of the daughters of Sir F.divard 
Barry, hart, a celebrated physician, ai)d author of various 
medical works; and was obliged to bid a long farewell to 
his t'rientis ill London, Dr. Johnson, Mr. Burke, Mr. Churles 
Townsend, Garrlck, Guldsniith, &c. in consequence of 
having accepted the oSice uf master of the horse to lord 
viscount Townsend, then appointed lord lieutenant of Ire- 
land. Mr. Hamilton also used his influence to procure 
Mr. Jephson a permaneni provision on the Irish establish- 
ment, of 30U^ a year, which the duke of Rutland, from 
personal regard, and a high admiration of Mr. Jephisoti's 
talents, increased to 600/. per annum, for the joint lives 
of himself and Mrs. Jephson In addition to this prouf of 
hiM kindness and esteem, Mr. Hamilton never ceased, with- 
out jtuy kind of solicitation, to watch over Mr. Jephson'a 
iuterest with the most lively solicituue ; constantly apply- 
Voi. XiX. B 


ing in person, in his behalf^ to every new lord lieutenanti 
if be were acquainted witb bim ; or, if tbat w6re not the 
case, contriving by some circuitous means to procure Mr. 
Jephson*s re-appointment to the oflSce originally conferred 
upon bim by lord Townsend ; and by these means chiefly 
he was continued for a long series of years, under twelve 
successive governors of Ireland, in the same station, which 
always before had been considered a temporary office. In 
Mr. Jephson's case, this office was accompanied by a seat 
in the house of commons, where he occasionally amused 
the house by his wit, but does not at any time appear to 
have been a profound politician. His natural inclination 
was for literary pursuits; and he supported lord Townsend*s 
government with more effect in the " Bachelor," a set of 
periodical essays which he wrote in conjunction with 
Mr. Courtenay, the Rev. Mr. Burroughs, and others. He 
died at his house at Blackrock, near Dublin, of a paralytic 
disorder, May 31, 1803. 

As a dramatic writer, bis claims seem to be founded 
chiefly on his tragedies of " Braganza," and " The Count 
of Narbonne." " Braganza*' was very successful oh its 
original appearance, but fell into neglect after the first 
season, in 1775. Horace Walpole, whose admiration of it 
is expressed in the most extravagant terms, addressed to 
the author ** Thoughts on Tragedy," in three letters, 
which are included in his printed works. In return, Mr. 
Jephson took the story of his *' Count of Narbonne" from 
Walpole's " Castle of Otranto," and few tragedies in our 
times have been more successful. It was produced in 
1781, and continued to be acted until the death of Mr. 
Henderson, the principal performer. Of Mr. Jephson*s 
other dramas it may be sufficient to give the names : " The 
Law of Lombardy," a tragedy, 1779; "The Hotel," a 
farce, 1783; "The Campaign," an opera, 1785 ; <* Julia," 
a tragedy, 1787; "Love and War," 1787, and "Two 
Strings to your Bow," 1791, both farces; and "The Con- 
spiracy," a tragedy. Mr. Jephson afterwards acquired a 
considerable^ share of poetical fame from his "Roman 
Portraits," a quarto poem, or rather collection of poems, 
characteristic of the Roman heroes, published in 1794, 
which exhibited much taste and elegance of versification. 
About the same time he published anonymously, " The 
Confession of James Baptiste Couteau," 2 vols. 12mo, a 
kind of satire on the perpetrators of the revolutionary 


atrocities in Fnmce, and priocipallj the wretched duke of 

JEREMIAH, metropolitan of Larissa, was raised to the 
patri^chal chair of Constantinople in 1573, when only in 
the thirty-sixth year of his age. The Lntherans presented 
to him the confession of Augsburg, in hopes of bis appro* 
bation ; bat he opposed it, both in his speeches and writ* 
ings. He seemed even not for from uniting the Gred^ 
to the Roman church, and bad adopted the reformation of 
Gregory XIII. in the calendar ; but some persons, who 
were envious of him, taking occasion from thence to accuse 
him of corresponding with the pope, procured bis banish- 
ment in 1585. Two years after he was recalled and re* 
scored to his dignity, but from that time we find no ac* 
count of him. His correspondence with the Lutherans was 
printed at Wittemberg, in Greek and Latin, 1584, folio. 
It had previously been published by a Catholic, in Latin, 

JERNINGHAM (Edward), an elegant English poet, 
descended from an ancient Roman catholic family in Nor* 
folk, was the youngest brother of the late sir William Jer* 
ningham, hart, and was born in 1727. He was educated 
in the English college at Douay, and from thence removed 
to Paris, where he improved himself in classical attainments^ 
becoming a good Latin scholar, and tolerably well ac* 
quainted with the Greek, while the French and Italian Ian* 
guages, particularly the former, were nearly as familiar to 
him as that of bis native couutry. In his mind, benevo- 
lence and poetry had always a mingled operation. His 
taste was founded upon the best models of literature, which, 
however, he did not always follow, with respect to stylci in 
bis latter performances. The first production which raised 
him into public notice, was a poem in recommendation of 
the Magdalen hospital ; and Mr. Jonas Hanway, one of its 
most active patrons, often declared, that its success was 
very much promoted by this poem. He continued occa* 
sionally to afford proofs of bis poetical genius ; and bis 
works, which passed through many editions, are uniformly 
marked by taste, elegance, and a pensive character, that 
always excites tender and pleasing emotions ; and in some 
of his works, as in " The Sbakspeare Gallery,'* " Enthu* 

1 M«lQne'« life of the Hon. W. <3. Hamilton.— Biog. Dram. — Lord Orf6rd*i 
Ifotkfl, rok, it p. 305.— Davioi'f Ijfe of Garrick, vol. II. p. 286. 
• MaierU»0Mit Hist. 

B 2 

4 J E R N I N O H) A M. 

masoo,*' aad *< The Rise and Fall of Scandinavian Poetry/* 
he displays great vigour, and even sublimity. The fur&t of 
^hese. pojoms had an elegant and spirited cpinpUoient fiom 
Mr. Burke, in the following passage :< — ^^ I have not for ^ 
loogtime seen any thing so lyelUfiiiiahed. He has oaugbt 
ne^ fire by approaching in his periheltum so near i to the 
Sun of our poetical system.'' — His last work, pabUshed a 
few months before his death, was entitled ^^ The Old Bard's 
Farewell." It is not unworthy t>f his best ^days, and 
^breathes an air of benevolence and .grateful piety for the 
lol in life which Providence had assigned him."-?^In his later 
writings it has been pbjected that he evinces a species of 
Liberal spirit in matters of religion, whi^b seems to consider 
all religions alike, provided the believer is a man of meek- 
ness and forbearance. With this view in his ^* Essay ou 
the mild Tenour of Christianity" ha traces historically the 
efforts to give an anchorite-cast to the Christian profession, 
and gives many interesting anecdotes derived from the page 
of Ecclesiastical histofy, but not always very happily Ap- 
plied. His ^' Essay on the Eloquence of the Pulpit in 
England," (prefixed to bishop Bossuet's Select Sermons 
and Orations) was very favourably received by the public, 
but his notions of pulpit eloquence are rather French than 
English. Mr. Jerningham had, during the course^ of a 
long life, enjoyed an intimacy with the most eminent lite* 
rary characters in the higher ranks, particularly the- cele- 
brated earl of Chesterfield, and the present earl of Carlisle. 
The illness which occasioned his death, had continued for 
some months, and was at times very severe ; but his suf- 
ferings were much alleviated by a course of theological 
study he had imposed ofi himself, and which he considered 
most congenial to a closing life. He died Nov. 17, IS 12, 
He bequeathed all his manuscripts to Mn Clanke, N«w 
Bond«street. Mr. Jerninghani's productions are as follow : 
U " Poeoia and Plays," 4 vols, 9th edition, 1806. 2. "Se- 
lect Sernnons and Funeral Orations, translated from the 
Erenah of Bossuet, bishop of Meaux," third edition, 1801. 
.3. "The mild Tenour of Christianity^ an Essay, (eluci* 
dated from Scripture and History ; c<Hitaining a new illus- 
tration of the characters of several eminent personages,)'* 
second edition, 1 807. 4. " The Dignity of Human Na- 
ture, an Essay,*' 1805. 5. "The Alexandrian School; 
of, a narrative of the first Christian Professors in Alexan- 
dria,'* third edition, 1810. 6, "The Old Bard's Fare* 


yf^ii^ a Poem, second cdhiohy #itb aMid^nd psssagei^ 
1812. Hb dramatic pieces^ *^ The Siege of Berwick/' ih(k 
<' Welsh HciresB/' and '< The Peckham Frolic/* bai!e not 
been remarkablj nuoceisfoK ' . . j . 

JEROJVi, or HIERONYMUS, a very cdebrated father 
df the cbttrch^ was bom of Ohristiain parents at Sliridaiiy a 
.town situated upon the confines of Panooniaand Dalmatian 
in the year ^31. His father Eusebias^ kho was a nan. of 
ntuk and substance^ took the greatest care of> bis ediin 
-cakiol) ; atfed, after grounding bim well in the languagi^ of 
his own counirj, sent him. to Borne, where be was placed 
itndeiP the best matters in every branch of iiteraJtv^e. . JBo^ 
natus^ weii known for bis ^* Gommentaries upon Vii' aiid 
Tereifee/' was his master in grainmiir^ asJ^roiri himself 
tells us I aiid under this masiier be made a predtgious pr6i. 
f^ess iti evefy tbingi relating to the beHds lettres. He bad 
also masters id rbetbricy Hebrev^, antt in divinity, .who 
AObdtioted him tfarbagh . all fiarts of leariiing, sacred ahd 
profdne; Ibrongh kiscoiy, antiquity, the knbvsttdge of lahl> 
guages, and of thd discipline and dK)cirines of the Tariovp 
s^ctaia pkilosopfay; so that he migWt say of himself -as 
he afterwards didy \^itb sdihe reason^ ^^ Ego j^Hlilosophusi, 
9hetlnr^;'gtaimBaticU8^ diaiecfictiSy HebrsDus, Grsecus^ l^sh- 
tmas^. JiCh'^ He was partiealarly carefal to accomplish 
himself ia»Hrhetoric,. or the art of speaking, becausci, as 
ErxfifOfHis sBiys in the life whrch be prefixed to his wovk^be 
had efteeiN^edy that the generality of Ghri^tians were de- 
spised as a rode illiterate set of people; on which accomilt 
be thought, thai the oncoayerted part of the worM would 
'Soooe^ he drawn over to Cb#istianity, if it were but set off 
and .enforced in ai mannet suitable to the dignity and ma* 
jesty of it. But though be was so conversant with profane 
leas-nhig in his* youth, he rendunced it entirely afterwairds^ 
atid did all he could to make others renounce it also ; for 
be relates a vi^ion,^ which be pretended was givdn to hint, 
*' in which faef was dragged to the tribunal df Christ,.' and 
Jterribly . threatened, and even scourged, for the griev- 
ous sin of reading secular and profane writers^ Gicero, 
Yirgil^ and Horace, whom for that reason he resolved ilever 
to ukeinto his bands ai6y more." 

WheH'be had finished his education at Rome^ and; reaped 
lall the fruits which books and good- masters co^ld afford, 

I Geot. Mag. rat tXXXIU. 

6 J E R O. M. 

he resolved, for his further improvement, to travel. After 
being baptized therefore at Rome, when an adult, he went 
into France with Bonosus, a fellows-student, and remained 
a considerable time in every (jity through which he passed, 
that he might have opportunity and leisure to examine the 
public libraries, and to visit the men of letters, with which 
tbat country then abounded. He staid so long at Treveris, 
that he transcribed with his own hand a large^ volume of 
Hilary's concerning Synods, which some time • after he 
ordered to be sent to him in the deserts of Syria. From hence 
be went to Aquileia, where he became first acquainted 
with Ruffinus, who was a presbyter in that town, and with 
whom he contracted an intimate friendship. When be had 
travelled as long as he thought expedient, and seen every 
thing that was carious ao4 worth his notice, he returned 
to Rome ; where h^ began to deliberate with himself, what 
course of life he should take. Study and retirement were^ 
what he most desired, and he had collected an excellent 
library of books ; but Rome, he thought, would . not be a 
proper place to reside in : it was< not only too noisy and tu- 
multuous for him, but as yet had too much of the old 
leaven of Paganism in it. He had objections likewise 
against his own country, Dalmatia, whose inhabitants he 
represents, in one of his epistles, as entirely sunk in sen- 
suality and luxury, regardless of every thing that was good 
and praise*worthy, and gradually approaching to a state of 
barbarism. After a consultation therefore with his friends, 
he determined to retire into some very remote region ; and 
therefore leaving his country, parents, substaiuie, and tak- 
ing, nothing with him. but his books, and money sufficient 
forhis journey, he set off. from Italy for the** eastern parts 
of the world. Having passed through Dalmatia, Thrace, 
and some provinces of Asia Minor, his first care was to pay 
a visit to Jerusalem, which was then considered as a neces* 
,sary act of religion. From Jerusalem he went to Antioch, 
where he fell into a dangerous fit of illness ; but having the 
^ood fortune to recover from it, be left Antioch, and set 
fcM'Ward in. quest of some more retired habitation ; and after 
rambling over several cities and countries, with all which 
he was dissatisfied on account of the customs and manners 
of .the people, he settled at last in a most frightful desert 
of Syria, which was scarcely inhabited by any thing but 
wild beasts. This however was no objection to Jerom : it 
was rather a recommendation of the place to him; for, 

J E R O M. 7 

stiys Erasmus, ** he thought it better to cohabit with wild 
beasts and wild men, than with such sort of Christians as 
were usually found in great cities; men half Pagan, half 
Christian ; Christians in nothing more than in name/' 

He was in his 31st year, when he entered upon this mo* 
nastic course of life ; and he carried it, by his own prac- 
tice, to that height of perfection, which he ever after en- 
forced upon others so zealously by precept. He divided 
all his time between devotion and study : he exercised 
himself much in watcbtngs. and fastings; slept little, ate 
less, and hardly allowed himself any recreation. He ap- 
plied himself very severely to the study of the Holy 
Scriptures, which he is said to have gotten by heart, 
as well as to the study of the Oriental languages, which 
he considered as the only keys that could let him into 
their true sense and meaning, and which he learned 
from a Jew who visited him privately lest he should offend 
his brethren. After he had spent four years in this labo- 
rious way of Ufe, his health grew so impaired, that be 
Was obliged to return to Antioch : where the church at that 
time was divided by factions, Meletius, Paulinos, and Vi- 
talis all claiming a right to the bishopric of that place. 
-Jerom being a son of the church of Rome, where he was 
baptized, would not espouse any party, till he knew the 
sense of his own church upon this contested right. Ac- 
cordingly, be wrote to Damasus, then bishop of Rome, to 
know whom he must consider as the lawful bishop of Anti- 
och ; and upon Damasus's naming Paulinus, Jerom acknow* 
> ledged him as such, and was ordained a presbyter by him in 
378, but would never proceed any farther in ecclesiastical 
dignity. From this time his reputation for piety and learn- 
ing began to spread abroad, and be known in the world. He 
went soon after to Constantinople, where he spent a con- 
siderable time with Gregory Nazianzeo ; whom he did not 
disdain to call his master, and owned, tliat of him he 
learned the right method of expounding the Holy Scrip- 
tures. Afterwards, in the year 382, he went to Rome 
widi Paulinus, bishop gf Antioch, and Epiphanius, bishop 
of Salamis in, the isle of Cyprus; where be soou became 
known to Damasus, and was made his secretary. He ac- 
quitted himself in this post very well, and yet found time 
to compose several works. Upon the death of Damasus, 
which happened in the year 385, he began to entertain 
thoughts of travelling again to the East; to which he was 

J E R O M. 

BKnred chieflT by the disturbances and ▼exations he ijoet 
with from the lono<vers of Origeo, at Rooije. For tbese^ 
vhen tht:y bail in vain end^voured, sajs Cave, to d iiw 
bim ovrr to their party, raised infamous reports and cm.- 
Inmnies against him. They charged him, among other 
things, with a criminal passion for one Paula, an eminent 
matron, in whose bouse h^ had lodgied during his residence 
at Rome, and who was as illustrious for her piety as tor 
the spiendor of her birth, and the dignity of her rank. 
For these and other reasons he was determined to quit 
Some, and acccvdingly embaiked for the East iu August in 
the year 385, attended by a great number of monks and 
ladies, whom he had persuaded to embrace the ascetic way 
of life. He sailed to Cyprus, where he paid a viait to 
£pipbanius ; and arrived afterwards at Antioch, wheie be 
was kindly received by his friend Paulinus. From An- 
tioch he went to Jerusalem ; and the year following from 
Jerusalem into Egypt. Here he visited several monaste* 
ries : but Ending to his great g^f the monks every where 
infiituated with the errors of Origen, he returned to Betb* 
lehem, a town near Jerusalem, that he might be at liberty 
to cherish and propagate his own opinions, without any 
disturbance or interruption from abroad. This whole pe- 
regrination is particularly related by himself, in one of bis 
pieces, against Bui&nos; and is veiy characteristic, and 
shews much of hia spirit and manner of writing. 

He had now fixed upon Bethlehem, as the properest 
place of abode for him, and best accommodated to that 
oourse of life which he intended to pursue ; and was no 
sooner arrived here, than he met with Paula, and other 
ladies of quality, who had followed him from Home, with 
the same view^ of devoting themselves to a monastic life* 
His famev#ar leatning and piety was indeed so very exten* 
sive, that nuiiihers of both sexes flocked from all parts and 
distances, to be trained up under him, aod to form their 
manner of living according to his instructions. This moved 
the pious Paula to found four monasteries ; three for the 
use of lemales, over wnich she berseif presided, and one 
for males, wiiich was committed to Jerom. Here he en* 
joyed ail that repose which be had long desired ; and he 
laboured abundantly, as well for the souls committed to 
bis care, as in composing great and useful works. He had 
enjoyed this repose probably to the end of his life, if On* 
genism had not prevailed so mightily in those pans : but^ 

J E R O M. 9 

OS Jerom bad an abhorrence for every ibing that looked 
like heresy, it was impossible for him to condnue passive^ 
whiie these asps, as he calls them, were iQsinuating their 
deadly poison into all who had the misfortune to fall in 
their way. This engaged him in viplent controversies with 
John bishop of Jerusalem} and Ruffinus of Aquileis, 
which lasted many years. Roffinus ^nd Jerom had of old 
been intimate triends ; but RdfBnus having of late years 
settled in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem, and espoused 
the part ot the OrigenBts, the enmity between them was 
on that account the more bitter, and is a reproach to both 
their memories. Jerom had also several other controver- 
sies, particularly with Jovmian, an Italian mpnk, whom he 
mentions in has works with the utmost intemperance of 
language, without exactly informing us what his errors were. 
In the year 410, when Rome was besieged by the Goths, 
many fled from thence to Jerusalem and the Holy Land, 
and were kindly received by Jerom into his monastery. He 
died in 439) in the ninety* 6rst year of his age; and is 
said to have preserved his vivacity and vigour to the last* 

Erasmus, who wrote his life, and gave the 6rst edition 
of his works in 1 526, ssiys, that he was *^ undoubtedly the 
greatest scholar, the greatet^t orator, and the greatest di^ 
vine that Christianity had then produced." But Cave, who 
never yet was charged with want of justice to the fathers^ 
sa^s, that Jerom '* was, with Erasmus's leave, a hot and furi^ 
ous man, whu had no command at all over his passions. When 
he was once provoked, he treated his adversaries in the 
iroughest manner, and did not even abstain from invective 
ami satire : witness what he has written against Ru65inur, 
who was formerly his friend ; against John, bishop of 
Jerusalem, Jovinian, Vigilantius, and others. Upon the 
slightest provocation, he grew excessively abusive, and 
threw out all the ill language he could rake together^ 
without the least regard to the situation, rank, learning, 
and other circumstances, of the persons he bad to do with. 
And what wonder,*' says Cave, ^^ when it is common with 
him to treat even St. Paul himself in very hanh and inso*. 
lent terms ? charging htm, as he does, with solecisms in 
language, false expressions^ and a vulgar use of words ?*' 
We do not quote this with any view of detracting from the 
real merit of Jerom, but only to note the partiality of 
Erasmus, in defending, as he does very strenuously, this 
most excep^onable patt of his character, his want of can* 

l6 J E R O M. 

dour and spirit of persecution ; to which Erasmus himself 
was so averse, that he has ever been highly praised by pro- 
testants, and as highly dispraised by papists, for placing 
all his glory in moderation. 

Jerom was as exceptionable in many parts of his literary 
' character, as be was in his moral, whatever Erasmus or his 
panegyrists may hav«i said to the contrary : instead of an 
orator, he was rather a declaimer ; and, though he under* 
took to translate so many things out of Greek and Hebrew, 
he was hot accurately skilled in either of those languages ; 
and did not reason clearly, consistently, and precisely, 
upon any subject. This has been shewn in part already 
by L^ Clerc, in a book entitled .^^ Quaestiones Hierony- 
mianee,'* printed at Amsterdam in 1700, by way of critique 
upon the Benedictine edition of his works. In the mean 
time we are ready to acknowledge, that the writings of 
-Jerom are useful, and deserve to be read by all who have 
aiyy regard for sacred antiquity. They have many uses in 
common with other writings of ecclesiastical authors, and 
many peculiar to themselves. The writings of Jerom teach 
us the doctrines, the rites, the manners, and the learning 
of the age in which he lived ; and these also we learn from 
tile writings of other fathers. But the peciiliar use of 
Jeromes works is, 1. Their exhibiting to us more fragments 
of the ancient Greek translators of the Bible, than the 
^orks of any other father; 2. Their informing us of the 
opinions which the Jews of that age had of the significa- 
tion of many Hebrew words, and of the sense and meaning 
they put upon many passages in the Old Testament ; arid, 
3. Their conveying to us the opinion of Jerom himself ;^ 
who, though he must always be read with caution, on ac- 
count of his declamatory and hyperbolical style, and the 
liberties he allowed himself of feigning and prevaricating 
upon certain occasions, will perhaps, upon the whole, be 
found to have bad more judgment as well as more learning 
than any father who went before him. 

The principal of his works, which are enumerated by 
Cave and Dupin, are, a new Latin version of the whole 
** Old Testament," from the Hebrew, accompanied with a 
corrected edition of the ancient version of the ** New 
Testament,'' which, after having been at first much op- 
posed, was adopted by the Catholic church, and is com- 
monly distinguished by the appellation of ** Vulgate;" 
" Commentaries" on most of the books of the Old and 

J E R O M. II 

New Testament ; ^' A Treatise on the Lives and Writ* 
iiigs of Ecclesiastical Authors ;^' " A continuation of the 
Chronicle of Eusebius;** moral, critical, historical, and 
miscellaneous ^ Letters/' The first printed edition of his 
works was that at Basil, under the care of Erasmus, 1516 
— 1526, in six vqls. folio, ot which there have been several 
subsequent impressions at Lyons, Rome, Paris, and Ant*^ 
werp. The most correct edition is that of Paris, by falheir 
Martianay, a Benedictine monk of the -congregation of St. 
Maur, and Anthony Pouget, 1693-^1706, in 5 vols, folio. 
There is, however, a more recent edition, with notes by 
Vallarsiusy printed at Verona in 1734**-42, in eleven vo« 
lumes, folio. The eleventh contains the life: of Jemm, 
certain pieces attributed to him on doubtful authority, and 
an Index. Of his *^ Letters, or Epistles,'* there are many 
editions executed about the. infancy of printing, which are 
of great beauty, rarity, and value. \ 

JEROME of Prague, so called from the place of hit 
birth, where he is held to be a Protestant martyr. It does 
not appear in what year he was born, but it is certain that 
he was neither a monk nqr an ecclesiastic : but that, being 
endowed with excellent natural parts, he had a learned 
education, .and studied at Paris, Heidelberg, Cdlogne, and 
perhaps at Oxford. The degree of M, A. was conferred 
on him in the three iirst*mentioned universities, and he 
commenced D. D. in 1396. - He began to publish the doc* 
trine of the Hussites in 14Q8, and it is said he had a greater 
share of learning and eloquence than John Huss himselfi 
In the mean time, the council of Constance kept. a watch* 
ful eye over him; and, looking. upon him as a dangerous 
person, cited him before them April 17, 1415, to give an 
account of his faith. In pursuance of the citation, be went 
to Constance, in order to defend the doctrine of Huss, as 
he bad promised ; but, on his arrival, April 24, finding his 
master Huss in prison, he withdrew immediately to Uber^* 
lingen, whence he sent to the emperor for a safe conduct, 
which was refused. The council, very artfully, were 
vvilling to grant him a safe*conduct to come to Constance^ 
but not for bis return to Bohemia. Upon this he caused 
to be fixed upon all the churches of Constance, and upon 
the gates of the cardinal's house, a paper, declaring that 

1 fMe by Erasmus.— Dupin. — Care«<— Lardner's Works.— Mothcim and MiN 
aer*s Church Hist,— Saxii Onomast, . 


he was ready to. tome to Constance, to give an account of 
ills taitb» and to answer, not only in private and under the 
p^aJ, but in fulltCoiincil, all the cahimnies of bis accusers, 
offering to suffer the punishment due to heretics, rf he 
should be convinced of any erroni.; ior which reason he had 
desired a safe-conduct both from the emperor and the 
O9uocilf hut that if, notwithstanding sacfa a pass, spyyio* 
lence should be done to him, by imprisonment or otber« 
wise, all the world might be a. witness of the injsistice of 
the council. No notice being tah^n of this declaration, 
1^6 resolved to return into his own country : but the couriK 
cilr dispatched .a saf^'Colidiact to hifti, importing, that a^ 
|bey.bad the extirpation of heresy above all ttiings at 
heart, trhey sarhmoned him to appear in the spsKse of fif<* 
ieeadays, to b6 beard in the first session that sbould be 
held, after his arrival ; that for this purpose they bad sent 
him, by those presents, a safe-conduct so far as to secure 
him frosn any violence, but they did not mean tsot dxempc 
hiol from justice, as far as it depended upon tbe council, 
and ais the catholic faith required. This pass and sum- 
mons came to bis hands, yet he was arrested in bis way 
homewards, April 25, and put into the bands of the prince 
of Sultzbslbb ; and^ as be bad not answered the citation 
of April 17, he was cited again May 2, and the prince of 
Sultzbach, sending to Constance in pursuance of an order 
of the coundil, he arrived there on the 2ISd, bound in 
chains. Upon his examination, he >dienied receiving of the 
citation, and protested his ignorance of it. He was afters- 
wards carried to. a tower of St. Pau)*s cburch, there fast* 
ened to a post, and bis hands tied to bis neck with the 
same chains. He continued in' this < posture two days, 
witbout receiving' any kind of nourishment; upon which 
he fell dangerously ill, and desired a. confessor might be 
allowed, which being granted, he obtained a little more li- 
berty. On July 19, he was interrogated afresh, when he 
explained himself upon the subject' of the Eucharist to the 
following effect : That, in the sacrament of the altar, the 
particular substance of that piece of bread which is there, 
is transubstantiated into the body of Christ, but that the 
universal substance of bread remains ^. ' Thus, with John 


* It 15 not easy for a person, un- ing to the doctrine of the schools, uni- 

tkiUed, in logic, to comprehehd the' versals have a proper dnd real exiftence 

meaning of this visionary distinction, of their own^ independent of, an;! . in 

It is enough to observe, that, accord- the nature of things prior to the e^ia- 

J KB a ME. t6 

'Jiiisss be maintained the ^^ unitrerstHa ex parte i^.^ It 
is true, on a third examination, Sep«. 1 1, * he retracted this 
opinion, and approved the condemnation of WickliflF and 
JohnHuss; but, on May 1^6, 1416, he' cOnde^mned that re- 
cantation in these terms : *^I am not ksfaamed to t^bnfesa 
here publicly my weakness^ Yes, with 'horror, I confess 
my base oowardice^ It wab only tbe^ dread of the pnriish-* 
ment by fire, which di^ew me to consent, against my con- 
science, to the cotidemnatton of the doctrine of WickliflF 
and John Huss.*' This.wa» decisive, atid accordingly^ in 
the 21st session, sentence was passed on him ; in pursu- 
ance of which, he was delivered to the ddeulararm. May 30. 
As the executioner led him to the stake, Je'rome, with 
great steadiness, testified his perseverance in his faith, by 
repeating his creed witlhaloud voice, and singing litanies 
and a hymn to tohe blessed Virgin ; and, being burnt to 
death, his ashes, like'tbose of Huss, wer^ thrown into the 

■ In common with many of the early martyrs, hi^ consis- 
tency has been atta<;kod by the Komish writers ; but one 
of their number, the oqlebrated Poggio Bracciblini^ iti a 
letter he wrote to Leonard Aretii^, has delineated his cha- 
racter in language of this highest admii^tion. Poggio was 
present at the council when Je>oilie made' bis defence, and 
immediately wrote the letter we speak of, which has beeti 
translated by Mr. Gilpin with an elegance corresponding 
to the fervent glow of the original. We shall transcribe 
Only one passage ^vhicb respects the eloquence of (his 
martyr, and the impression it made on the liberal' and 
learned Poggio : " His voice was sweet, distinct, and full: 
his action every way the most proper, i^ither to express fn- 
dignaiion, or \o r^ise pity: tbouglj he made no affected 
application to the pa^sionii of his audieuice* Firm and in* 
trepid, he stood' befbre the council ; collected in himself; 
and not only coutemmng, but seeming even desirous of 
death. The greatest character in ancient story could not 
possibly go beyond him. If there is any justice in history, 
this man will be admired by all posterity — I speak not of 
bia errors: let th^^erjest with him. What I admired wad 
his learning, bis.el^queiiee^ and amazing acuteness. God. 
tvip«4ri^. whether these things were not the ground-work of 

tence of the individuals, whose genera be nothing else but abstract ideas, ex- 
•nd speoifs tbe^ conetitutedl. But isting only in the mind, wbich is theii« 
;hf s)e nniversals arc now well kndwn to sole creator. 

14 ' JEROME. 

Us ruiD.^* After giting an accoutH of bis deatbi ^oggfo 
adds, *^ThQ8 died this prodigibus man. The epithet is 
not extravagant. I was myself an eye-witness of his whole 
behaviour. Whatever bis life nay have been, his death, 
witboat doubt, is a lesson of philosophy."' — Of his recanta** 
tion it may be remarked, that like Cranmer, and a few 
others, who in their first terror offered to exchange prin- 
xsiples for life, they became afterwards, and almost im* 
mediately afterwards, more confident in the goodness 
of their cause, and more willing to suffer in defence 
of it, ' 

JERVAS (Charles), a painter of this country^ more 
Icno.wn from the praises of Pope, who took instructions from 
bim in the art of painting, and other wits, who were in- 
fluenced probably by the friendship of Pope, than for 
any merits of his own, was a native of Ireland, and stu* 
died for a year under sir Godfrey Kneller. Norris, fra- 
mer and keeper of the pictures to king William and queen 
Anne, was the first friend who essentially served bim, by 
allowing bim to study from the pictures in the royal coUec* 
tion, and to copy them. At Hamptou-cour the made small 
copies of the cartoons, and these he sold to Dr. George 
Clark of Oxford, who then became bis protector, and fur«- 
nisbed him with money to visit France and Italy, In the 
eighth number of the Tatler, (April 18, 170^), be is men- 
tioned as ^ the last great painter Italy has sent us.^* Pope 
speaks of him with more enthusiasm than felicity, and ra- 
ther as if he was determined to praise, than as if he felt 
the subject. Perhaps some of the unbappiest lines in the 
works of that poet are in the short epistle to Jervas. Speak-^ 
ing of the families of some ladies, he says. 

'^ Oh« lasting as thy colours may they shine. 

Free as thy stroke^ yet iaultl^ as thy line ; * ^ * 
New graces yearly, Hke thy works/^duplay. 
Soft without weakness^ without glaring gay. 
Led by some rule> that guid^, but not constrains. 
And iinish'd more through happiness than pains." 

In this passage the whole is obscure, the connection with 
the preceding part particularly so ; and part is parodied 
from Denham. It is no wonder that Jervas did not better 
inspire bis friend to praise bim, if the judgment of lord 
Orford be accurate, on which we may surely rely. He says, 

* ^ Cave,— Freberi Theatrum.— Life by Gilpin.-— Shepherd's Life of Pogfto. 

J E R V A S. lA 

that ,*^ he was defective in drawing, colourings and conk- 
position, and even in that most necessary, and perhaps 
most easy talent of a portrait-p^nteri likeness. In gene- 
ral, bis pictures are a light, flimsy kind of fan-painting, 
as large as life." His vanity, inSamed perhaps by the un- 
deserved praises he received from wits and poets; was ex- 
cessive. He affected to be violently in love with lady Bridge- 
water; yet, after dispraising the form of her ear, as the 
only faulty part about her face, he ventured to display his 
own as tlie complete model of perfection. Jervas appeared 
as an author in bis translation of Don Quixote, wbich he 
produced, as Pope used to say of bim, without under- 
standing ^Spanish. Warburtpn added a supplement to the 
preface of Jervas*s translation, on the origin of romances 
-of chivalry, which was praised at the time,. but has since 
been totally extinguished by the acute criticisms of Mr. 
Tyrwbitt. Jervas died about 1740. * 

JERUSALEM (John- Frederick William), an eminent ' 
German divine, was born at Osuuburgh, in 1709, and 
died in 1789. Of his life we have no farther account than 
that his talents raised him to the offices of vice-president 
of the/ consistory of Brunswick, abbot of Marientbal, court 
preacher, and director of the Caroline-college at Bruns- 
wick, of which, in 1745, he wrote an account. He was 
reckoned in his country one of the most original and most 
excellent defenders of religion that the eighteenth century 
bad produced. His principal works were, \. Two volumes 
of " Sermons," Brunswick, ,1756 — 69. 2. " Letters on 
the Mosaic Religion and Philosophy," 1773. This work 
contains a demonstration that Moses really wrote the books 
attributed to him : aod observations on his being the author 
of the book of Genesis, and of the style of that book, &c. 
3. " Life of prince Albert-Henry of Brunswick Lun«i- 
burgh." 4. " Thoughts on the principal Truths of Reli- 
gion," Brunswick, 1768, &c. in several volumes, reckoned 
a very capital performance. The abbot Jerusalem had been 
tutor to the late duke of Brunswick, and his highness 
desired him to digest the instructions he had given him 
on the Christian religion in a regular form; and after- 
wards gave him leave to publish them. 5. <^ Character of 
prince William -Adolphus of Brunswick," Berlin, 1771;. 

1 Bowles's edition of Pope, see index.— Ruff bead's Life of Pope, p. 147, 
4to edit.-<-Walpole'8 Anecdotes. , 


6. '^ Thoughts on the Unioii of the Charch ;*' and 7. a very 
elegant and judicious letter *^ concerning German litera* 
ture,'' addressed to her royal bigimess the duchess dowager 
of Brunswick- Wolfenbattet, 1781.^ 

JESUA (L£VITa), a learned Spanish rabbi in the fif- 
teenth century, is the author of a book, entitled ** Halicoth 
olam/' ** The Ways of Eternity ;'* a very useful piece for 
understanding the Talmud. It was translated into Latin 
by Constantin I'Eoipereur ; and Bashuysen printed a good 
edition of it in Hebrew and Latin, at Hanover, 1714, 4to.* 

JEUNE (John Le), a celebrated French divine, was bom 
in 1592, at Poligni in Franche-Comt^. His father was a 
counsellor in the parliament at Dole. The piety of Le 
Jeune was of the most exemplary kind. He delighted in 
the most arduous offices of his profession ; and refused a 
canonry of Arbois, to enter into the then rising, but strict 
society of the oratory. His patience and humiUty were no 
less remarkable than his piety. He lost his sight at the age 
of thirty- five, yet did not sufier that great misfortune to 
depress his spirits. He was twice cut for the stone, with- 
out uttering a single murmur of impatience. As a preacher 
he was highly celebrated, but totally free from all ostenta- 
tion. As a converter of persons estranged from religion, 
or those esteemed heretical, he is said to have possessed 
wonderful powers of persuasion. Many dignitaries of the 
church were highly sensible of his merits; particularly car- 
dinal Berulle, who regarded him as a son, and La Fayette 
bishop of Limoges, who finally persuaded him to settle in 
his diocese. Le Jeune died Aug. 19, 1672, at the age of 
eighty. There are extant ten large volumes of his sermons, 
in 8vo, which were studied and admired by Massillon, and 
have been also translated into Latin. His style is simple, 
insinuating, and affecting, though now a little antiquated. 
He published also a translation of Grotius^s tract *< De 
Yeritate Religionis Christians."' 

JEWEL (John), a learned prelate, and deservedly re* 
puted one of the fathers of the English church, was de- 
scended from an ancient family at Buden in Devonshire, 
where he was born May 24, 1522. After learning the ru- 
diments of grammar under his maternal uncle Mr. Bellamy, 
rector of Hamton, and being put to school at Barnstaple, b^ 

1 Maty*! Review, Tol. Ylll.—Saxfi Onomast. 

t Moreri.— Diet. Hitt -^WoUoa's MisC. Discourtet , vol. I. cb. in, 

d Moreri.*— OicU Hist. 

JEWEL. ti 

w«ai sent to Oxford, and admitted a postmaster of Merton 
college, in July 1535, under the tuition of Parkhnrst, after- 
ivards bishop of Norwich, who entertained a veiy high opi- 
nion of him from the beginning, and had great pleasure in 
cultivating his talents. After studying four years at this 
college, he was, in August 1539, chosen scholar of Corpus 
Christi college, where he pursued his studies with indefa-* 
tigable industry, usually rising at four in the morning, and 
studying till ten ^ at night ; by which means he acquired a 
masterly knowledge in most branches of learning : but^ 
taking too little care of his health, he contracted such a 
cold as fixed a lameness in one of his legs, which accom- 
panied him to bis grave. In Oct 1540, he proceeded B.A. 
became a celebrated tutor, and was soon sfter chosen 
reader of humanity and rhetoric in his college. In Feb. 1 544, 
he commenced M. A. the expence of taking which degree 
was borne by his tutor Parkhurst 

He had early imbibed Protestant principles, and incul- 
cated them among his pupils ; but thi^ was carried on pri- 
vately till the accession of Edward VI. in 1546, when he 
made « public declaration of bis faith, and entered into a 
close friendship with Peter Martyr, who was professor of 
divinity at Oxford. Mr. Jewel was one of his most con- 
stant hearers, and used to take down his lectures, by means 
of a kind of short-hand invented by himself, with so much 
accuracy, that he was frequently^ aftejrwards employed in 
taking down the substance of public debates on religion, 
which were then common. In 1551 he took the degree of 
B. D. and frequently preached before the university with 
great applause. At the same time he preached and cate- 
chised every other Sunday at Sunningwell in Berkshire, of 
which church he was rector. Thus he zealously promoted 
the Reformation during this reign^ and, in a proper sense, 
became a confessor for it in the succeeding* ; so early, as 
to be expelled the college by the fellows, upon their pri- 
vate authority, before any law was made, or order given by 

* In the primitWe charch, the title vonshire,'' tells us» that Mr. Jewel's 

ef Coofessor was given not only to life, during his residence in college^ 

ihoee who actually suffered torture for was so exemplary, that Moren» the dean 

the faith, but to such as were impri- of it, used to say to him, ** 1 should 

sonedio order to suffer torture or death, love thee, Jewel, if thou wert not a 

See Cyprian ** de unitate eccles.*' And ZuingUan ; in thy faith I hold thee an 

perhaps Jewel was not inferior to heretic, but surely in thy life thou v% 

any of the ancients in point of piety, an angel ; thou art very good and ho* 

and much superior in regard to learn- nest, but a Lutheran*^ 
ing. Prince, in his " Wortbiei^of De- 

Vol. XIX. C 


qo^en Mliy. On this ocfcasioni tbey had nothhlg to c^ 
ject against bim^ but, 1, His following of Peter Martyr. 
2. His preaching some doctrines contrary to popery. S. 
Qis taking orders according to the hiws then in force. 4. 
And, acGording. to Fuller, his refusal to be present at mass, 
aad otbet popish solemnities. At his departure be took 
leiv^ of the c^lege in a Latin speech, full of pathetic elo-' 
(Juence. Unnvilling, howerer, to leare the uniTersity, he 
took chambers in Broadgate-hall, now Pembroke college, 
lyhefe many of bis pupils followed him, besides other gen«* 
tlemen, who were induced by the fame of his learning to 
attend his lectures. But the strongest testimony to his 
likertlry merit was given by the university, who made him 
their orator, and employed him to write their first congra^ 
tulatory address to her majesty. Wood indeed observes, 
that this task was evidently imposed upon him by those 
who meant him no kindness ; it being taken for granted, 
that he must either provoke the Roman catholics, or lose 
the good opinion of his party. If this be true, which is 
probable enough^ he bad the dexterity to escape the snare; 
for the addrefss, being both respectful and guarded, passed 
the approbation of Tresham the commfssary, and some 
other dojctors, and was well received by the queen ; but 
bis latest biographer attributes the appointment solely to 
the opinion the university had of him as an elegant writer, 
and therefore the most fit to pen an address on such au 

Burnet informs us, that her majesty declared, at her 
accession, that she would force no man's conscience, nof 
make any change in religion. These specious promises^ 
joined to Jewel's fondness for the university, seem to 
kave been the motives which disposed him to entertain a 
|EK>re favourable opinion of popery than before. In thid 
state of his mind, be went to Clive, to consult his old tutor 
Dr. Parkhurst, who was rector of that parish ; but Parkhurst^ 
iipon the re-establishment of pbpery^ having fled to Lon^ 
don, Jewel returned to Oxford, where he lingered and 
waited, till, being called upon in St. Mary's church to 
subscribe some of the popish doctrines under the several 
penalties, he took his pen and subscribed with great reluct- 
ance. Yet this compliance, of which his conscience se^ 
▼erely accused him, was of no avail; for the dean of Christ 
church, Or. Martial, alleging his subscription to be in- 
sincere^ laid a plot to deliver him into the hands of bishop 

JEWEL. 19 

Bonner; and would certainly have caught him in the snar^ 
bad be not set out the very inght in which he was sent foc^ 
by a bye-way to London. He walked till he was forced to 
lay himself on the ground, quite spent and almost breath* 
less : where being found by one Augustine Bemer, a Swiss^ 
first a servant of bishop Latimer, and afterwards a minister^ 
this person provided him a horse, and conveyed him to lady 
Warcup, by whom he was entertained for some time, and 
then sent safely to the metropolis. Here he lay concealed^ 
changing bis lodgings twice or thrice for that purpose, till 
a ship was provided for him to go abroad, together with 
money for the Journey, by sir Nicholas Tbrogmorton, a 
person of great distinction, and at that time in considerable 
offices. Mis escape was managed by one Giles Lawrence^ 
who had been his fellow-collegian, and v^as at this time 
tutor to sir Arthur Darcy's children, living near the Tower 
of London. Upon his arrival at Francfort, in 1554, he 
made a public confession of his sorrow for his late subscrip«- 
tion to popery ; and soon afterwards went to Strasburgh^ 
at the invitation of Peter Martyr, who kept a kind of col- 
lege for learned men in his own house, of which he made 
Jewel his Tice-master : he likewise attended this friend to 
Zurich, and assisted him in his theological lectures. It 
was probably about this time that he made an excursion to 
Padua, where he contracted a friendship with Sig. Scipio, 
a Venetian gentleman, ^o whom he afterwards addressed 
his ** Epistle concerning the Council of Trent." During 
all the time of his exile, which was about four years, he 
studied hard, and spent the rest of his time in consoling 
and confirming his friends, frequently telling them that 
when their brethren endured such ** bitter tortures and 
horrible martyrdoms at home, it was not reasonable they 
should expect to fare deliciously in banishment," always 
concluding with "These things will not last an age," which 
he repeated so often' as to impress their minds with a firm 
belief that their deliverance was not far off. This, how- 
ever, was not peculiar to Jewel. Fox was likewise re- 
marked for using the same language, and there was among 
these exiles in general a very firm persuasion that the do- 
minion of popery and Cruelty, under queen Mary, would 
not be of long duration. 

The much wished-for event at length was made known, 
and upon the accession of the new queen, or rather the 
year after, 155^, Jewel returned to England ; and we find 

c 2 


2(5 J E W E L. 

his name, soon after, among the sixteen divines appointeJ 
by queen Elizabeth to bold a disputation in Westminster* 
abbey against the papists. In July 1559, he was iiv the 
commission constituted by her majesty to visit the dioceses 
of Sarum, Exeter, Bristol, Bath and Wells, and Gloucester, 
in order to exterminate popery in the west of England ; 
and he was consecrated bishop of Salisbury on Jan. 21 fol- 
lowing, and had the restitution of the temporalities April 
6, 1560. This pronM>tioQ was presented to him as a re* 
ward for bis great merit and learning ; and another attesta- 
tion of these was given him by the university of, 
who, in 1565, conferred. on him, in his absence, the de- 
gree of D. D. in which character he attended the queen to 
Oxford the following year, and presided at the divinity 
disputations held before her majesty on that occasion. He 
bad, before, greatly distinguished himself, by a sermon 
preached at St. Paul's-cross, soon after he bad been made 
a bishop, in which he gave a public challenge to all the 
Roman catholics in the world, to produce but one clear 
and evident testimony out of any father or famous writer 
who flourished within 6^00 years after Christ, of the exist- 
ence of any 04ie of the articles which the Romanists main- 
tain against the church of EngJand ; and two years after- 
wards he published his famous *^ Apology'' for that church. 
Iii the mean time he gave a particular attention to his dio- 
cese, where he began in his first visitation, and completed 
in his last, a great reformation, not only in bis cathedral 
and parochial churches, but in all the courts of his juris- 
diction. He watched so narrowly the proceedings of his 
chancellor and archdeacons, and of his stewards and re- 
ceivers, that they had no opportunities of being guilty of 
oppression, injustice,, or extortion, nor of being a burden 
to the people, or a scandal to himself. < To prevent these^ 
and the like abt>ses, for which tbq ecclesiastical courts are 
often censured, he sat in his consistory court, and there 
saw that all things were conducted rightly: be also sat' 
often as an assistant on the bench of civil justice, being 
himself a justice of the peace. 

Amidst these important employments, the care of his 
health was too much neglected. He rose at four o'clock 
in th\s morning ; and after prayers with his family at five, 
and in the cathedral about six, he was so intent on bis stu- 
dies all the morning, that he could not, without great vio- 
leiice, be drawn ftom them. After dinner^ bis doors and 

JEWEL. 21 

eon yrere open to all suitors ; and it was observed of him, 
as of TituSy that be never sent any sad from him. Suitors 
being thus dismissed, be heard, with great impartiality and 
patience, such causes debated before him, as either de- 
volved on him as a judge, or were referred to him ^ an 
arbitrator ; and, if he could spare any time from the^e, he 
reckoned it as clear gain to his study. About nine at night, 
he called all his servants to an account how they had spent 
the day, and then went to prayers with them : from the 
chapel he withdrew again to his study, till near midnight, 
and from thence to his bed ; in which when he was laid, 
the gentleman of his bed-chamber read to him till he fell 
asleep. Mr. Humfrey, who relates this, observes, that this 
watchful and laborious life, without any recreation at all, 
except what his necessary refreshment at meals, and a 
Tery few hours of rest, afforded him, wasted his life too 
fast, and undoubtedly hastened his end. In his fiftieth 
year, he fell into a disorder which carried him off in Sept. 
1571. He died at Monkton Farley, in bis diocese, and 
was buried in his cathedral, where there is an inscription 
over his grave, written by Dr. Laurence Humfrey, who 
also wrote an account of his life, to which are prefixed se- 
veral copies of verses in honour of him. Dr. Jewel was of 
a thin habit of body, which he exhausted by intense appli<- 
•cation to his studies. In his temper he was pleasant and 
, affable, modest, meek, temperate, and perfectly master of 
his passions. In his morals he was pious and charitable ; . 
and when bishop, became most remarkable for his apos- 
tolic doctrine, holy life, prudent government, incorrupt in- • 
tegrity, unspotted chastity, and' bountiful liberality. He 
had naturally a very strong memory, which he greatly im- 
proved by art ; so that be could exactly repeat whatever 
he had written after once reading; and therefore gene- 
rally at the ringing of the bell, he began to commit his ser- « 
mons to his memory ; which was so firm, that he used to 
s^y, that ^* if he were to deliver a premeditated speech 
before a thousand auditors, shouting or fighting all the 
while, yet he could say all that he had provided to speak." 
On one occasion, when the bishop of Norwich proposed 
to him many barbarous words out of a Kalendar, and 
Hooper bishop of Gloucester forty strange words, Welsh, 
Irish, and foreign terms, he after once or twice reading at 
the most, and a little recollection, repeated them all by 
.heart backward and forward. Another time, when sir 

12 JEWEL. 

Nicholas Bacon, lord keeper of the great seal, read to hia 
only the last clauses of ten lines in Erasmuses Paraphrase, 
confused and dismembered on purpose, he, sitting silent a 
while, and covering bis face with bis hand, on the sudden 
rehearsed all those broken parcels of sentences the right 
way, and the contrary, without any hesitation. He pro* 
fessed to teach others this art, and taught it his tutor Park* 
hurst beyond the seas ; and in a short time learned all the 
Gospel forward and backward. He was also a great master 
of the ancient languages, and skilled in the German and 

Dr. Humfrey, in the Life of our bishop, has endeavoured 
to represent him a favourer of the nonconformists. But it 
is certain, that he opposed them in his exile, wheil they 
l>egaii their disputes at Francfort ; and in a sermon of bis 
preached at Paul's Cross, not long before his death, and 
printed among his Works in 1609, he defended the rites 
and ceremonies of the cburch against them. He had like- 
wise a conference with some of them concerning the cere- 
ttionies of the present state of the church, which be men- 
tioned with such vigour, that though upon his death-bed 
he professed that neither his sermon nor conference were 
undertaken to please any mortal man, or to trouble those 
who thought differently from him ; yet the puritans could 
Dot forbear shewing their resentments against him. ^^ It 
was strange to me," says Dr. Whitgift, ^' to hear so nota- 
ble a bishop, so learned a man, so stout a champion of 
true religion, so painful a prelate, as bishop Jewel, so un- 
gratefully and spightfully used by a sort of wavering wicke4 
tongues.*' He is supposed likewise to have been the au- 
thor of a paper, entitled *' A brief and lamentable Con- 
sideration of the Apparel now used by the Clergy of Eng- 
land," written in 1566, in which he addresses the noncon- 
formists in a style which evidently shews his dislike of their 
obstinacy in matters of trivial importance, and his dread of 
what might be the consequences to the church in future 

Dr. Jewel's writings, which have rendered his name 
celebrated over all Europe, are : 1. '^ Exhortatio ad Oxon- 
ienses." The substance priuted in Humfrey's Life of him, 
p. 35, 1573, 4to. 2. ** Exhortatio in coilegio CC. sive 
conciD in fundatoris Foxi commemorationem," p. 45, &c. 
3. " Concio in templo B. M. Virginis," Oxon, 1550, 
preached for his degree of B* D. reprinted in Huiqfrey, 


p. 49. 4. ^^ Oratio in aula Goliegii CC' His fiu«tvdl 
speech on bis expulsion in 1^54, printed by Huoifirey, p. 
74, &c. 5. A short tract, ^^ De Usura/' ibid. p. 317, &c. 
6. *^ Epistolaad Scipionem Patritium Venetuo),'' &c. 1559, 
and reprinted in the appendix to father Paul'a ^^ History 
of the Council of Trent," in Engli^, by Brei»t, third edi- 
tion, 1629, folio. 7. ^'A Letter to Henry BuUinger at 
Zurich, concerning the State of Religion in Englaad,'* 
dated May 22, 1559, printed in the appendix to Strype's 
'< Annals," No. xk. 8. Another letter to the ^aine, dated 
Feb. 8, 1566, concerning his controversy with Hardyogc, 
ibid. No. 36, 37. 9. " Letters between him and Dr. Henry 
Cole, &c. 1560," 8vo. 10. <<A Suasion preadied at Sc 
Paul's Cross, the second Sunday before Easter, anno 1560,'* 
Svo. Dr. Cole wrote several letters to him on this subject. 
11. ^< A Reply to Mr. Hardynge's Answer, &c." 1566, fol. 
and again in Latin, by Will. Whitaker^ fellow of Trinity 
college, Cambridge, at Geneva, 1578, 4to ; and again in 
1585, in folio, with oUr author's ^Apologia EcclesiflB An* 
glicanse." 12. ^' Apologia Ecclesiae Anglicanas," 1562, 
8vo ; several times printed in England, and tr4nslated into 
German, Italian, French, Spanish, and Dutch ; and ^ Gi'eek 
translation of it was printed at. Oxford, in 1614, 8vo. It 
was likewise translated into Welsh, Qsfprd, l{i71. The £Bg* 
lish translation by the lady Bacon, wife tosk Nicolas Ba- 
con, was entitled ^^ An Apology or Answer in Defence of 
the Church of England, &c." 1562, 4to. This << Apology'' 
was approved by the queen, and set forth with the consent 
of the bishops. 13. ^^ A Defence of the Apology, &c." 
1564, 1567, folio; again in Latin, by Tho. Braddook, fellow 
of Christ's college, Cambridge, at Geneva, I16OO, foL The 
^' Apology" was ordered by queen Elizabeth, idag James, 
kipgCharles,and four successive archbishops, to bevead and 
chained up in all parish churches throughout England and 
Wales. 14. '^ An Answer to a book written by Mr. Har- 
dynge, entitled ^ A Detection of sundry foul Errors,' &c;'* 
1568 and 1570, folio. 15. <^ A View of a seditious Boll 
sent into England from Pius V. &c." 1582, 8ro. 16. << A 
Treatise of the Holy Scripture," Svo. 17. ^^ Exposition 
on the two Epistles to the Thessalonians," 1594, 8vo. 18, 
*« A Treatise of the Sacraments, &c." 1583. 19, « Ce^r- 
tain Sermons preached before the queen's majesty at Paul's 
Cross, and elsewhere." All these books (except the first 
tight), with the " Sermons" and " Apology," were printed 


at London, 1609, in one yolume, folio, with an abstract of 
die author's life, by Dan. Featly; but full of faults, as 
Wood says. There is a better life prefixed to the octavo 
edition of the Apology, 1685. 20. "An Answer to cer- 
tain frivolous Objections against the Government of the 
Church of England," 1641, 4to, a single sheet 21. lilany 
letters in the collection of records in Part III. of Burnet's 
** History of the Reformation." ■ 

. JOACHIM, abbot of Corazzo, and afterwards of Flora 
in Calabria, distinguished for his pretended prophecies 
.and remarkable opinions, was born at Celico near Cosejiza, 
in 1 130. He was of the Cistertian order, and had several 
monasteries subject to his jurisdiction, which he directed 
with the utmost wisdom and regularity. He was revered 
by the multitude as a person divinely inspired, and even 
equ^l to the most illustrious of the ancient prophets. Many 
of his predictions were formerly circulated, and indeed are 
still extant, having passed through several editions, and 
received illustration from several commentators. He taught 
erroneous notions respecting the holy Trinity, which 
amounted fully to tritheism ; but what is more extraor- 
dinary, he taught that the morality of the Gospel is im- 
perfect, and that a better and more complete law is to be 
given by the Holy Ghost, which is to be everlasting. These 
reveries gave birth to a book attributed to Joachim, enti- 
tled " The Everlasting Gospel," or « The Gospel of the 
Holy Ghost." " It is not to be doubted," says Mosheim, 
^' that Joachim was th^ author of various predictions, and 
that he, in a particular manner, foretold the reformation pf 
the church, of which he might see the absolute necessity. 
It is, however, certain, that the greater part of the predic- 
tions and writings which were formerly attributed to him, 
were composed by others. This we may affirm even of 
the ^^ Everlasting Gospel," the work undoubtedly of some 
obscure, silly, and visionary monk, who thought proper to 
adorn his reveries with the celebrated name of Joachim, in 
order to gain them credit, and render them more agree- 
able to the multitude. The* title of this senseless produc- 
tion is taken from Rev. xiv* 6 ; and it contained three books. 


1 Life prefixed to Uie octavo edition of the ApoIo|y, 16S5, re|nrinted by Dr. 
Wordsworth in his Ecclesiastical Biography. — ^Ath. Obc. vol. I. — ^Falier's Abel 
EedivivQs.— Biog. Brit. — Strype's Life of Cranmer, pp. 33*7; 357 ;— of Parker, 
pp. 53, 76, 99, 1U« 178, 180, 1859^63, 317, 368, 369, 460.^Priiice'i Wor« 


Tlie Urst was entitled ** Liber concordie veritatis/* or tbe 
iiook of the harmooy of tnith ; ibe second, *' Apocdypsis 
Nova,'* or new revelation ; and the third, ^ Psalteriura de- 
cern Chordamm.** This account was taken from a MS. of 
that woik in the library of the Sorbonne.*' It is necessar})^ 
we should observe, to distinguish this book from the ** In- 
Uodaction to the Everlasting Gospel,** written by a friar * 
named Gerhard, and published in 1250. Joachim died in 
1202, leaving a number of followers, who were called 
Joachimites. His works have been published in Venice, 
1516, folio, &c. and contain proposiuons^wbich have been 
condemned by several councils. The part of bis works 
most esteemed is his commentaries on, Isaiah, Jeremiah, 
and the Apocalypse. His life was written by a Dominican 
named Gervaise, and published in 1745, in 2 vols. i2mo.^ 


JOAN (Pope), called by Platina John VIII. seems to 
require some notice in this work, although her history is 
involved in much doubt, and even her existence is thought 
by some uncertain. This subject has been treated with as 
much animosity on both sides, between the papists and tlie 
prote8tants,as if the whole of religion depended on it. These, 
are reckoned upwards of sixty of the' Romish communion, 
and among them several monks and canonized saints, by 
whom the story is related thus : 

About the middle of the ninth century, viz. between the 
pontificates of Leo IV. and Benedict III. * a woman, called 
Joan, was promoted to the pontificate, by the name of. 
John 5 whom Platina, and almost all other historians, ha\^ 
reckoned as the VII Ith of that name, and others as the 
Vllth : some call her only John. This female pope was 
born at Meritz, where she went by the name of English 
John t ; whether because she was of English extraction, or 
for what other reason, is not known : some modern histo- 
rians say she was called Agnes, that is, the chaste, by way 
of irony, perhaps, before her pontificate. She had from 
her infancy an extraordinary passion for learning and tra- 
velling, find in order to satisfy this inclination, put on the 

* See Moreri. N. B. Blondel, Des- f Her true name was Gilberta, 'and 

aaretz, and Bayle, are the chief of it is said she took the name of Engliuli, 

tboie who absolutely denied it. Span- • or Aoglus, from Anglos, a monk otilM 

heim, L'Eofant des Vignelies, among abbey of Fulda, whom she loved, and 

^fe who haTe affirmed it. wl)6 was her instructor, and travelled 

^ with her. Crespio's L'etat de r£ni^U»h. 

! Hwhtm^'^CaLre, ?el. 11.— Pupin,*— Moreri. 


turned towards this scene of action, and after numberless 
feats of valour on both sides, the attack was so vigorouslj 
pushed by the English, that the king (Charles VIL) gave 
up the city as lost, when relief was brought from a very 
unexpected quarter. Joan, influenced by the frequent 
accounts of the rencounters at this memorable siege, and 
affected with the distresses of her country and king, was 
seized with a wild desire of relieving him ; and as her in- 
experienced mind-worked day and night on this favourite 
object, she fancied she saw visions, and heard voices, ex- 
horting her to re-establish the throne of France, and expel 
the English invaders. Enthusiastic in these notions, she 
went to Vaucouleurs, and informed Baudricourt, the go- 
vernor^ of her inspirations and intentions, who sent her to 
the French court, then at Chinon. Here, on being intro- 
duced to the king, she offered, in the name of the Supreme 
Being, to raise the siege of Orleans, and conduct his ma* 
jesty to Rheims, to be there crowned and anointed ; and 
'she demanded, as the instrument of her future victories, a 
particular sword which was kept in the church of St. Ca* 
therine de Fierbois. The king and his ministers at first' 
either hesitated or pretended to hesitate ; but after an as- 
sembly of grave and learned divines had pronounced hev 
mission to be real and supernatural, her request was 
granted, and she was exhibited to the whole people, on 
horseback in military habiliments. On this sight, her dex- 
terity in managing her steed, though acquired in her for^ 
oier station, was regarded as a fresh proof of her mission ; 
her former occupation was even denied; she was con- 
verted into a shepherdess, an employment more agreeable 
to the fancy. ' Some years were subtracted from her age, 
in order to excite still more admiration ; and she was re- 
ceived with the loudest acclamations, by persons of all 

The English at first affected to speak with derision of the 
maid and her heavenly missian ; but were secretly struck 
with the strpng persuasion which prevailed in all around 
them. They found their qourage daunted by degrees, and 
thence began to infer a divine vengeance hanging over 
them. A silent astonishment reigned among those troops 
formerly so elated with victory, and so fierce for the com- 
bat The maid entered the city of Orleans at the head of 
a convoy, arrayed in her military garb^ and displaying her 
consecrated standard. She was received as a celestial 

JOAN. 2» 


deliverer by the garrison and its inhabitants ; and with the 
instructions of count Dunois, commonly called the Bastard 
of Orleans, who commanded in that place, she actually 
obliged the English to raise the siege of that city, after 
driving them from their entrenchments, and defeating 
them in several desperate attacks. 

Raising the siege of Orleans was one part of the maid^s 
promise to Charles; crowning him at Rheims. was the 
other ; and she now vehemently insisted that he should set 
out immediately on tl)at journey. A few weeks before, 
such a proposal would have appeared altogether extrava-* 
gant. Rheims lay in a distant quarter of the kingdom ; 
was then in the hands of a victorious enemy ; the whole 
road that led to it was occupied by their garrisons ; and 
no imagination could have been so sanguine as to hope 
that such an attempt could possibly be carried into exe- 
cution. But, as it was the interest of the king of France 
to maintain the belief of something extraordinary and di- 
vine in these events, he resolved to comply with her ex* ' 
hortations, and avail himself of the present consternation 
of the £ngUsh« He accordingly set out for Rheims, at the 
head of 12,000 men, and scarcely perceived as he passed 
along, that he was marching through an enemy^s country* 
£very place opened its gates to him ; Rheims sent him its 
keys, and the ceremony of his inauguration was performed 
with the holy oil, which a pigeon is said to have brought 
from heaven to Clovis,^ on the first establishment of the 
French monarchy. 

As a mark of his gratitude, Charles had a medal struck 
in her honour. On one side was her portrait, on the other 
a hand holding a sword with these words, ConsUio confirmata 
Dei. " Sustained by the assistance of God." Tlie king 
also ennobled all her family, sts well in the male as in the 
female line ; the former became extinct in 1760. In 1614 
the latter, at the request of the procurator-general, were 
deprived of their privilege of ennobling their children, in- 
dependent of their husband. The town of Domremi, also, 
where she was born, was exempted from all taxes, aids, 
and subsidies for ever. 

The Maid of Orleans, as she is called, declared after 
this coronation, that her mission was now accomplished ; 
and expressed her inclination to retire to the occupations 
and course of life which became, her sex. But Dunois^ 
sensible of the^great ^dvantalges which might still be reaped 

to J O A N. 

from her presence in the army, exhorted her to perse\rere 
till the final expulsion of the English. In pursuance of 
this advice^ she threw herself into the town of Comptegne, 
at that time besieged by the duke of Burgundy, assisted 
by the earls of Arundel ai>d Suffolk. The garrison, ofi 
bier appearance, believed themselves invincible ; but Joaii^ 
after performing prodigies of valour, was taken prisoner 
IB a ssilly, and no eiforts having been made by the French 
court to deliver her, was condemned by the English to be 
burnt alive, which sentence she sustained with great cou<^ 
rage in the nineteenth year of her age, 1431. Such are 
the outlines. of the history of this extraordinary heroine, 
which however is involved in many doubts and difficulties, 
and has loo many of the features of romance for serious 
belief. It has lately even been doubted whether she was 
actually put to death ; and some plausible evidence has 
been brought forward to prove that the judges appointed 
by the duke of Bedford to try her, passed a sentence from 
which they saved her on the day of execution by a trick, 
and that »be afterwards made her appearance, was married 
to a gentleman of the house of Amboise in 1436, and her 
sentence was annulled in 1456. Be this as it may, her 
memory has long been consecrated by her countrymen, 
none of whom, however, have done her so much honour 
as our present poet-laureat, in bis admirable poem of 
« Joan of Arc." * 

JOBERT (Louis), a pious and learned Jesuit, was a 
native of Paris, where he was bo*rn in 1647. He taught 
polite literature in his own order, and distinguished him- 
self as^ a preacher. He died at Paris in 1719. There are 
several tracts of piety of his writing, besides a piece en- 
titled " La Science des Medailles," of which the best 
edition is that of Paris, in 1739, 2 vols. 12mo, but this 
superiority it owes to the editor, M. le Baron Bimard de 
la Bastie ; and even of this edition^ the second volume is a 
mere farrago of useless lumber. Pihkerton, who expresses^ 
a very low opinion of this work, affirms that Jobert bor- 
rowed much from Charles Patin's " Introduction to thfe 
History of Medals," without any acknowledgment.* 

JOCONDUS, or JUCUNDUS (John), an eminent an* 
tiquary, architect, and critic, was probably a native of 

^ Histories of England and France.— Southey*8 Joan of Arc. — Qleig's Supple- 
ment to the Encyclopedia Briannica. 
* Mor«ri.— Pict. Hist— Pinkerton's MedalSj preface. ^ 


Vetona, and flourished in the sixteenth century. He was 
of the order of the Dominicans, but in his travels, and du* 
ring his scientific labours, wore the habit of a secular priest. 
When at Rome, where he was first known as an architect, 
he beg^n to apply to the study of classical antiquities, and 
nade a judicious collection of inscriptions, which he dedi- 
cated to Lorenzo de Medici. He was some time at the 
court of the emperor Maximilian I. and thence went to 
France about 1300, where Louis X. appointed him royal 
architect. He built at Paris two bridges over the Seine, 
that of Notre Dame, and the little bridge. In the mean 
time, while be had leisfire, he employed it in examining 
ancient manuscripts, and had the felicity to recover all th^ 
lettei's of Pliny the younger, and the work of Julius Obse- 
quens on prodigies. These he arranged for publication, 
and sent them to Aldus Manutius, by whom they were 
both printed in 1508, 8vo. He also collated several other 
classics, and illustrated Csesar's Commentaries by useful 
notes and figores, and was the first to give a design of the 
famous bridge which Csesar built across the Rhine. On 
his return to Italy, he edited the fine edition of Vitruvius, 
printed by Aldus in 1511, and enriched it with designs. 
When the famous bridge the Rialto was burnt down in 
1513, he gave a magnificent design for a new one ; but 
that of an inferior architect being preferred, he quitted 
Venice, and went to Rome, where, after the death of 
Bramante, he was employed on St. Peter's church. His 
last work was the bridge over the Adige, at Verona, which 
he built in 1520. He died about 1530, at a very advanced 

JODELLE(Stephen), acelebrated French poet, was born 
of a noble family at Paris, in 1532. He was esteemed by 
Henry II. and Charles IX. but so entirely devoted to poetry 
and luxury, that he reaped no advantage from their pa- 
tronage, but lived in poverty. He was one of the earliest 
tragic poets of France, but abused the uncommon facility 
he had in writing verses ; so that though his French poems 
were much admired when their author was living, it now 
requires great patience to read them. The same cannot, 
however, be said of his Latin poetry, which is written in a 
more pure and easy style, and in a bettet taste. Jodelle 
Was well acquainted with Greek and Latin, had a genius 

» Tiral>oschir-M<>reri,— NiceroD, toI, XXX.— Saxii Onoraast. 

S2 J O D E L L E. 

for the arts, and is said to have understood architecture; 
painting, and sculpture ; he was one of the poets in the 
Pleiades fancied by Ronsard, and is considered as the iri* 
veutor of the Vers rapportes. This author died very poor, 
July 1573» The collection of bis poems was published at 
Paris, 1574, 4to, and at Lyons, 1597, 12oao. It contains 
two tragedies, Cleopatra, and Dido ; Eugene, a comedy ;^ son* 
nets, songs, odes, elegies, &c. Cardinal du Perron valued 
this poet's talents so little, that he used to say Jodelle*B 
verses were but pois piles} 


JOHNSON (Charles), a dramatic writer, was origi-> 
nally bred to the law, and a member of the Middle temple, 
but being a great admirer of the muses, and finding in 
himself a strong propensity to dramatic writing, he quitted 
bis profession, and by contracting an intimacy with Mr« 
Wilks, the manager of the theatre, found means, through 
that gentleman^s interest, to get his plays on the stage 
without much difficulty. Some of them met with very 
good success, and being a constant frequenter of the 
meetings of the wits at Will's and Button's coffee-bouses^ 
he, by a polite and inoffensive behaviour, formed so ex-» 
tensive an acquaintance and intimacy, as constantly in* 
sured him great emoluments on his benefit night; by whicb 
means, being a miln of ceconomy, he was epabled to sub«i 
sist very genteelly. He at length married a young widow, 
with a tolerable fortune, oit which he set up a tavern ia 
Bow-street, Covent-garden, but quitted business at bia 
wife's death, and lived privately on an easy competence 
which he had saved. At what time he was born we know 
not, but he lived in the reigns of queen Anne, king 
George L and part of Qeorge II. and died March 1 1, 1748. 
As a dramatic writer, he is far from deserving to be placed 
amongst the lowest class ; for though his plots are seldom 
original, yet he has given them so. many additions, and 
has clothed the designs of others in so pleasing a dress, 
that a great shs^re of the merit they possess ought to be at- 
tributed to him. 

Though, as we have observed, be. was a man of a very 
inoffensive behaviour, he could not escape the satire of 
Pope, who, too ready to resent even any supposed offeucey 
has, on some trivial pique, immortalized him in the "Dua* 

1 een. Diet— NicecoD, toI. X^iyitL— Moreri.--Dict, Bitt 


ciad ;'* and in one of the notes to that poem has quoted 
from another piece, called ** The Characters of the Times/^ 
the following account of him : '^ Charles Johnson^ famous 
for writing a play every year, and for being at .Button^s 
every day. He bad probably thriven better in bis voca- 
tion, bad be been a small matter leaner; be may be justly 
called a martyr to obesity, and be said to have fallen a 
victim to the rotundity of his parts.'' The friends of John- 
son knew that part of this account was false, and probably 
did not think very ill of a man of whom nothing more de«. 
grading could be said than that he was fat. The dramatic 
pieces this author produced, nineteen in all, are enume- 
rated in the Biograpbia Dramatica. ^ 

JOHNSON (John), an eminent divine among the noU'^ 
jurors, the only son of the rev. Thomas Johnson, vicar of • 
Frindsbury, near Rochester, was born Dec. 30, 1662, and 
was educated in the king's school in Canterbury, where 
be made such progress in the three learned languages, 
Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, under Mr. Lovejov, then mas- 
ter of that school, that when be was very little more than 
fifteen years of age, be was sent to the university of Cam* 
bridge, where he was admitted in the college of St. Mary 
Magdalen, under the tuition of Mr. Turner, fellow of that 
bouse, March the 4th, 1677-S. In Lent term 1681-2, 
be took the degree of B. A. and soon after was nominated 
by the dean and chapter of Canterbury to a scholarship in 
Corpus Cbristi college in that university^ of the founda- 
tion of arphbishop Parker, to which he was admitted April 
the 29th, 1682, under the tuition of Mr. Beck, fellow of that 
bouse. He took the degree of M. A. at the commence- 
9ient 1 6S5, Spon after he entered into deacon^s orders, and 
became curate to the rector of Upper c^nd Lower Hardres, 
near Canterbury. He was ordained priest by the right rev. 
Dr. Thomas Sprat, lord bishop of Rochester and dean of 
Westminster, December the 19th, 1686 ; and July the 9th, 
16S7, he wks collated to the vicarage of Boughton under the 
Blean, by Dr. Saqcroft, archbishop of Canterbury^ and at the 
fame time he was allowed by the same archbishop to hold tlie 
adjoining vicarage of Hern-bill by sequestration ; both which 
i:hurches he supplied himself. About 1689 one Sale, 
i| man who had counterfeited holy orders, having forged 

' Cibb«r'i JJt.i, vol. V. — ^Biog. Dramatici. 

Vot. XIX. D 

3i J O H N S O If . 

letters of ordination both for himself and Iris ^itheff 
came into this diocese, and taking occasion from the con«- 
ftision occasioned by the reiroiation during the time arch* 
bishop Sancroft was under suspension, and before Dr. Til-* 
lotson was consecrated to the archbishopric, made it hia 
business to find out what litingswere held by sequestradofi' 
only, and procured the broad seal for one of these for bim^ 
self, and another for bis father. On this Mr. Johnson 
thought it necessary to secnre his vicarage of Hem*hiii^ 
that he might prerent Sale from depriving him of that be^ 
ne6ce ; and archbishop Sancroft being then depriTed tf^ 
dfficio only, but not a beneficio, presented him to Hem-htii^ 
to which he was instituted October the 16th, 1689, by l>r« 
George Ozenden, vicar*general to the archbishop, but at' 
that time to the dean and chapter of Canterbury, guardians 
Of the spiritualities during the suspension of the archbishop. 
Bat as the living had been so long held by sequestration 
that it was lapsed to the crown, he found it necessary to 
Corroborate his title with the broad seal, .which was gtveif 
him April the I2th, 1690. In 1697 the vicarage of St. 
John in the Isle of Thaiiet, to which the town of MargatO' 
belongs, becoming void, archbishop Tenison, the patron, 
considering the largeness of the cure, was desirous to place 
there a person better qualified than ordinary to supply it| 
dnd could think of no man in his diocese more fit than 
Mr. Johnson, and therefore Untreated him to undertake 
the pastoral care of that large and populous parish. And 
because the benefice was but small, and the cure very 

f^resLty the archbishop, to induce him to accept of it, collated 
lim to the vicarage of Appledore (a good benefice) on th« 
borders of Romney Marsh, on the 1st of May, 1697 : btt( 
Mr. Johnson chose to hold Margate by sequestration only. 
And having now two sons ready to be instructed in learn** 
ing, he would not send them td school, but taught them 
himself; saying that he thought it as much the du^Qf ft 
father to teach his own children, if he was capable of doing 
it, as it was of the mother to suckle and nurse ^em in 
their infancy, if she was able ; and because he believed 
they would learn better in company than alone, he to6k 
two or three boarders to teach with them, the sons of some 
particular fViends. Re was much importuned by several 
others of his acquaintance to take their sons, but h» 
refused. At lengtti^ finding be could not attend the pupils 


lie had, his great cure, and bis studies, io such a OMintier 
as he was desirous to do, he entreated his patron the arch* 
bbhop^ to give him leave entirely to quit Margate, and 
to retire to his cure of Appledore, which, with some diffi* 
cttlty, was at hut granted him ; but not till his grace had 
made inquiry throughout his diocese and the university of 
Cambridge for one who might be thought qualified to suc^ 
ceed him. He settled at Appledore in 1703« aud as soon 
as his eldest son was fit for the university (which was in 
1705) he sent him to Cambridge, and bis other smu tp 
school till he was of age to be pu( out apprentice ; and 
dismissed all^ the rest of bis scholars. He seemed n^uch 
pleased with Appledore at bis first retirement thither, as a 
place where be could follow his studies without interrupt 
tiw. But this satisfaction was not of long continuance ^ 
for that marshy air, in a year or two, brought a severe sick^ 
ness on himself and all bis family, and his constitution (which 
till then had been Very good) was so broken, that be never 
afterwards recovered the health be bad before enjoyedL 
This made him desirous to remove from tbence as scon m 
he could ; and the vicarage of Cranbrook becoming veidf 
he asked the archbishop to bestow it on him, which bis 
gnM^e readily did, and accordingly collated him to it AprU 
ti^e iS^b, 1707, where he continued till his deatht b<>lding 
-Appledore with it. In 1710, and again in 1713, he was 
cboisti by the* clergy of the diocese of Canterbury to be 
oaeof their proctors for the convocation summoned tp 
xoeet with the parliament in those years. And as the first 
of these convpoatioAs was permitted to sit and act» and to 
tmst of matters of religion (thoegh they brought no busi«» 
iiess to any perfection, owing to the differences that had 
been r^sed between dbe twolMUses) he consuntly atteiuied 
the bouse of whidi he was a member whilst any n)atter was 
there under debate ; and his parts and learning came tp 
be known and esteemed by tl^e most eminent clergy of the 
province, as they bad been before by those of the diocese 
. whene he lived ; so that from this tieie he wa9 frequently 
leaorted io for his opinion in particular osses, and bad let- 
ters eent to biei foom the remotest parts of the province of 
Caoterbory, and semetioies from the other. proviHce also, 
requiring bis opinion in matters of learning, especially as 
to what concerned our religion and ecclesiastical laws. He 
'Cestaiuied «t Crsnbrook about eighteen years ; aud as be 

D 2 

JO A N. 

male habit, and went to Athens, in conipany with^ne of 
ber friends, who was called her favonrite lover. From 
Athens she went to Rome, where she taught divinity ; and, 
in the garb of a doctor, acquired so great reputation for 
understandings learning, and probity, that she was uimni- 
mously elected pope in the room of Leo IV. 

T,o this s^ory several modern historians add many par- 
ticular^ of a more delicate nature, and assert that she 
formed an improper connexion with the friend to whose 
assistance she owed her advancement in learning. This 
commerce, however, might have remained a secret, had 
not Joan, mistaken without doubt in her reckoning, ven- 
tured to go to a procession, where she had the misfortune 
to be brought to bed in the middle of the street, between 
the Colosseum and the church of St. Clement; and it ^is 
added that she died there in labour, after having held the 
pontifical see about two years.^ 

Such is the story, as related in the history of the popes, 
which was certainly received and avowed as a truth for 
some centuries. Since it became a matter of dispute, 
some writers of the Romish church have denied it; some^ 
have apologized for it absurdly enough ; others in a way 
that might be admitted, did not that church claim to be 
infallible : for it was that claim which first brought the 
truth of this history under examination. The protestants 
alleged it as a clear proof against the claim; since it could 
not be denied that in this instance the church was deceived 
by a woman in disguise. This induced the Roman 
catholics to search more narrowly than before into the 
affair ; and the result of that inquiry was, first a douBt, and 
next an improbability, of Joan's real existence. This led 
to a further inquiry into the origin of the story ; whence it 
appeared, that there were' no footsteps of its being known 
in the church for near 200 years after it was said to have 
happened*. -/Eneas Sylvius, who was pope in the fifteenth 
century under the name of Pius 11. was the first who, 
called it iii question, and he touched it but slightly, ob- 
serving, that in the election of that woman there was qo 
error in a matter«of faith, but only an ignorance as to a 
matter of fact; and also that the story was not certain. 
Yet this very Sylvius suffered Joan's name to be placed 

* Marianas is the first who mentions it, and he lived 200 years after. Blondel't 
Eclaircissem. de la question : Si une fcmme a este assise 4U siege papal, p. 17» 

J O A N- 


among those of ths other popes ifi the register <i( Siena, 
und transcribed the story in his historical work printed «t 
Nuremburg in 1493. The example of Sylvius embold- 
ened others to search more freely into the matter, who, 
finding it to have no good foundation, thoi^ht proper to 
give it up. 

.But the protestants thought themselves the more obliged, 
to labour in support of it, as an indelible blot and reproach 
4ipon their adversaries ; and to aggravate the matter, se- 
veral circnmstances were mentioned with the view of ex- 
posing the credulity and weakness of that church, which, 
it was maintained, bad authorized them. In this spirit it 
was observed, that Joan, being installed in her office, 
Emitted others into orders, after the manner of otdier 
{K)peis ; made priests and deacons, ordained bishops 
•and abbots, sung mass, consecrated churches and altars, 
administered the sacraments, presented her feet to be 
kissed, and performed all other actions which the popes of 
Kome are wont to do, with other particulars not now worth 
reciting, as the best informed historians seem to give the 
whole up as a fable.^ 

JOAN of ARC, commonly called the Maid of Orleans, 
one of the most remarkable heroines in history, was the 
;daughter of James d'Arc, and of Isabella Rom£ his wife, 
two persons of low rank, in the village of Domremi, near 
Vaucouleurs, on the borders of Lorraine, where she was born 
4n 1402. The instructions she received during her. child- 
hood and youth were suited to her humble condition* . She 
quitted her parents at an early age, as they were ill able 
to maintain her, and engaged herself as a servant at a small 
inn. In this situation she employed herself in attending 
the horses of the guests, and in riding them to the Cater- 
ing-place, and by these exercises she acquired a robust 
and hardy frame. At this time the affairs of France weiie 
in a desperate condition, and the city of Orleans, the 
most important place in the kingdom, was besieged by the 
English regent, the duke of Bedford, as a^ step to prepare 
the way for the conquest of all France. The French king 
used every expedient to supply the city with a garrifson 
and provisions ; and the English left no method unem- 
ployed for reducing it. The eyes of all j^urope were 

1 Gen. Diet. — PlatiQa de vitis Foatificum.— Bower'4) Hist of the Popes.*- 
Mosbeiip's Cb* Hist, 

S« / O H N 9 O N. 

Feb. 6, 1755. He acquired a general esteem from the 
frfcnkne6s and benev(»lence of hia character, which displayed 
itself not le&B in social life than in the coainAnotdatiofi of 
hia literary researches. Strangerl who applied to hlttk for 
inforitiation, though without any introduction except what 
arose from a genuine thirst for knowledge cMgetiial witk 
bis own^ failed not to experience the hospttattty of his. 
board. While their spirit of curiosity was feasted by this 
liberal conversation of the man of letters, their social 
powers were at the same time gratified by the hospitable 
frankness of the benevolent Englishman. The following 
eulogium on him by Dr. Stukeley, is transcribed from the 
Original in the ** Minutes of the Society of Antiquaries t^* 
*^ JMaurice Johnson, esq. of Spalding in Lincolnshire) cooti* 
selldr at law, a Auent orator, and of eminence in hki proles* 
. Mon ; one of the Itist of the founders of the Society of 
Antiquaries, 1717, except Br. Willis and W. Slukeley; 
founder df the literary society at Spalding, Nov. ^, 1712^ 
tt^hich) by his Unwearied endeavours, interest, and applica- 
tiM in every kind, infinite labours in writing) collecting) 
methodizing, bias now [1755] subsisted forty years in great 
reputation, and excited a great spirit of learning and ccHri* 
bsity in South Holland [in Lincolnshire]. They have n 
public; library, and all conveniences for their weekly iM«t« 
iHg. Mr. Johnson was a gtieat lover of gardening, awd had 
a fine coli^ctibft ^ plants, and an excellent cabinet of 
liiedalis. He Collected large memoirs fot the ^ History 4f( 
Car&nsius,* all which, with his coins of that prince) fail 
ffent to me, panictilarly a brass one whid) be suppoaed bla 
son, resembling those of young Tetricus. A gooo radiMedl 
CABS ISMA. Rev. a woman holds a eornueopi«, vestJug her 
Iright h«nd on a pillar or rudder, locts or c^sLO. In ge* 
l^ral the antiquities of the great tttitred )mory Of Spftlding'^ 
«nd of this part of Lincolnshire, are for ever ebliged to the 
^aare and diligence of Maurice JobfiMoO, who has res<:«ied 
them from oblivroh.*^ 

An accurate koeoont of his many learned eommutticadoM 
to the Society of Antiquaties ^f London, las well fits of thoser 
which he made to the society he founded at Spalding, may 
he iseen in the curiotis work which fotnishOs this «Hti<^.^ 

JOHNSON (SAittC^i), an English divitte of mna^kabto 
feamiog and steadiness in mifferrag for the prineiples of the 


SerdaftioB io !M9» was Ikhii id 1649, in Warwidfhim; 
ao4 being ptt lo St. Paul's school in Loadooy studied witfa 
suck snccifss and reputatioo, that as sood as he was fit for 
the naiTenkjry he was nude keeper of the library to that 
•chooL la this station he applied himself to the Orieiital 
languages^ in which he made great progress. He was of 
Trinity-ooUege, Cambridge, but left the university with* 
out taluog a degrae* He entered into orders, and was 
presented by a friend, Mr* Robert Biddulph, io 1669-7Q, 
la the iipctory of Corringbam in Essex. Tbis living, worth 
-only SOL a year, was the only church preferment he ever 
liad ; and, aa the air of the plao^ did not agree with him, 
lie plaeed a curate upon the apot^ and settled himself at 
-JLMdoa ; a situation so much the more agreeable to him, as 
lie had a strong disposition for politic3, and had even made 
jisme progress in that study before b,e was presented tp 
this iiviflg. 

Tlhe times were turbulent ; the duke of York declaring 
iiuttsdf a Papist, his succe^idn to the prowa begs^n to im 
wannly opposed ; and this brought the doctritie of inde- 
feasible hereditary right into dispute, which WM strongly 
djsreUnhed by Johnson, who mm naturally of no submissive 
temper *. This inolination was early observed by bis pa- 
ison, who warjied him against the danger of it to one of 
his • paofesaion,. and adviaed him, if he would turn his 
ihongbts to that subject, to )p^A Bracton end Fortescue 
*^ (te laudihus tegum Ang)i»,** &c. that so be ipight be 
acquainted with the old English constitution ; bnt by no 
Mieans to make politiica the subject of his serraons, for that 
naalliers of frith and pmctice formed more suitable admo- 
miuans ftom the pulpit. Johnson, it is said, fdigu^iisly 

* Qt tifis truUi ir« cannot kvf^ s would milM nothinf of Uftiqs a coad^- 
stronger evldeooe than from himself, inan off his box, and beating him, and 
In a piece printed 1-689, ftpeakinf of tbrowingtiim into liifi boy again. 1 ha^a 
Ibishop asnMl^a Pa^tora) LeMt(er» pi^ aevefa) tiaata4oo|Ail -^at tWi tall rnt^^ 
Wished a little before* in ordctr to place tering fellow, and put the case : Sup- 
l^ing William's right to the crown upon pose this conqueror should take me up 
am^oaat, ^ expretsas ;liianaBlf ^ua % andsr bit am, like i^g^ardi and run 
f* I wiU preaeatly join mvifi aith tbif 4way with me ; a9i 1 his subject ? Np» 
conquering bishop, for I have not been thought I, Jl am my own, and oot his : 
tafraid of « -eon^oeror these ^S years ^ and, haTin|[ thus invaded mf , if I could 
iir k>is aaioo ) vi9t^ to mm^k ^ ^^ «ot otheratise rosouo myaaU ^m l^, 
^w £xehange gate, where stood an I would lunite him under the ^fth rip. 
overgrown porter with his gown and The application is easy.'* Tract con- 
staff, giving him a resemblance of au- cerning king James's Abrogation* in 
4)ioriyr>aishq»e 6«pipesa j^ ^irm t^ actgulatfi oar author'* aorki^ p. ^O^* ^Ck8 . 
the coaebnea before the entraage ; ^ ^ 



obseired this advice ; and tboogb, by applytog bimself t6 
the stody of tbe books recommended to him, he became 
well versed in tbe English constitution, yet he never intro- 
duced it in bis sermons, but employed these, with zeat, 
to expose tbe absurdity and mischief of the Popish reli*- 
gion, which was tben too much ent;ouraged, and wonld^ 
he thought, unavoidably be established if the next heir to 
the crown was not set aside. This point he laboured inces-* 
santly in his private conversation, and became so good a 
roaster of the arguments for it, that tbe opposers of the 
court gave him suitable encouragement to proceed. The 
earl of Essex admitted him into his company; and lord 
William Russel, respecting his parts and probity, inade him 
his domestic chaplain. This preferment placed him in a 
conspicuous point of view; and in 1679 he was appointed 
to preach before the mayor and aldermen at Guildhall- 
chapel, on Palm-Sunday. He took that opportunity of 
preaching against Popery ; and from this time, he tells us 
himself, '^ he threw away his liberty with both hands, and 
vrith his eyes open, for his country*s service.'* In short, 
he began to be regarded by his party as their immoveable 
bulwark ; and to make good that character^ while the bill 
of exdu^on was carried on by his patron at tbe bead of 
that party in the House of Commons, his chaplain, to pro* 
mote the same cause, engaged the ecclesiastical champion 
of passive obedience. Dr. Hickes*, in a book entitled 
^^ Julian the Apostate, &c.^' published in 1682. This 
tract being written to expose the doctrine^ then generally 
received, of passive obedience, was answered by Dr. Hickes, 
in a piece entitled ** Jovian, &c.*' to which Johnson drew 
up a reply^ under the title of ^^ Julian's arts to undermine 
and extirpate Christianity," &c. This was printed and 
entered at Stationers'-hall, 1683, in drd^irto be published; 
but, seeing his patron lord Russel seized and imprisoned, 
Johnson thought proper to check his' zeal, and take the 
advice of his iriends in suppressing it. 

Tbe court, however, having information of it, he was 
suminonedj about two months af^er lord Russel was be- 
headed, to appear before the king and council, where tbe 
lord keeper North examined him upon these points : 1. 
** Whether h6 was the author of a book called * Julian'^ 

* Dr. Hiekes'f prodoetioB here attacked^ was a semion preached before tb4 
lord mayor in 1681, and published io 16S8, 

J O tt N S O l^i 4i 

Arts and Methods to undermine and extirpate Christi^^ 
anity' ? " To wbich having answered in the afBrmative, he, 
was asked, ^' Why, after the boolL had been so long entered 
at Stationers*- hall, it was not published ?^* To which he 
replied, ^' That the nation was in too great a ferment to 
have the matter further debated at that time." Upon this he 
was commanded to produce one of those books to the coun- 
cil, being told that it should be published if they approved 
it ; but be answered, ** he had sup{N'essed them himself^ 
so that they were now his own private thoughts, for which 
he was not accountable to any power upon earth." The 
council then dismissed him ; but he was sent for twice 
afterwards, and the same questions urged, to which he 
returned the same answers, and was then sent prisoner to 
the Gatehouse, by a warrant of commitment dated Aug. S| 
1683, and signed by sir Leoline Jenkins, one of the privy 
council, and principal secretary of state. He was bailed 
out of prison by two friends, and the court used all possible 
means to discover the book ; but, being disappointed in the 
search, recotirse was had to promises, and a considerable 
sum, besides the favour of the court, was ofiered for one 
of the copies, to the .person in . whose hands they were 
supposed to be lodged. This was refused ; and, as nether 
threats nor promises prevailed, the court was obliged to 
drop the prosecution upon that book, and an informatiota 
against Johnson was lodged in the KingVbench^ for writing 
^.^ Julian the Apostate," &c. The prosecution^ was begun 
and carried on by the interest of the duke of *York. The 
following was one of the first of the passages on which the 
information was founded : ** And therefore, I much wonder 
at those men who trouble the nation at this time of day^ 
with the unseasonable prescription of prayers and, tears, 
and the passive obedience of the Thebean legion, and 
such-like last remedies^ which are proper only at such a 
time as the laws of our country are armed against our. reli- 
gion." The attack of this apparently innocent sentence 
gives a strong idea of the violence of the times. 

When Mr. Johnson was brought to trial, he employed 
Mr. Wallop as his counsel, who urged for his client, that 
be had offended against no law of the land ; that the book^ 
taken together, was innocent; but that any treatise might 
be made criminal, if treated as those who drew up the 
information bad treated this. The judges, however, bad 
orders to proceed in the cause, and the chief justice. Jef- 

it ^rOHNSON. 


fries upbraided Johnson lor ibeddling with wfaat did utt 
beloug to bi0i9 and scoffiogly told bioi» tl^at he would 
give him a text, which was, '^ Let every man study to he 
quiet, and mind his own business :'' to which Johnson rer 
plied, that he did mind bis business as an Englishman whea 
be wrote that book. He was condemned, however, in a 
fine of j^OO marks, and oommitted prisoner to the KingV 
bench till he should pay it. Here he lay in very necesr 
sitous iQireumrstanceSy it being reckoned criminal to visit or 
shew Mm any kindness ; so that few bad the courage to 
come near him* or give him any relief; by which means he 
waa Deduced verv low. Notwithstanding which, when bis 
mothert whom be bad maintained for many yeans» aept ^ 
him for subsistence, such was his filial affectiop, thal^ though 
be knew not how to supply his own wants, and those of bis 
wife and iehildren« and was told on this occasion, that 
^^ebarity begins at home,'' he sent her Ibrty shillingi^ 
diough he had but fifty in the world, saying, he woudd do 
hjis duty* and trust Providence for bis own supply. The 
event shewed that his hopes were not vi^n; for the neal; 
morning he received io/» by an unknown band, which he 
diseovered at adistant period to have been sent by Dri. 
Fowler, afterwards bishop of Gloucester. 

Havingi by the bonds of himself and two friends, obtiuned 
the liberty of the rules, he was enabled to incur still further 
dangers, by printing some pieces againsi Popery in 1685^ 
and dis|Mersiog several of them about the covntiy at his own 
expence^ These being answered in three " Observaiors^V 
]^ m Roger L' Estrange, who also, disoovering the printer^ 
aei;sed aA the copies that were in bis hands, Johnson caused 
a paper to be posted up everywhere^ entitled <' A Paro^ 
of wry Reasons and wrong Inferences, but right Observa- 
sor/' ^pon the encampment of the army the following 
year, 1 666, on Hounslow-heath». he drew up ^' An humble 
and hearty Addness to all the .ProtesUtats in the present 
Army," &c« He had dispersed about 1000 copies of this 
paper, when the rest of the imfn'ession was seiaedi and 
liimself committed to close custody, to undergo a sexK>nd 
trial at the King^s-bench ( where he was oondemned Ip 
atand in the pillory in Palaoe^yard, Westminster, Charingr- 
croes, and the Old Exchange, to pay a fine of S09 marlM, 
and .to be whipped from Newgate to Tyburn, after he had 
ibeen degraded from the priesthood. This last ought to 
Jiave been done, according to the canons, by his 0wn dio-* 


cesan, the bishop of Loudon, Dr. Compton ; but that pre* 
late being tben under suspension himself (for not obeyin{f 
the king*s order to suspend Dr. Sharp, afterwards arch* 
bishop of York, for preaching against Popery in his own 
parish church of St» Gileses in the Fields), Dr. Crewe, bishop 
of Durbam, Dr. Sprat, bishop of Rochester, and Dr. White, 
bishop of Peterborough, who were then commisaioners for 
the diocese of London, were appointed to degrade Mr* 
Johnson. This they performed in the chapter-bouse of 
St. 'Paul's, where Dr. Sherlock, and other clergymen^ 
attended; but Dr. StiUing^eet, then dean of St PanPa^ 
refused to be present. Johnson's behaviour on this occa* 
aioa was observed to be so becoming that character of 
#hicb Ms enemies would have deprived him, that it melted 
•ome of their hearts, and forced them to acknowledge^ 
that there was something very valuable in him. Among 
other things which be said to the di? ines then present, he 
told tlieiD, in the most pathetic maimer, ^ It could not but 
grieve him to think, that, since all he had wrote was det 
signed to keep their gowns on their backs, they dMMdd be 
tnade the unhappy instruments to puU off his ; and' he 
begged them to consider whether they -were not making 
rods for themselvte*' When they came to the formality 
of putting a BiUe in his band and taking it from bin again^ 
he was much affected, and parted from it with difficulty^ 
kissed it, and said, with tears, << That they ooaM not^ 
however, deprive htm of the use and benefit of that sacred 
depositum." It happened, that they were guilty of an 
omission, in not stripping him of his cassock; which, 
fihgbt as such a circumstance may seeo), rendered his 
d^;mdation imperfect, and af^wards saved him his 
living *. 

A Popish priest made an offer for 200J. to get the 
whipping part of the sentence remitted : the money was 
aicconiingiy lodged, by one of Johnson's friends, in a thirl 
iiand, for tise priest, if be performed what he undertook ; 
tot to m purpose i the king was deaf to all intoeaties : the 
answer was, << That since Mr. Johnson had the spirit of 
mMTtyrdem, it was 6t he should sufier^'* Accordingly, Dec* 
^j 1^86, the seo4ieoee was rigorously put in enecution; 
^liiAdk yet he boipe ^wkh great fitmness, and went through 

^ Be tatlie vitti it on to (be ^\fory, where Mr. Rouse, the imAer-sherHF, tore it 
^ end pot ft kize c(mt tipoa )iim. Report sf the eomniictee io 1689. 

*$: JOHN so N. 

even with alaerity. He observed afterwards to an intimate^ 
friend, that this text of Scripture which came suddenly 
into bis mind, '^ He endured the cross, despising the 
shame," so much animated and supported him in his bitter 
journey, that, had he not thought it would have looked 
like vain-glory, he could have sung a psalm while the 
executioner was doing his office, with as much composure 
and cheerfulness as ever he had done in the church ; though 
at the. same time he had a quick sense of every stripe 
which was given him, to the number of 317, with a whip 
of nine cords knotted. This was the more remarkable in 
him,:because he had not the least tincture of enthusiasm ^* 
''The truth is, he was endued with a natural hardiness of 
temper to a great degree ; and behig inspirited by an 
eager desire to suffer, for the cause he had espoused, he 
was enabled to support himself with the firihness of a 
martyr. After the execution of this sentence, the king 
gave away his living; and the clergyman • who had the 
grant of it, made application to the three bishops above- 
mentioned for institution; but they, being sensible of hi^ 
imperfect degradation, . would tiot. grant it without a bond 
of indemnity ; after which, when he went to Corringham 
for induction, . the parishioners opposed him, so that be 
could never obtain, entrance, bat was obliged to return r« 
infectd. Mn Johnson thus kept his living, and with it, his 
resolution also to oppose the measures of the court ; in- 
somuch that, before he was out of the surgeon^s bands, he 
reprinted 3000 copies of his '^'Comparison between Popery 
and Paganism." These^ however, were not then published ; 
but not long after, about the time of the general tolera- 
tipn, he published f^ The Trial and Examination of a late 
Libel," &c. which was followed by others every year till 
the Revolution. The parliament afterwards, taking his 
case into consideration, resolved, June 11, 1689, that the 
judgement against him in the King's-bench, upon an in* 
formation for a misdemeanor, was cruel and illegal; 
and a committee was £^t the same time appotiifted ito 
bring in a bill for reversing that judgement. Being also 
ordered to inquire how Mr. Johnson came to be^ degraded^ 
and: by what was done, Mr. Christy^ the chairw 
man, some days after reported his case, by which it ap- 

* Excepting this, he seems to haye iemblanee, both in the h«rdbie«|.o|;Ui 
IbeeD cast in much such a mould as John temper, and ia the quarretsomeness. 
Lilbura, to whom he bore a great re- of itt 


pearsy that a libel was then exhibited against him, chaining 
tiim with great misdemeanorsy though none were specified « 
or proined ; that he demanded a copy of the libel, and an 
advocate, both which were denied ; that he protested against 
the proceedings, as contrary to law and the lS2d canon, 
not being done by his own^liocesan ; but his protestation 
was refund, as was also his appeal to the king in chancery ; 
and that Mrs. Johnson had also an information exhibited 
against her, for the lik^ matter as that against her hus<* 
band. The committee came to the follomng resolutions, 
which were all agreed to by the house : '* That the Judge- 
ment against Mr. Johnson was illegal and cruel : that the 
ecclesiastical commission was illegal, and consequently, the 
.suspension of the bishop of London, and the authority 
committed to three bishops, null and illegal : that Mr. 
Johnson^s not being degraded by his own diocesan, if he had 
deserved it, was illegal : that a bill be brought iu to reverse 
the judgement, and to declai:e all the proceedings before 
the three bishops null and illegal : and that an address be 
oaiade to his majesty, to recommend Mr. Johnson to some 
ecclesiastical preferment, suitable to bis services and suf- 
ferings." The house presented two addresses to the king^ 
10 behalf of Mr. Johnson : and, accordingly, the deanery 
4>f Durham was offered him, which however he"^ refused, a§ 
an unequal reward for his services. 

The truth is, he was his own chief enemy ; and his dis« 
appointment, in his expectations of preferment, was the 
effect of his own temper and conduct. For, with very 
^od abilities, considerable learning, and great clearness, 
strength, and vivacity of sentiment and expression, of which 
his writings are a sufficient evidence ; and with a firmness 
of mind capable of supporting the severest trials, for any 
cause which he considered as important, he was passionate, 
impatient of eontradiction, conceited in his own opinions, 
haughty, apt tojoverrate his own services, and undervalued 
those of others, whose advancement above himself was aii 
insupportable mortification to him. The roughness of his 
temper, and turbuleucy of his genius, rendered him also 
unfit for the higher stations of the church, of which he was 
immoderately ambitious. Not beinz able to obtain a 
i^ishopricy lady Russel made use of we influence she had 
with br. Tillotson, to solicit a pension for him * ; and in 
consequence of this application, king William granted him 

* TtUptMn Ubovred tte nialter Vetf sbuiiDg him and raTilifif him sU tb^ 
heartilfp Ihoofh Johnioa cooUnoiii lime. While h« wa» in priioa »liO| 


906/. a year out of the post*>office, for his own and hx^ son-« 
]ife, with 10002. in money, and a place of 100^ a year for 
hU son. 

Violence produces violence ; and his enemies were so 
much exasperated agaitisthim, that his life was frequently 
endangered. -After publishing his £amous tracts entitled 
'^ An Argument proving thtit the Abrogation of King 
James,*' &^c, which was levelled against all those who com* 
plied with the Revolution upon any' other principles than 
his own, in 1692, a remarkable attempt was actually made 
upon him. Seven assassina broke into his house in Bond* 
utreet, Nov. 27, very early in the mornhig ; and five of 
them, with a lantern, got into his chamber, where he, with 
bis wife and young son^ were in bed. Mr. Johnson was 
jfast asleep ; but bis wife, being awaked by their opening 
the door^ cried out. Thieves ; and endeavoured to awaken 
lier husband : the villains in the mean time threw open the 
curtains, three of them placed themselves on that side of 
the bed where he lay, with drawn swords and clubs, and 
two stood at the bed's feet wit^ pistols. Mr« Johnson 
started up; and, endeavouring to defend himself from 
their assaults, received a blow on the head, which knocked 
him backwards. His wife cried out with great eamestnesa, 
and begged them not to treat a sick man with such bidrba^ 
rity; upon which they paused a iittle, and one of the 
miscreants called to Mr. J<^nson to hold up his face, which 
his wife begged him to do, thinking they only designed 
to gag him, and that they would rifie the house and be 
gone. Upon this he sat upright ; when one of the roguev 
cried, ** Pistol him for the book be wrote ;" which disco- 
vered their design ; for it was just after the publishing of 
the book last mentioned. Whilst be sat upright in his bed, 
one of them cut him with a sword over the ^-e-brow, and 
the rest presented their pistols at him ; hot, upon Mrs. 
Johnson's passionate intreaties, they went off without doing 
. him farther mischief, or rifling the house. A surgeon was 
immediately sent for, who found two wounds in his' head, 
and his body much bruised. With due care, however, he 
recovered ; and though his health was much impaired and 
broken by this and other troubles, yet he handled his pen 
with the same unbroken spirit as before. He died in May 

1703. ' 

TillotSQM had mnt him SO/, which, utmost coBtempt BircVt Life of Tt|« 
Ihoiifb bis necewitiei oblige him tQ Ints^Oy jp. S01« 
fSOV^ 7^ ^^^ it witti M «tr of Ki« 

JOHN S O N. 4f 

In 1710 all his treatises vrere colleetedy and ptrt^lislied 
ia oae folio volume ; to which were prefixed some memo* 
rials of his life. The second edition came ottt in 1713^ 

JOHNSON (Samuel), one of the- most eminetit and 
highly-distinguished writers of the eighteenth century, ^»m 
born on the 18th erf September! 1709, at Lichfield in Staf« 
fordsbire, where his father, Michael Johnson, a native of 
Derbyshire, of obscure extraction, was at that time a 
bookseller and stationer. His motberi Barah Ford, wis a; 
native of Warwickshire, and sister to Dr. Ford, physician; 
who was father to Cornelius Ford, a clergyman of loose 
character, whom Hogarth has satirized in the print of 
Modern Midnight Conversation. . Our author was the 
eldest of two sons. Nathaniel, the youngest, died in 
1737 in his twenty^fifth yeaf. The father was a man of 
robust body and active mind, yet occasionally depressed 
by melancholy, which Samuel inherited, and, with the aid 
of a stronger mind, was not always able to shake of£ He 
was also a steady high^cburchman, and an adherent of the 
house of StuM*t, a prejudice which his son outlived in the 
nation at large, without entirely conquering in himself. Mrs* 
Johnson was a woman of good natural understanding, un* 
improved by education ; and our author ackno%#ledged with 
gratitude, that she endeavoured to instil, sentiments of 
piety as soon as his mind was capable of any instruction. 
There is little else in bis family history worthy of notice, 
nor had he much pleasure in tracing his pedigree. He 
venerated others, however^ who could produce a recorded 
ancestry, and used to say, that in him this was disinterested, 
&r he could scarcely tell who was his grandfather. Thai 
he. was remarkable in bis early years has been supposed, 
t^ut many proofs have not been advanced by his biographers. 
He had, indeed, a retentive memory, and soon discovered 
* symptoms of an impetuous temper; but these circum* 
stances are not enough to distinguish him from hundreds 
of children who never attuu eminence. In his infancy he 
was afflicted with the scrophula, which injured his sig^t^ 
^md he was carried to London to receive the iroyal touch 
Item the hand of queen Anne, the last of our soveteigns 
#lie eoGoursged that popular superstition. 

1 Biog. B^iU-^-Q«S. DAGt.-^Liife pwfixcd to hU Work?.— Bivck't Life oT til« 
lotsQB.— Knisht*! Lift of Col«t.*^K«ttlcweU*s Life, p. 331. ^Comber's Life sC 


: He'Was first taught to read English by a womati vvto 
kept a school for young children at Lichfield ; and after* 
wards by ooe Brown. Latin be learned at Lichfield schoot, 
under Mr. Hunter, a man of severe discipline, bnt ati 
attentive teacher. Johnson owned that be needed correc- 
tion, and that his master did not spare him ; but this, in« 
stead of being the cause of unpleasant recollections in his 
advanced life, served only to convince him that severity in 
schooUeducation i^ necessary ; and in all his conversations 
on the subject, he persisted in pleading for a liberal use of 
the rod. At this school his superiority was soon ackaow- 
ledged by his companions, who could not refuse submis- 
sion, to the ascendancy which he acquired. His proficiency, 
however, as in every part of his life, exceeded his appa* 
rent diligence. He could learn more than others in the 
same allotted time : and he was learning when he seemed 
to be idle. He betrayed an early aversion to stated tasks, 
but, if roused, he could recover the time he appeared to' 
have lost with great facility. Yet he seems afterwards to 
have been conscious that much depends on regularity of 
study, and we find him often prescribing to himself stated 
portioi^ of reading, and recommending the same to others. 
No man perhaps was ever more sensible of his failings, or 
avowed theto with more candour ; nor, indeed, would many 
of them bavebeen known, if he had not exhibited them 
as warnings. His memory was uncommonly tenacious, and 
to his last days he prided himself on it, considering a 
defect of memory as the prelude of .total decay. Perhaps 
he carried this doctrine rather too far when be asserted^ 
that the occasional failure of memory in a man of seventy' 
must imply something radically wrong; but it may be iti 
general allowed, that the memory is a pretty accurate 
standard of mental strength. Although his weak sight 
prevented him from joining in the amusements of bis 
schoolfellows^ for which he was otherwise well qualified by 
personal courage and an ambition to excel, he found aa 
equivalent pleasure in sauntering in the fields, or reading 
such books as came in bis way, particularly old romances. 
For these he retained a fondness throughout life ; but was 
wi&e and candid enough to attribute to them, in some de- 
gree, that unsettled turn of mind which prevented his fixing 
in any profession. ' 

About the age o^ fifteen he paid a long visit to his uncle' 
Cornelius Ford; but on bis return, his master^ Hunter^, 

J OH N S O N, , 4» 

tcFused to receive him again on the foundation of Lichfield 
school. What his reasons were is not known. . He was 
now removed to the school of Stourbridge in Worcester-^ 
shire^ where he remained about a year, with very little 
acquisition of knowledge ; but here, as well as at Lichfield^ 
he gave several proofs of his inclination, to poetry, and 
afterwards published some of these juvenile productions 
in the Gentleman's Magazine. From Stourbridge fie re* 
turned home, where he remained about two years without 
any regular application. His time, however, was not 
entirely wasted, as he employed it in reading many of the 
ancient writers, and stored his mind with so much yarious 
information, that when he went to Oxford^ Dr. Adams said 
he *' was the best qualified for the university that he had 
ever known come there.'* 

By what means his father was enabled to defray the 
expence of an university education has not been very 
accurately told. It is generally reported that he went to 
assist the studies of a young gentleman of the name of 
Corbet* His friend. Dr. Taylor, assured Mr. Boswell 
that he never could have gone to college, had not a gen*- 
tleman of Shropshire, one of his schoolfellows, sponta- 
neously undertaken to support him at Oxford, in the cha« 
racter of his companion, though, in fact, he never re- 
ceived any assistance whatever from that gentleman. He 
was, however, entered a commoner of Pembroke college 
on the 31st October, 1728. His tutor was Mr. Jordan, ^ 
fellow of Pembroke, a man whom Johnson mentioned with 
respect manv years after, but to. whose instructions he did 
not pay much regard, except that he formally attended his 
lectuir^s, as well as those in the college hall. It was at 
Jordan^s request that he translated Pope^s Messiah into 
Latin verse, as a Christmas exercise. Pope is said to have 
expressed bis high approbation of it ; but critics in that 
language, among whom Pope could never be ranked, have 
not considered Jobnson^s Latin poems as the happiest of his 
compositions. When Jordan left college to accept of a 
living, Johnson became the scholar of Dr. Adams, who 
was afterwards the head of Pembroke, and with whom 
Jbhnsoin maintained a strict friendship to the last hour 
of bis lifcb 

During the vacation in the following year, he suffered se-^ 
verely by an attack of his constitutional melancholy, accoio- 
panied oy alternate irritation^ fretfulne^s, and languor. It 

Vol. XIX. E 


appears, howeter, that he resisted his disorder by every 
effort of a great mind, and proved that it did not arise from 

' want qf mental resources, or weakness of understanding* 
On his return to the university, he probably continued his 
desultory noanner of reading, and occasionally formed reso- 
lutions of regular study, in which he seldom persisted. 
Among his companions he was looked up to as a you tig man 
of wit and spirit, singular and unequal in temper, impa* 
tient of college rules, and not over-respectful to his 
seniors. Such at least seems to be the result of Mr. Bos- 
well's inquiries, but little is known with certainty, except 
what is painful to relate, that he either put on an air of 
gaiety to conceal his anxious cafes, or secluded himself 
from company that that poverty might not be known, 
which at length compelled him to leave college without a 

He now (173 1) returned to Lichfield, with very gloomy 
prospects. His father died a few months after his return, 
and the little he left behind him was barelv sufficient fof 
thp temporary support of his widow. In the following 
year he accepted the place of usher of the school of 

' Market Bos worth in Leicestershire, an employment which 
the pride of Sir Wolstan Dixie, the patron, soon rendered 
irksome, and he threw it up in a disgust which recurred 
whenever he recollected this part of his history. For six 
months after he resided at Birmingham as the guest of 
Mr. Hector, an eminent surgeon, and is supposed during 
that time to have furnished some periodical essays for a 
newspaper printed by Warren, a bookseller in Birming- 
ham. 'Here, too, he abridged and translated Fathjer Lobo^s 
Voyage to Abyssinia, which was published in J735 by 
Bettesworth and Hitch in Paternoster-row, London. For 
this, his first literary performance, he received the small 
sum of five guineas. In the translation there is little that 
marks the hand of Johnson; but in the preface and de^di- 
cation are a few passages in the same energetic and manly 
style which he may be said to have invented, and to have 
taught to his countrymen. 

In 1734 he returned to Lichfield, and issued proposals 
for an edition of the Latin poems of Politian, with the 
history of Latin poetry, from the aera of Petrarch to the 
time of Politian, and also the life of Politian ; the book to 
be printed in thirty octavo sheets, price five shillings. 
Thow wha have not attended to the literary history of this 


country will be surprized that such a work could not be 
undertaken without the precaution of a subscription ; and 
ihey will regret that in this case the subscription was so 
inadequate to the expence of printing, as to deter our au^ 
thor from executing what probably would have made bica 
known and patronized by the learned world. 

Disappointed in this scheme, he offered his services to 
Mr. Cave, the proprietor and editor of the Gentleman's 
Magazine, who had given some proofs of a liberal spirit of 
enterprize, in calling forth the talents of unknown and in^ 
genious writers. On this occasion he suggested some im^ 
provements in the management of the Magazine, and spe^^ 
cified the articles which lie was ready to supply. Cave 
answered his letter, but it does not appear that any agree-^ 
ment was formed at this time. He soon, however, en- 
tered into a connection of a more tender kind, which ended 
in xnarriage. His wife, who was about twenty years older 
than himself, was the widow of Mr. Porter, a mercer, of 
Birmingham, a lady whose character has been variously re- 
presented, but seldom to her discredit. She was, however, 
the object of his first passion, and although they did not 
pass the whole time of their union in uninterrupted bar-* 
mony, be lamented her death with unfeigned sorrow, and 
retained an enthusiastic veneration for her memory. 

She had a fortune of eight hundred pounds, and with 
part of this, he hired a large house at Edial near Lichfield, 
which he fitted up as an academy where young gentlemen 
were to be boarded and taught the Latin and Greek lan- 
guages. Gilbert Walmsley, a man of learning and worth, 
whom he has celebrated by a character drawn with un- 
paralleled elegance, endeavoured to promote this plan, but 
it proved abortive. Three pupils only appeared, one of 
whom was David Garrick. With these he made a shift to 
keep the school open for about a year and a half, and was 
then obliged to discontinue it, perhaps not much against 
his inclination. No man knew better than Johnson what 
ought to be taught, but the business of education was con- 
fessedly repugnant to his habits and his temper. During 
this short residence at Edial, he wrote a considerable part 
of kis " Irene," which Mr. Walmsley advised him to pre- 
pare for the stage, and it was probably by this gentlemao^s 
advice that he determined to try his fortune in London. 
His papil Garrick had formed the same resolution ; and ia 
Marc^ 1737, they arrived in London together. Garrick, 

E 2 


after some farther prepafottory education, was designed for 
the stu4y of the law, but in three or four years went on the 
stage, and obtained the highest honours that dramatic fame 
could confer, with a fortune splendid beyond all prece- 
dent. The difference in the lot of these two yoqng men 
might lead to many reflections on the taste of the age, and 
the value of its patronage; but they are too obvious to be 
obtruded on any reader of feeling or judgment, and to 
others they would be unintelligible. 

In what manner Johnson was employed for some time 
after his arrival in London, is not known. He brought a 
small sum of money with him, and be husbanded it with 
frugality, wliile he mixed in such society as was accessible 
^o a friendless and uncourtly scholar, and amused himself 
in contemplating the manners of the metropolis. It ap* 
pears that at one time he took lodgings at Greenwich, 
and proceeded by fits to complete his tragedy. He re- 
newed his application also to Cave, sending him a speci- 
men of a translation of the ** History of the Council of 
Trent," and desiring to know if Cave would join in th6 
publication of it. Cave appears to have consented, for 
twelve sheets were printed, for which pur author received 
forty-nine pounds ; but another translation being announced 
about the same period (1738) by a rival whose name was 
also Samuel Johnson, librarian of St. Martin's in thi6 
Fields, our author desisted, and this other design Wds also 
dropped. . ^ ' 

, In the course of the summer he went to Lichfield, 
where he had left Mrs. Johnson, and there, during a resi- 
dence of three months, finished his tragedy for the stage. 
On his return to London with Mrs. Johnson, lie endea-*- 
voured to prevail on Fleetwood, the patentee of Drury- 
lane theatre, to accept '^ Irene," but in this was unsuccess- 
ful, and having no interest with any other manager, he 
laid aside his play in pursuit of literary employment. He 
had now become jpersonally known to Cave, and began to 
contribute to the Magazine original poetry, Liatin and 
English, translations, biographical sketches, and other mis- 
cellaneous articles, particularly the debates in parliament, 
under the name of the Senate of Lilliput. At that time 
the debates' were not allowcid to be published, as now, the 
morning after the day of meeting, and the only safe mode 
of conveying the substance of ^em to the public was by 
adopting a historical form at more distant periods. At first 




Johnson merely revised the mapuscript as written hj 
Guthrie^, who then supplied this department of the Maga* 
zine ; but when he had attained a higher rank among au- 
thors, the whole devolved on his coadjutor* His only ma- 
terials were a few notes supplied by persons who attended 
the houses of parliament, from which, and sometimes from 
information even more scanty, he compiled a series of 
speeches, of which the sentiments as well as the style were 
often his own. In his latter days he disapproved of this 
practice, and desisted from writing the speeches as soon as 
he found they were thought genuine. 

The value of his contributions to this Magazine must 
have been soon acknowledged. It was then ih its infancy, 
and there is a visible improvement from the time he began' 
to write for it. Cave had a contriving head, but with too 
'much of literary quackery. Johnson, by recomme/iding 
original or selected pieces calculated to improve the taste 
and judgment of the public, raised the dignity of the Ma- 
gazine above its contemporary^ ; and to him we certainly 
owe, in a great measure, the various information and lite- 
rary history for which that miscellany has ever been distin- 
guished, and in which it has never been interrupted by « 
successful rival. By some manuscript memorandums con- 
cerning Dr. Johnson, written by the late Dr. Farmer, and 
^obligingly ffiven to the writer of this life by Mr. Nichols, 
it appears mat he was considered as the conductor or edi** 
tor of the Magazine for some time, and received an hun- 
dred pounds per annum from Cave. 

In 1738 he made his name at once known and highly 
respected among the eminent men of his time, by the pub^ 
lication of ^* London,'* a po^n in imitation of the third 
satire of Juvenal. The history of this publication is not 
uninteresting. Young authors did not then present them- 
selves to the public without ipuch cautious preparation. 
.Johnson conveyed his poem to Cave as the production of 
another, of one who was *' under very disadviantageous 
ciccumstances of fortune ;" and as some small encourage- 
ment to the printer, he not only offered to correct the 
press, but even to alter any stroke of satire which he might 
dislike. Cave, whose heart appears to more advantage in 
^his than in some other of his transactions with authors^ 

* Gatfarie composed the parliMnentary spe^cbos from July 1736, and John» 
succeeded him NoTember 1740, and coatinued them to February 1749-3. 


tent a present ta^ Johnson for the use of his fM)or frtend, 
and afterwards, it appears, recommended Dodsley as a* 
purchaser. Dodsley had just b^gun business, and bad spa* 
culated but on a few publications of no great consequence. 
He had, boweyer, judgment enough to discern the 'merit 
of the poem now submitted to him, and bargained for the 
w4iole property. The sum Johnson received was ten gui- 
neas^ and such were his circum^tauces, or such the state of 
literary property at that time, that he was fully content, 
aud was ever readj* to acknowledge Dodsiey's useful pa* 
tronage. The poem was accordingly published in May 
173^, and on the same morning with Pope's satire of 
^' Seventeen hundred and thirty-height." Johnson's was so 
eagerly bought up, that a second edition becama necessary 
in less than a week. Pope behaved on this occasion with 
great liberality. He bestowed high praise on the *^ Lon<- 
don," aod intimated that the author, whose name bad not 
yet appeared, could not be long concealed.— In this poem 
may be observed some of those palitioal prejudices for 
which Johnson frequently contended afterwards. He 
thought {>roper to join in the popular c^nrour against tke 
ftdiHinistratfton of sir Robert Walpole ; but lived to YeBeot 
with more compktceDcy on the conduct of that minister, 
tvhen compa^red with some of his successors. 
. His '^London" procured him fame, and Cave was not 
sorry to have engaged the services of a nan whose talents 
had now the stamp of public approbation'. Whether iie 
had offers of patronage, or was tbaught a formidable enem^ 
to the njiinister,' is not certain ; but, having leisure to eal«- 
culate bow Utile his lalMMsrs were Ukely to produce, hlft 
soon began to wish iW some establishvaeot of a more pei?'* 
manent kind. With this Ttew an offer was iaad« to bim &f 
the masteiship of the school of Appleby in Leicestetsfalndv 
the 8ala4*y of which was about sixty pounds, but Che laws 
of the sckuK)l requived that the candidate should be a master 
ctf arts. The university of Oxford, when applied to, te^ 
fused to grant this farour. Earl Gower was then soli^it^d^, 
in behalf of Johnson, by Pope^ who knew htm only as the 
author of ^ London.^' His lordship accordingly wrote to 
8wift, soHciitiK^ a diploma from the university of Dubhtih, 
but, for what reason we are not told, this application, tdo-, 
was unsuccessful, Mr. Murphy says, <* There is reason to 
think, that Swift declined to meddle in the business ; ami 
to Xh^t circumstance Johnson's known dislike of Swift has 


been often imputed." That Swift declined to meddle in 
the business is not improbable, for it appears by his letters 
of this date (August 1738) that he was incapable of attend- 
ing to any business; but Johnson's Life of Swift proves 
that his dislike had a more honourable foundation. 

About this time Johnson formed a design of studying the 
civil law, in order to practise in the Commons^ yet this 
also was rendered impossible for want of a degree, and be 
was obliged to resume bis labours in the Gentleman's ]VIa« 
gazine* The various articles which came from his pen ar^ 
enumerated in chronological series by Mr. Boswell. It 
will be sufficient for our purpose to notice only his more 
important productions, or such as were of sufficient conse* 
quence published separately. In 1739, he wrote 
'' A Complete Vindication of the Licensers of the Stage^ 
from the malicious and scandalous aspersions of Mr. Brooke, 
author of Gustavus Vasa ;" and a political tract entitled 
'^ Maranor Norfolciense, . or an Essay on an ancient pro** 
pbetical inscription, in monkish rhyme, lately discovered 
near Lynne in Norfolk, by Probus Britannicus,'* These 
pieces> it is almost needless to add, were ironical, a mode 
pf writing in which our author was Dot eminently success** 
fuL Some notice has already been taken of ^* Gustavus 
Vasa'' in the Life of Brooke^ The *^ Marmor Norfolciense'* 
was a severe attack on the Walpole administration, and on 
the reigning family; but whether it was not well under- 
aloodi or when undeirstood, considered as feeble, it cer^^' 
taiolj wiis not much attended to by the friends of govern^* 
VMut, tMNT procured to the author the reputation of a dan* 
gerousi opponeot. Sir Johti Hawkins indeed says that a 
pfosecution was ordered, but of this no traces can be found 
in uny of the public offices. One of bis political enemies 
reprioted it in 1775, to shew what a change had been 
effected in bis principles by a pension ; but the publisher 
does not seem to have known what a very small change was 
leally efieded, and bow little was necessary to render 
Johnson a loyal subject to his munificent sovereign, and a 
deteraiiiied enemy of the popular politics of that time. 

His next pul^lication of any iit>ce was his ^^ Life of Sa- 
vage,'* which he afterwards prefixed to that poet's works 
when admitted into his collection. With Savage he had 
been for some time intimately acquainted, but how long i» 
iftOt known. They met at Cave's house. Johnson admired 
his abilities^ ud while he sympatluzed with the yery sio-^ 


gular train of misfortunes which placed him among the in- 
digent, was not less touched by bis pride of spirit, and 
the lofty demeanour with which be treated those who neg- 
lected him. ' In all Savage's virtues, there was much in 
common with Johnson, but his narrative shows with what 
nicety he could separate bis virtues from his vices, and 
blame even firmness and independence when they degene* 
rated into obstinacy and misanthropy. He has concealed 
none of Savage's failings; and wbat appears of the excul- 
patory kind is merely an endeavour to present a just view 
pf that unfortunate combination of circumstances, by which 
Savage was driven from the paths of decent and moral life ; 
and to incite every reflecting person to put the iropcNrtant 
question ^^ who made me to differ ?*' This Life, of which 
two editions were very speedily sold, affords an extraor- 
dinary proof of the facility with which Johnson composed^ 
He wrote forty-eight pages of the printed copy in the 
course of a day or night, for it is not very clear which. 
His biographer, who records this, enters at the ^ame time, 
into a long discussion intended to prove that Savage was 
not the son of the countess of Macclesfield ; but had this 
been possible, it would surely have been accomplished 
when the proof might have been rendsred unanswerable* 

In 174i be published ^^ Miscellaneous Observations on 
the Tiragedy of Macbeth, with remarks on sir Thomas Han- . 
mer's edition of Sbakspeare,'* to which he affixed propo* 
sals for a new edition of that poet ; and it is probable that 
he was now devoting his whole time to this undertakings 
as we find a suspension of his periodical contributions 
during the years 1745 and 1746. It is perhaps too rash to 
conclude that he declined writing in the Magazine, because 
he would not join in the support otgovernment during the 
rebellion in Scotland ; but there are abundant proofs in Mr. 
Boswell's Life, that his sentiments were favourable to that - 
attempt. As to his plan of an edition of Shakspeare, :he 
had many difl[iculties to encounter. Little notice was taken 
of his proposals, and Warburton was known to be engaged, 
in a similar undertaking. Warburton, however, hsid the 
liberality to praise his ** Observations on Macbeth," as the 
production of a man of parts and genius; and Johnson 
n^ver forgot the favour. Warburton, he said, praised him 
when praise was of value. 

la 1747 he resumed his labqurs in the Gentleman^a^. 
|Ia§[a^ine, fmd although man^ entire pieces cftn^Qt b§ 

; I 


ascertained to bare come from hit pen, be was frequently^ 
if not constantly, employed to superintend tbe materials of 
tbe Magazine, land neveral introductory passages maybe 
pointed out which bear evident marks of bis composition. 
In this year his old pupil and friend, Garriok, became 
manager of Drury-lane theatre, and obtained from Johnson 
a prologue, which is generally esteemed one of tbe finest 
productions of that kind in our language. In this year also 
be issued his plan for a ^' Dictionary of tbe English lan- 
guage." ^ 

The design of this great work was at first suggested by 
Dodsley ; and Johnson, having consented to undertake it, 
entered into an agreement with the booksellers for the sum 
of fifteen hundred guineas, which he was to receive in 
small payments proportioned to the quantity of manuscript 
sent to the prfess. - The plan was addressed to the cete«' 
brated earl of Chesterfield, who bad discovered au inclhiaV 
tion to be the patron of the author ; and Johnson, Havings 
matde suitable preparations, hired a house in Gough-square,' 
engaged amanuenses, and began a task which he carried 
on by fits, as inclination and health permitted, for nearly 
^igfat years. His amanuenses were six in number, and 
employed upon what may be termed the mechanical part 
of die work, but their expences and bis own weresoc6n-^ 
siderable, that before the work was concluded be had re*' 
ceived tbe whdle of the money stipulated for in his agree- 
ment with the proprietors. In what time it might have 
been completed, bad he, to use his own phrase, ^set dog- 
gedly about it," it is useless to conjecture, and it would 
perhaps have been hurtful to try. Whoever ba9 been em« 
ptoyed on any great literary work knows, not only the 
pleasure, but the necessity of occasional relaxation ; and 
* JohnsOn^s mind, stored with various knowledge, and a rich 
fund of sentiment, afforded him many opportunities of this 
kind, in addition to the loVe of society, which was bis pre- 
dominant passion. We find accordingly that during tbe 
years in which his Dictionary was on hand, he accepted 
some inferior employment from the booksellers, and pro- 
duced some of the most valuable of his original works. 
• In 1749 he published his second imitation of Juvenal, 
under the title of the " Vanity of Human Wishes," for 
which, with all the fame he had now acquired, he received 
only fifteen guineas. In his " London," we have tbe 

manners of common Uf^; in the << Vanity of Human 

68 JO H N SON, 

Wishes/^ he has giv:eD us more of his. own mind, moreof 
that train of sentiment, excited sometimes by poverty^ ^nc^ 
sometimes by disappointment, which always inclined him 
to view the gloomy side of human affairs. In the samQ 
year Garrick offered to produce his " Irene" on the Drury-» 
lane theatre, but presumed at the same time to suggest 
such alterations as his superior knowledge of stage effect 
Plight be supposed to justify. Johnson did iu)C much like 
that his labours should be revised and amended at the 
pleai^ure of an actor, and with some difficulty was persuaded 
to yield to Garrick's advice. , The play, however, was at 
length performed, but without much success; although 
the manager contrived to have it played long enough to 
entitle the author to the profits of his three nights, and 
Dodsley bought the copyright for one hundred pounds. It 
bas ever been admired in the closet, for the propriety of 
Us sentiments and the elegance of its language. 

lu 1750 he commenced a work which raised his fame 
higher than it had ever yet reached, and will probably 
convey his name to the latest posterity. He appears ta 
have enterc^d on ^^ The Rambler" without any communica*^ 
tion with his friends, or desire of assistance. Whether b<i 
proposed the scheme himself, is uncertain, but he wa» 
fortunate in forming a connexion with Mn John Payne, a 
bookseller in Paternoster-row, and afterwards chief aa-» 
oountant in the Bank of England, a man with whom be 
lived many years in habits of friendship, and who on tbci 
present occasion treated him with great liberality. He 
engaged to pay him two guineas for each paper, or foue 
guineas per week, which at that time mjust have been to 
Jobnsoa a very considerable sum ; and he admitted him to , 
^ share of the future profits of the work, when it should 
be collected into volumes ; this share Johnson afterwards 
sold. As a full history of this paper has been given in 
another work *, it may suffice to add, that it began I'ues^" 
day, March 20, 1749-50, and closed on Saturday, March 
]4, 1752. So conscious was Johnson that his fame would 
in a great measure rest on this production, that he cor* 
rected the first two editions with the most scrupulous care^ 
pf which specimeita are given in the volume referred to in 
the note. 

In 1751 he was carrying on bis '^ Dictionary*' and ^/Tbo 

, * Britisb Essayists, vol. XIX. Preface to the Rambler. 


Bambler;^' and besides some occasional contributions to 
the Magazine, assisted in the detection of Lauder, who bad 
imposed on him and on tlie world by advancing* forged 
evidence that Milton was a grogs plagiary. Dr. Douglas^ 
the late bbbop of Salisbury, was the first who refuted this 
QBprincipled impostor ; and Johnson, whom Lauder's inge- 
nuity had induced to write a preface and postscript to his 
work, DOW dictated a letter addressed to Dr. Douglas, ac« 
knowledgtng his fraud in terms of contrition, which Lau- 
der subscribed. The candour of Johnson on this occasion 
vras as readily acknowledged at that time^ as it has sinca 
been misrepresented by the bigotted adherents to Milton's 
politics. Lauder, however, returned to his ^< dirty work,'* 
and published in 1754, a pamphlet entitled '^The Grand 
Impostor detected, or Milton convicted of forgery against 
Charles L" which was reviewed, with censure, in the 
Gentleman's Magazine of that year, and probably by 

^^ The Rambler" was concluded on March 14, 1752 ; and 
three days ^fter, the author's wife died, a loss which he 
long deplored, ' and never, at the latest period of his life, 
recollected without emotion. Many instances of his affec* 
tion for her occur in the collection of ^^ Prayers and Me* 
ditations^ published after his death, which, however they 
may expose him to ridicule, combine to prove that his at- 
tachment to herwas uniforaily sincere. She was buried at 
Bromley, and Johnson placed a Latin inscription on her 
tomb. She left a daughter by her former husband, and by 
lier means our author became acquainted with Mrs. Anne 
Wiltiams, tbe daughter of Zacbary Williams, a physician 
who died aboHt this time^ . Mrs. Williams was a woman of 
coAsiderable talents, and her conversation was interesting. 
tShe was left in poverty by her fath^ and had the addi- 
tional affliction of being totally blind. To relieve bis me* 
lancfaoly reflections, Johnson took her home to his bouse 
in Gough-square, procured ber a benefit play from Gar* 
liclc, and assisted her in publishing a volume of pocuns, by 
both of wjnicb schemes she raised about three hundred 
pounds. With this fund she became an inmate in Jobn<» 
son's house, where she passed tbe remainder of ber days, 
protected and cheered by every act of kindness and ten> 
demess which he could have showed to the nearest relation. 

When he had in some measure recovered from the shock 
pf Mrs. Johnson's death, he contributed several papers to 


the ^* Adventurer,'' which was carried on by Dr. Hawkes« 
worth and Dr. Warton. The profit of these papers he is 
said to have given to Dr. Bathurst, a physician of little 
practice, but a very ami#ible man, whom he highly re* 
spected. Mr. Boswell thinks he endeavoured to make them 
pass for Bathurst's, which is highly improbable *. In 1754 
we find him approaching to the completion of his ^^ Dtc« 
tionary." Lord Chesterfield, to whom he once looked up 
as to a liberal patron, had treated him with neglect, of 
which, after Johnson declined to pay court to such a man, 
he became sensible, and, as an effort at reconciliation, 
wrote two papers in the ** World," recommending the 
Dictionary, and soothing the author by some ingenious 
comptiments. Had there been no previous offence^ it m 
probable this end would have answered, and Johnson would 
iiave dedicated the work to him. He loved praise, and 
from lord Chesterfield, the Msecenas of the age, and tfale 
most elegant of noble writers, praise was at this time va-^ 
luabie. But Johnson departed from exacting the 
just, respect due to a man of letters, and was not to be 
appeased by the artifice of these protracted complime&ts; 
He could not even brook that his lordship should for a 
moment suppose him Veconciled by his flattery, but imme'* 
diately wrote that celebrated letter which has been so much 
admired as a model of dignified contempt. The allusion 
to the lo^s of his wife, and to his present situation, is ex« 
quisitely beautiful.— -^^ The notice which you have beea 
pleased to take of my labours, had it been early, bad been 
kind; but it has been delayed till I am indifferent, aad 
cannot enjoy it ; till I AM SOLITARY, and cannot impart 
It ; till I am knciwn, and do not want it.^' Lord Chester^ 
field is said to have concealed his feelings on this oooasion 
with his usual art, conscious, perhaps, that they. were 'OOt 
to be envied. 

In. 1755 the degree of M. A. was conferred upon him by 
the university of Oxford, after which (in May) his ^^ Dic^ 
tion^aryj^ was published in two large volumes, folio. - Of a 
work so well known it is unnecessary to say more in. this 
place, than that after the lapse of half a century, neitfaes 
^nvy has injured, nor industry riv|klled its use^lness or 
popularity. In the following year he abridged, his ^^ Dic« 

* See this matter ezplaiaed in the preface to the Adve^tarer. British £$s«yi8ts« 


tionary into an octavo size, and engaged to superintend a 
monthly publication entitled ^^ The Literary Magazine, or 
Universal Register." To this he contributed a great many 
' articles enumerated by Mr. Boswell, and several reviev^s 
of new books. The most celebrated of his reviews, and 
one of his most finished compositionsi both in point of 
style, argument, and wit, was that of Soame Jenyns^s '^ Free 
Inquiry into the nature and origin of Evil." This attracted 
so much notice that the bookseller was encouraged to pub- 
lish it separately, and two editions were rapidly ^old. The 
Itfagazine continued about two years, after which it was 
dropped for want of encouragement. He wrote also in 
1756 some essays in the ^^ Universal Visitor," another 
magazine, which lasted only a year. His friend Cave died 
in. 1 754, and, for whatever reason, Johnson's regular con- 
tributions appear no more in the Gentleman's Magazine. 
But he wrote a very elegant life of Cave, and was after- 
wards an occasional contributor. This, it would appear^ 
was one of his worst years as to pecuniary matters. * We 
find him, in the month of March, arrested for the sum of 
five pounds eighteen shillings! and relieved by Mr. Ri- 
chardson. His proposal for an edition of ^hakspeare was 
again revived, and subscription tickets issued out, but it 
did not go to press for many yeara after. 

In 175i$.tEe worthy John Newbery, bookseller,, who fre- 
quently employed Johnson in his literary projects, began 
a news-paper called the " Universal Chronicle, or Weekly 
Gazette," in conjunction with Mr. John Payne. To give 
it an air of novelty^ Johnson was engaged to write a short 
periodical paper, which he entitled ^*The Idlen" .Most of 
these papers were written in baste, in various places where 
be happened to be, on the eve of publication, and with, 
very little preparation. A few of them exhibit the train of 
thought which prevails in the ^' Rambler," but in general 
they have more vivacity, and exhibit a species pf grave 
humour in which Johnson excelled. When the ** Universal 
Chronicle" was discontinued, these papers were collected 
into two small volumes, which he corrected for the press, 
making a few -alterations, and omitting one whole paper, 
which has since been restored. No. 41 of the ^' Idler al- 
ludes to the death of his mother, which took place in 1759* 
He had ever loved her with anxious affection ^, and had 

* See his very Under letters on this referred to, tfs they are not to befSDuni 
tnbject in Boswell's ;.ife, vol. I. p. 315 before th* edition of 1807. 
et leqq. whicb are Uies particulerty 


contributed liberally to her support, often whert lie ktietr 
not where to recruit his finances. On this event be wrote 
his Rasselas, with a Tiew to raise a sum sufficient to defray 
the expences of her funeral, and pay some little debts she 
had left. His mind appears to have been powerfully ex- 
cited and enriched both with the subject and the motive, 
for he wrote the whole of, this elegant and philosophical 
fiction during the evenings of one week, and sent it to 
press in portions as it was written. He received one hun- 
dred pounds from Messrs. Strahan, Johnston, and Dodsley, 
for the copy, and twenty-five more when it came, as it 
soon did, to a second edition. Few works of the kind hav^ 
been more generally or more extensively diffiised by nteans 
of translation. Yet the author, perhaps from the pain he 
felt in recollecting the melancholy occasion which called 
forth bis pen, appears to have dismissed it with some dcf- 
gree of indifference, as soon as published ; for from that 
time to 1781, when he found it accidentally in a chaise 
while travelling with Mr. Boswell, he declared he had never 
looked into it. His translation of " Lobo" probably sug- 
gested his placing the scene in Abyssinia, but there is a 
little scarce volume, unnoticed by his biographers, from 
which it may be suspected be took some hints. It is en^ 
titled " The late Travels of S. Giacomo Boratti, an Italian 
gentleman, into the remotest countries of the Abysslns, or 
of Ethiopia Interior,'* London, 1670, 12mo. 

Among bis occasional productions about this time were 
his translation of a " Dissertation on the Greek Comedy," 
for Mrs. Lennox's English version of Brumoy, the general 
conclusion of the book, and an introduction to the " World 
Displayed," a collection of voyages and travels, projected 
by his friend Newbery. — When a new bridge was about to 
be built over the Thames at Blackfriars, he wrote some 
papers against the plan of the architect, Mr. Mylne. His 
principal motive appears to have been his friendship for 
Mr. Gwyn, who had given in a plan ;* and probably he only 
cloathed Gwyn's arguments in his own stately language. 
Such a contest was certainly not within his province, and 
he could derive little other advantage than the pleasure of 
Serving his friend. He appeared more in character when 
he assisted his contemporaries with prefaces and dedica- 
tions, which were very frequently solicited from him. Poor 
as he was at this time, he taugh^ how dedications might be 
written without »ervile submission or ilattery, and yet with 


all the courtesy, coiDpHment, and elegance which a liberal 
mind could expect. 

But an end was now approaching to bis pecuniary em- 
barrassments. In 1762, while he was proceeding with his 
edition of Shakspeare, he was surprised by the information 
that his present majesty had been pleased to grant him a 
pension of three hundred pounds a year, not, as has been 
invidiously asserted, in order to induce him to write for^ 
administration, but sis the reward of his literary merit. Had 
it been otherwise, he had surely the strongest inducement 
to have exerted his talents in favour of lord Bute, by whose 
recommendation the pension was granted, and who at this 
time wanted much abler support than the hired writers of 
government could supply. But it is well known that he 
wrote no political tract for nearly eight years afterwards. 
He now took a bouse in Johnson's court. Fleet-street, and 
allotted an apartment for Mrs. Williams. In 1765 he was 
introduced to the late Mr. Thrale and family, a circum- 
stance which contributed much to alleviate the solicitudes 
of life, and furnished him with the enjoyment of an elegant 
table and elegant society. Here an apartment was fitted 
up for him, which he occupied when he pleased, and he 
accompanied the family in their various summer excursions, 
which tended to exhilarate his mind and render the return 
of his constitutional melancholy less frequent. 

In the same year he received a diploma from Trinity 
college, Dublin, complimenting him with the title of doc- 
tor of laws ; and after many delays, his edition of Shak- 
speare was published in eight volumes octavo. The pre- 
face is universally acknowledged to be one of the most 
elegant and acute of all his composiitions. But as an illus- 
trator of the obscurities of Shakspeare, it must be allowed 
he has not done much, nor was this a study for which he 
was eminently qualified. He was never happy when obliged 
to borrow from others, and he had none of that\iseful in- 
dustry which indulge in research. Yet his Criticisms have 
rarely been surpassed, and it is no small praise that he was 
the precursor of Steevens and Malone. The success of the 
. Shakspeare was not great, although upon the whole it in- 
creased the respect with which the literary world viewed 
his taleuts. Kenrick made the principal attack on this 
work, which was answered by an Oxford student named 
Barclay. But neither the attack nor the answer attracted 
tnuch notice. 


' In 1766 be furnished the preface, and some of the piecei 
which compose a volume of poetical *^ Miscellanies** by 
Mrs. Anna Williams. This lady was still an inmate in his 
house, and was indeed absolute mistress. Although her 
temper was far from pleasant, and she had now sained an 
ascendancy over him which she often maintainedfin a fret- 
ful and peevish maimer, be forgot every thing in her dis^ 
tresses,^ and was indeed in all his charities, which were 
numerous, the most remote that can be conceived from the 
hope of gratitude or reward. His house was filled by de- 
pendants whose perverse tempers frequently drove him out 
of it, yet nothing of this kind could induce him to relieve 
himself at their expence. His noble expression was, *^ If 
I dismiss them, who will receive them ?'* Abroad, his 
4Kociety was now very extensive, and included almost every 
man of the age distinguished for learning, and many per- 
sons of considerable rank, who delighted in his company 
and conversation. 

In 1767, he had the honour to be admitted to a per- 
sonal interview with his majesty, in the library of the 
queen's palace. Of the conversation which passed, Mr. 
Boswell has given a very interesting and authentic ac> 
count, which, it may here be mentioned, he prized at so 
high a rate, as to print it separately in a quarto sheet, 
and enter it in that form at Stationers' -hall, a few days be- 
fore the publication of his *^ Life of Johnson/' ^ He at- 
tempted in the same manner to secure Johnson's letter to 
lord Chesterfield. — In 1767, on the institution of the royal 
academy of arts, Johnson was appointed professor in an- 
cient literature, and there probably was at that time some 
design of giving a course of lectures. ' But this, and the 
professorship of ancient history, are as yet mere sinecures. 

In 1770, his first political pamphlet made its appear- 
ance, in order to justify the conduct of the ministry and 
the House of Commons in expelling Mr. Wilkes, and af- 
terwards deckuring col. Luttrell to be duly elected repre- 
sentative for the county of Middlesex, notwithstanding 
Mr. Wilkes had the majority of votes. The vivacity and 
pointed sarcasm of this pamphlet formed its chief recom- 
mendation, and it continues to be read as an elerant po* 
litical declamation ; but it failed in its main object* It 
made no converts to the right of incapacitating Mr. Wilkes 
by the act of expulsion, and the ministry had not the cou* 
rage to try the question of absolute incapacitation. Wilkes 


Ihred'to see tbe dfensive resolutions expunged from ihe 
J^barnals of the House of Commons ; and what seemed yet 
more improbable, to be reconciled to Johnson, who, with 
iinabatea dislike of his moral character, could not help ad« 
miring his classical learning and social talents. His pam« 
phlet, which was entitled the ** False Alarm," was answered 
by two or three anonymous writers of no great note. 

In 1771, he appeared to more advantage as the author 
of " Thoughts on the late Transactions respecting Falk- 
land Islands," from materials partly furnished by tbe mi« 
nistry, but highly enriched by his vigorous style and pe- 
culiar train of thought. The object of this pamphlet was 
to represent the dispute, respecting a barren island, as an 
insufficient cause for war ; and in the course of his reason- 
ing, he has taken an opportunity to depict the miseries as 
well as the absurdity of unnecessary war, 'in a burst of ani« 
mated and appropriate language which will probably never 
be exceeded. His character of Junius in this pamphlet 
is scarcely inferior. The sale of die first edition was stopped 
for a while by lord North, and a few alterations made be- 
fore it appeared in a second. Jobnson^s opinion of these 
two pampblets was, that '^ there is a subtlety of disquisi- 
tion in the < False Alarm,' which is worth ail the fire olT the' 

About this time, an ineffectual attempt was made by his 
steady friend Mr. Strahan, his majesty's printer, to pro- 
cure him a seat in parliament. His biographers have 
amused their reladers by conjectures on the probable. figure 
he would make in that assembly, and he owned frequently 
that he should not have been sorry to tr}\ • Why the in- 
terference of his friends vvere ineffectual, the minister only 
could tell, but he was probably not ill advised. It is not 
improbable that Johnson would have proved an able assist- 
ant on some occasions, wher6 a nervous and manly speech 
was wanted tol isil^nce the inferiors in opposition, but it 
may bedbubted whether he wotild have given that uniform 
and open consent which is expected from a party man.. 
Whatever aid he might be induced to give by his pen on 
certain subjects, which accorded with his own sentiments, 
and of which he thought himself master, he by no means 
approved of many parts of the conduct of those ministers 
who c'arried on the American war'; arid he was ever dfe- 
*id^dly against the principle (if it may be so called), that 
a m*n should go along, with his party^ right or wrong; 
Vol. XIX. F 

60 ' J O H N S O N. 

^* This,** he once said, " is so remote from native TirtQe, 
from scholastic virtue, that a good man must have under* 
gone a great change before he can reconcile himself to 
such a doctrine. It is maintaining that you may lie to the 
public, for you do lie when you call that right which you 
think wrong, or the reverse." 

In 1773, he carried into execution a design which he 
had long meditated, of visiting the western isles of Scotland. 
He arrived at Edinburgh on the i8th qf August, and 
finished his journey on the 22d of November. During this 
time be passed some days at Edinburgh, and then went by 
St. Andrew's, Aberdeen, Inverness, and Fort Augustus, 
to the Hebrides, visiting the isles of Sky, Rasay, Col, Mull, 
Incbkenneth, and Icolmkill. He then travelled through 
Argyleshire by Inverary, and thence by Lochlomond and 
Dumbarton to Glasgow and Edinburgh. The popularity 
of his own account, which has perhaps beenT more gene- 
rally read than any book of travels in modern times, and 
the " Journar* of his pleasant companion Mr. Boswell, ren-- 
der any farther notice of this journey unnecessavy. The 
censure he met with is now remembered with indifference, 
. and his ** Tour'* continues to be read without any of the 
unpleasant emotions which it first excited in those who 
contended that he had not stated the truth, or were unwill- 
ing that the truth should be stated. 

. During bis absence, his humble friend and admirer, 
Thomas Davies, bookseller, ventured to publish two vo- 
lumes, entitled ** Miscellaneous aiid Fugitive Pieces," 
which be advertised in the newspapers, as the productions 
of the " Author of the Rambler.'* Johnson, was inclined 
to resent this liberty, until be recollected Davies's narrow 
cii'camstanceis, when he cordially forgave him, and con- 
tinued his kindness to him as usual. A third volume ap- 
peared soon after, but all its contents are not from Dr. John- 
spn^s pen. On the dissolution of parliament in 1774, he 
published a short political pamphlet entitled <' The Pa- 
triot,'*' the principal object of which appears to have been 
to repress the spirit of faction which at that time was too 
prevalent, especially in the metropolis. It was a hasty 
composition, called for, as he informed Mr. Boswell, on 
one day^ and written th^ next. The success, since his 
days, of those mock -patriots whom he ba^ so ably deli- 
neated^ is too decisive a proof that the reign of political 
delusion is not to be shortened by eloquence or argument^ 


Buring his tour in Scodanrd, he made fre^tlent in^iries 
respecting the authenticity of ^' Ossian's Poems/' and re^** 
ceived answers so unsatisfactory that both in his book oi 
travels and in conversation, he did not hesitate to treat the 
whole as an imposture. This excited the resentment of 
Macpbersouy the editor, to -such a degree that he wrote a 
threatening letter to Johnson, who answered it in a compo- 
sition, which in the expression of firm and unalterable 
contempt, is perhaps superior to that he wrote to lord 
. Chesterfield. In it he mixed somewhat of courtesy ; but 
Macpfaerson he despised both as a man and a writer, and 
treated him as a ruffian. 

The rupture between Great Britain and America once 
more roused our author's political energies, and produced 
his ^^ Taxation no Tyranny," in which be endeavoured to 
prove that distant colonies which had in their assemblies a 
legislature of their ^wn, were notwithstanding liable to be 
taxed in a British parliament, where they had no repre- 
sentatives, and he thought that this country was strong 
enough to enforce obedience. This pamphlet, which ap- 
peared in 1775, produced a controversy, which was carried 
on for some time with considerable spirit, although Jofanr 
son. took no share in it ; but the right of taxation was no 
longer a question for discussion ; the. Americans .were in 
arms, blood bad been spilt, and *^ successful rebellion be« 
came revolution." No censure wiis more generally ad- 
vanced at this time against our authori than that his opi- 
nions were regulated by his pension, and none could be 
more void of foundation. His opinion, whether just or 
not, of the Americans, was uniform throughout his life ; 
and he continued to maintain them, when in striqt prudence 
they might as well have been softened, to the measure of 
changed times. . - 

It is not improbable, however, that he felt the force of 
some of the replies made to his pamphlet^. seconded as 
they were by the popular voice, and by the. discomfiture 
of the measures of administration. It is certain that he 
complained, and perhaps about \his time, of being called 
upon to write political pamphlets^ and threatened to give 
up bis. pension. Whether this complaiAt was carried to 
the proper quarter, Mr. Boswell has not informed us ; but 
he wrote no more in defence .of the ministry, and he re- 
ceived no. kind of reward for what he had done* His 
pension, .neither he or his friends ever considered in 

F 2 

M sxxHuaaiL 

ilMtt Hgtity dltbongii it miglit make bim icqiiiesce itsore 
reddily in wlMit the minister required. He wias willing to 
do som^tMttg for grdktituiiB, bvt. nothing for hire. 

A fett* moiuh^ aftisr the puUication of lus last pan^Uet^ 
he risceived' bi6 cKpldaifi of LL. D. from the university erf Qx^ 
fbrd^ in cop^equence of a recoaunencbation from the chan- 
cellory lord North* It is remarkable^ however, that he 
l^ver assumed this title in wrkiiig notes or cards. In the 
aLutiimn of this year, be went on a tour to France with Mr. 
and Mrs. Tbrale. Of this tonr Mr. Boswdl has printed a^ 
few memorandums^ which were probably intended as the 
foundation of a more regQiar narrative, but this be does 
not appear to hav^ ever begun. As the tour lasted only 
about two months^ it would probably hare produced more 
sentiment than de^ription. 

In 177t> he was engaged by the London booksellers to 
write shVHt lives oi* prefaces to an ed^ion of the Eoglisfa 
Pdets; and this being one of the most important of his 
literary nndertaikings, som« aicct)unt of its origin is neces-* 
snry, especially as the precise share which bcjbngs to hion 
Has been frequently misrepresented* It is perhaps too 
late now to inquire into the propriety of the decision o€ 
the House of Lord« respecting literary property. , It had 
not, howewr, taken place many months before some of 
the predicted consequences appeared. Among other in«* 
stances, an edition of the "English Poets was pnbliahed at 
Edinburgh, in direct violation of that honourable compact 
by wtrich the booksellers of London had agreed to respect 
each others* property, notwithstanding their being de- 
prived of the nK>re effectual support of t^e law. This^ 
tfherefore, induced the latter to undertake an edition of the 
Poet^ in a more cdmmodions form, and with suitable ac^* 
curacy of text. A meeting was called of about forty df 
the most respectable booksellers of London, the proprie* 
tors, or the successors and descendants of the proprietors^ 
of copyrights in these works ; and it was agreed that an 
elegant and nniform edition of " The English Poets?' 
shouk) be printed, with a concise account of the life of 
each author, by Dr. Sanniel Johnson, and that Messrs^ 
Strahan, Cadell, and T. Davies, shoiild wait upon hi«« 
with their proposals. 

Johnson was delighted with the task, the utility of whieii 
had probably occurred to his mind long befoce, and be haft 
certainly more acquaintance than any maa then Uviog 

JOMN^ON. »» 

with tbe po^4»eal hlopd^j of . ins c«iifiliyi. ^md ftppe^ced 
to be best qualified to illMtrate it* b$L ^udiciout critioiMH* 
Wbetber we conaMer wbat he uDtlenook, or wbat be jperr 
formed) the sum of two huiidired ^ine«% wfaicb be <de« 
Rianded, will ap|i^r a very triml reooiPipe«Ac. His ofir 

' giifai inteBtton, and all indeed- tbat was eiqpected from 
faim^ WIS a very coneite biograpbical and cril^al atCGOunt 
of each poet ; but be bod oot proceecleid far htfore be be? 
gan to enlarge the iives to the fNrestfnt lextebft) aoid ai U»t 

» presented the world willi such a body of orittcAsni as was 
scarcely to be expected from one man, and sti^t less from 
oae now verging on bis seventieth year. 

Of this edition it is yet necessary to sayi that Dr. Jobor 
sen was oot in all respects to be considered |is libe odiitor. 
He had not the choice of the poets to be admiued, altboagh 
in addition to the list propaned by bis em^oyers, t>e rer 
eomttiended Blackmore, Walls, Fomfret;, and Yaldfnau 
Tfae seleotion was made by the booksellers, .vvfho appear 
to have been guided pafdy by the aoknowledged merit of 
die poet, and partly by Ins popnlarity^ a .quality which 
is somettines independent of tbe> forner. Our ,author, 
hom^vor, felt himself under no restraint in- acoepling the 
list offered, nor did he in any insiaao^ eoasider bimsetf 
bound to lean with partiaiily to aoy author finerdLy that tb4 
admission of his wovks anight be justified. This absurd 
species of prejudice wiiichrbascontaminaited so. many single 
Uvea and critical prefaces, was repugaaotto/his^ must 
ever be to the opinion of every map who considers truth as 
essential to biography, aiid tiiat the possession, of taleuts, 
however brilliant, ought •to be no jexcuse for the abuse of 
them. Every preliminary having been: settled in the month 
of April, 17 T7, the new. edition of the Poets was sent to 
press, and Johusdtl">was informed that his lives might be 
vnritten in ^tbe mean time, so as to be ready to accompany 
the publication. 

Not k)i)g after be undertook this work, .he was invited 
to contribute tbe aid of his eloquent pen in saving the for- 
feited life of Dr. >WilKam Dodd^ a clergyman who was con* 
▼icied of foogery. This unhappy man hf d long been a 
popular' preacher in. the metropolis ; and the public senti- 
ment was ahnost' universal ^in deprecating so shameful a 
sight as that of a elorgyman of the church of £ngland suf- 
fering %y- a public execution. Whether thene. was much 
in f>odd*s character to justify iba«i sentiment, or to demand 


Ibe tnterfermcd of the corporation of London, backed bjir 
the petitioni of tbontands of the most difttinguished and 
wealthy cttizent, may perhaps be doubted. Johnson, 
however, conld not resist what pot every otlier considera- 
tion out of the question, <' a call for mercy,'* and accord- 
ingly contributed every thing that the friends of Dodd 
could suggest in his favour. He wrote his <* Speech to 
the Recorder of London," delivered at the Old Bailey 
when sentence of death was about to be passed on him : 
^* The Convict's Address to his unhappy brethren/' a ser- 
mon ddivered by Dodd in the chapel of Newgate : Two 
Letters, one to the Lord Chancellor Bathurst, and one to 
Lord Chief Justice Mansfield : A petition from Dr* Dodd 
to the King ; another from Mrs. Dodd to the Queen ; Ob^ 
servations inserted in the newspapers, on occasion of Earl 
Percy's having presented to bis Majesty a petition for 
mercy to Dodd, signed by twenty thousand penkms; a pe- 
tition from the city of London ; and Dr. Dodd's kist solemn 
declaration, which he left with the sheriff at the place of 
execution. All these have been printed in Dr. Johnson's 
Works, with some additional correspondence which Mr* 
Boswell inserted in his Life. Every thing is written in a 
style of pathetic eloquence ; but, as the author could not 
be concealed, it was impossible to impress a stronger sense 
of the value of Dodd's talents than had already been enter- 
tained. The papers, however, contributed to heighten 
the clamour, which was at that time raised against the exe- 
cution of the sentence, and which was confounded with 
what was then thought more censurable, the coodui^t of 
those by whom the unhappy man might have been saved 
before the process of law had been begun* 

In 1779 the first four volumes of bis Lives of the Poets 
were publiithed, and the remainder in i781, which he wrote 
by his own confession, *^ dilatorily and hastily, uiiwilHng 
to work, and working with vigour and haste." He had, 
however, performed so mi^ch more thahwas expected,, 
that his employers presented him with an hundred pounds 
in addition to the stipulated sum. As he never was in<« 
sensible to the pleasure or value of fame, it is not impro- 
bable that he was yet more substantially gratified by the 
eagerness with which his Lives of the Poets were read and 
praised. He enjoyed likewise another satisfaction, which 
it appears he thought not unnecessary to the reputation of 
a great writen* - He was attacked on all aides for his coi^. 

JO H N S O NJ ft 

tempt for Milton's polkies, - and the sparing praise or dt«^ 
rect censure be had bestowed on the poetry of Prior, Ham* 
mond) CoUios, Gray, and a few. others. The errors, in«' 
deed, which on any other subject inigbt have passed f4r 
errors of judgment, were by the irascible tempers of his 
adversaries, magnified into high treason against the ma* 
jesty of poetic genius. During his life, these attacks were 
not few, nor very resfiectful, to a veteran whom common' 
consent had placed at the bead of the literature of hia 
country ; but the courage of his adversaries was observed 
to rise very considerably after his d^atb, and the name 
which public opinion had consecrated, was now reviled 
with the utmost malignity. Even some who during his life 
were glad to conceal their hostility, now took an oppor*^ 
tonity to retract the admiration in which they had joined 
with apparent cordiahty ; and to discover faults in a. body 
of criticism which, after all reasonable exceptions are ad<' 
mitted, was never equalled, and perhaps never will be 
equalled for justice, acuteoess,, and elegance. Where cao 
we hope to* find discussions thet can be compared with 
those introduced in the lives of Cowley, Milton, Dryden^ 
and Pope? His abhorrence, iiMleed, of Milton's political 
conduct, led him to details and observations which can 
never be acceptable to a certain class of politicians; but 
when he comes to analyse bis poetry, and to fix his repu* 
tation on its proper basia, it must surely be confessed that 
DO man, since the first appearance of Paradise Lost, has 
ever bestowed praise with a more munificent hand. He 
appears to have collected his whole energy to immortalize 
the genius of Milton ; nor has any advocate for Milton's 
democracy appeared, who has not been glad to surrender 
the guardianship of bis poetical fame, to Johnsou. 

Ill 1781, the public demand rendered it necessary to 
print an edition of the Lives in four 8vo.volumes, and in 
1783, another edition of the same nuo^ber, but considerably 
enlarged, altered, and corrected by the author. We can- 
not here suppress a circumstance communicated by our 
worthy friend Mr. Nichols, which may check the murmurs 
of the public, respecting improved editions. Although the 
corrections and alterations of the edition of 1783 were 
printed separately and offered gratis to the purchasers of 
the former^ scarcely a single copy was called for ! 
. With this work the public labours of Johnson ended ; 
and when we consider bis advanced time of life, and the 

7« J O H N S O-Ni 


ahnost «hab^ted vigour of his mind, it may be suvely 
abided, that' his sun set mth unrivalled splendour, l^t 
the infirmities of age were now undermining a constitution 
that had kept ^perpetual war with hereditary disease, and 
his most valued friends were dropping into the grave be- 
fore him. He lost Mr. Thrale and Mrs. Williams; his 
home became cheerless, and much visiting was no longer 
convenient. His health began to decline more visibly 
from the month of June 1783, when he had a paralytic 
stroke ; and although he recovered so far as to be able to 
take another journey to Lichfield and Oxford, towards the 
dose of the year, symptoms of a dropsy indicated the pro* 
bability of his dissolution at no distant period. Some re« 
lief, however, having been administered, he rejoined the 
society <of hi» friends, and with a mind still curious, intel- 
ligent, and active, renewed his attention to the concerns 
of literature, dictating information whenever it was wanted, 
and trying his faculties by Latin translations from the 
Greek poets. Nothing was so much the subject of alarm 
with him, as the decayofjnemory and judgment, of which, 
however, to the last he never betrayed the least symptom. 

In Midsummer 1784, he acquired sufficient strength to 
go for the last time into Derbyshire. During his absence, 
bis friends, who were anxious for the preservation of so 
valuable a life, endeavoured to procure some addition to 
his pension, that he might be enabled to try the efficacy 
of a tour to the southern part of the continent. Applica- 
tion was accordingly made to the lord chancellor,' who se- 
conded it in the proper quarter, but without success. He 
evinced, however, bis high respect for Johnson, by of- 
fering to advance the sum of five hundred pounds; and 
Johnson, when the circumstance was conamunicated, 
thanked his lordship in a letter elevated beyond the com- 
mon expressions of gratitude, by a dignity of sentiment 
congenial to the feelings of his noble and liberal corre- 
spondent. Dr. Brocklesby also made a similar offer, al- 
though of a less^ sum ; and such indeed was the estima- 
tion in which Johnson, was held, that nothing would have 
been wanting which money or affection could procure, 
either to protract his days, or to make them comfortable. 

But these offers were not accepted. The scheme of a 
continental tour, which he once thought n^pessftry, was 
never much encouraged by his physicians, aiid had it pro- 
mised greater effects, was now beyond hi? strength. - Th^ 


dropsy and asthma were making baity approaches, and 
although he longed for life, and was anxiously desirous that 
every means might be used to gain another day, he sooa 
became convinced that no hopes were Jeft. During this 
period, he was alternately resigned to die, and tenacious 
of life, tranquil in the views of eternity, and disturbed by 
gloomy appreliensions ; but at last his mind was soothed 
with the consolatory hopes of religion, and although the 
love pf life ocoasiopaliy recurred, he adjusted bis worldly 
concerns with composure and exactness, as one who was 
eoBscious that he was soon to give an ^ccount« On Mon- 
day the IStfa of December, he tried to obtain a temporary 
relief by puncturing his legs, as had been before per* 
formed by the surgeon, but no discharge followed tiie 
operation, and about seven o'dock in the evening, be 
breathed his last, so gently t^at some time elapsed before 
his death was perceived. 

On the 20tfa, his body was interred with great solemnity 
in Westminster*abbey, close to the grave of his friend 
Garrick^. Of the other honours paid to his memory, it 
may suffice to say that they were more in number and 
quality than were ever paid to any man of literature. It 
was his singular fate that the age, which he contributed to 
improve, repaid him by a veneration of which we have no 
example in the annals of literature ; and that when his 
failings as well as his virtues were exhibited without dis« 
guise and without partiality, be continued to be revered 
by the majority of the nation, and is now, after scrutiny 
and censure have done their worst, enrolled among the 
greatest names in the history of English genius. 

But to delineate the character of Johnson is a task which 
the present writer wishes to decline* Five large editions 
of Mr. Bosweirs Life have familiarized Johnson to the 
knowledge of the public so intimately, that it would be 
impossible to advance any thing with which every reader 
is not already acquainted. The suffrages of the nation 
have been taken, and the question is finally decided. On 
mature consideration, there appears no reason to depart 

. * Hia moBumeiit was rewtrrtd for scii)ptar9 was ^esigoed aod fina^ exe« 
St. Paul's church ; and the expences cuted by Bacon. The epitaph is the 
h'aying been defrayed by a liberal and composition of Dr. Parr, and is eon- 
voluntary contribution, it stands with cise, but strongly appropriated. Thi) 
Ibat of Howard, one of the first tributes monument was coippleted early in 
of national admiration and gratitude 1796, 
jMkM into .tbiit catb«dff I. Tb« 


front the generally received opinions as to the rank John*^ 
son holds among men of genius and virtue, a rank which 
those who yet capriciously dwell on his failingsy will find 
it difficult to 'disturb. His errors have been brought for* 
ward with no sparing hand both by his friends and bis 
enemies, yet when every fair deduction is made from 
the reputed excellence of his character as a man and a 
writer, enough in our opinion will remain to gratify the 
partiality of his admirers, and to perpetuttte the public 

It is unpleasant, however, to quit a subject, which, the 
more it is revolved, serves to gladden the mind with 
pleasing recollections. There are surely circumstances in 
the history of Johnson which compel admiration in defiance 
of prejudice or envy. That a man of obscure birth, of 
manners by no m^ans prepossessing, whose person was for- 
bidding, whose voice was rough, inharmonious, and ter- 
rifying, whose temper was frequently harsh and over- 
bearing ; that such a man should have forced his way into 
the society of a greater number of eminent characters than 
perhaps ever gathered round an individual ; that he should 
not only have gained but increased their respeot to a de- 
gree of enthusiasm, and preserved it unabated for so long 
a series of years ; that men of all ranks in life» and of the 
highest degrees of mental excellence, should have thought 
it a duty, and found it a pleasure, not only to tolerate his 
occasional roughness, but to study his hugiour, and sub- 
mit to his controul, to listen to him with the submission of 
a scholar, and consult him with the hopes of a client — ^AU 
this surely affords the strongest presumption that such a 
man was remarkable beyond the usual standard of human 
excellence. Nor is this inference inconsistent with the 
truth, for it appears that whatever merit may be attributed 
to his works, he was perhaps yet more to be envied in con- 
versation, where he exliibited an inexhaustible fertility of 
imagination, an elegance and acuteness of argument, and 
a ready wit, such as never appear to have been combined 
in one man. And it is not too much to say that whatever 
opinion was entertained by those who knew him only in 
his writings, it never could have risen to that pitch of ad- 
miration which has been excited by the labours of his in- > 
dustrtous biographer. 

His death formed a very remarkable sra in the literary ' 
world. For a considerable time the periodical journals^', act- 


VF^U as general convenatioD, were eagerly occupied on an 
event which was the subject of universal regret ; and every 
man hastened with such contributions as memory supplied^ 
to illustrate a character in which all took a lively interests 
Numerous aiiecdotes were published, some authentic and 
some imaginary, and the general wish to know more of 
Johnson was for some years insatiable. At length the pro* 
prielors of his printed, works met to consider of a complete 
and uniform edition, but as it was feared that, the curiosity 
which follows departed genius might soon abate, some 
doubt was entertained of the policy of a collection of pieces, 
the best of which were already in the hands of the public 
in various forms ; but this was fortunately overruled, apd 
these collected Works have very recently been printed for 
the fifth time, and will probably be long considered as a 
standard book in every library. Less fortunately, however^ 
sir John Hawkins, who was one of Johnson's executors, 
and professed to be in possession of materials for his Lif^ 
was engaged to write that Life, as well as to collect his 
Works. They accordingly appeared in 1787, in 11 vols* 
Bvd. Of the Life it is unnecessary to add any thing to 
the censure so generally passed* Sir John spoke his 
mind, perhaps honestly ; ]»ut his judgment must have 
been as defective as his memory, when he decided with 
so much prejudice and so . little taste or candour, on 
the merits of his author, and of other eminent persons^ 
whom, as a critic humorously said, ** he brought to be 
tried at the Middlesex quarter sessions.'* In collecting 
the Works, he inserted some which no man could suspect 
to be Johnson's, while he omitted other pieces that had 
been acknowledged. A more correct arrangement, how* 
ever, has been since adopted. 

Two years before this edition appeared, Mr. Bosweli 
published his Tour to the Hebrides, and exhibited such % 
sample of Dr. Johnson's conversation-talents as raised very 
high expectations from the Life which be then aunounced 
to be in a state of preparation. Mr. Boswell's acquaintance 
with Dr. Johnson commenced in 1763; and from that time 
be appears to have meditated what be at length executed, 
the most complete and striking portrait ever exhibited of 
any human being. His ^* Tour" having shown the manner 
in which he was to proceed, Johnson's friends willingly 
contributed every document they could collect from ' me- 
mory ox writiiigj and Mr* Bosw^U^ who meditated on^ 

t« J O H N SO N. 

Tdtttne only, was soon obliged to eiuetud his work to tvm 
1|ttlky qoanos. These vrere published m 1791, and foougtrt 
up with All avidity wtiicii tiieir wonderful variety <if enusr- 
tainment, viVaeity, anecdote, and sentiment, ^Mnpiy jtm- 
tifi«d. Five or ^x very large editions have sim^ appeared, 
and it seems to be one of those Tefy fortunate and Osci- 
llating books of which the public is net likely to tire. 

Mr. Boswetl, indeed, has proved, contrary to the com* 
VOfi opinion, and by means which will not soon be re* 
peated, that cbe life' of a mere scholar may be rendered 
more instractive, more entertaining, and more intereettngy 
than dian that of any other human being. And although 
the ^^ confidence of privb^te conversation^' has been tfaotrght 
to be Bdmetimes violated in this work, for which no apology 
ia here intended, yet the world seems agreed to forgive 
this failing in consideration of the pleasure it has afforded; 
that wonderful variety of subjects, of wit, sentiment,^ and 
anecdote, with which it abounds ; and above all, the va- 
luable instruction it presents on many of the most impor- 
tant duties of life. It must be allowed that it created some 
enemies to Dr. Johnson among thos^ who were not ene« 
mies before this disclosure of his sentiments. Vanity has 
been sometimes hurt, and vaK>ity has taken its usual re« 
irenge. It in generally agreed, however, that Mr. Boswell's 
account of his illustrious friend is impartial: he conceals 
no failing that revenge or animosity ha« since been able to 
discover ; all his foibles of manner and conversation are 
faithfully recorded, and recorded so frequently that it is 
easier to form a just estimate of Dr. Johnson than of any 
eminent character in the whole range of biography. 

One singular effect was produced by dm extraordinary 
book. When it was determined to discard sir John Haw- 
kinses Life of Johnson, application was made to'Mr» Mur- 
phy to furnish another, to be prefixed to the second edi- 
tion of the works published in 1793. This Mr. Murphy 
executed under the title (which he had u^ed in the case of 
Fielding), of " An Essay on the Life and Genius of Dr. 
Johnson ;'* but he had conceived a prejudice of jealousy of 
Mr. BosweU's fame, and notwithstanding the latter has 
strengthened his narrative by every possible pixKif, Mur- 
phy persisted in taking his facts from the very ifiaccurate 
Barrative of sir John Hawkins, and the more flippant anec-' 
dotes published by jVlrs. Piozzi. In his Essay, therefore, 
it is not wonderful that many eircumstaoces Mre^ grossly, 

J O H N SON- 71 

^Md considering that jDiVoofs were within bis reach, we may 
add, wilfully misrepresented.' 

JOHNSON (Thomas), an English botanist, of the 
serenteenth centni^y, was born at Selby, in Yorkshire, and 
bred an stpbthecary in London. He afterwards kept a shop 
on Snow-bitl, where, sayn Wood, by his uftweaTi;ed paiaii 
and good natural parts, he attained to be the best berbaiist 
of his age in England. He was first known to the publia 
by d,. small piece ufider the title of ^ Iter in agrum^ Can- 
ttanum," 1620; and << Ericetnm Hamstediaimai,'- 1632 ) 
which were the first Focal catalogues of plants published ia 
England. He ^0n after acquired great credit by bi<i new 
edition and emendation of Gerard^s ^* Herbal.'* I« thtt 
rebellion, his 2eal for the royal cause led him into tim 
arniy, in which he greatly distinguished himself; anddM 
aniversity ^f Oxford, in consideration of his itiertt, leflnufng*, 
and loyalty, conferred' upon htm the degree of M. D. Majr 
9, 1643. In the army he bad the rank of lieutenant* 
eolodel to sir Marmaduke Rawdon, governor of Basangf- 
bouse. Near this place, in a skirmish with the enemy, in 
Sept. 1644, he received a shot in the shonider, of- which 
he died in a fortnight after, and^ as tbeite is reason ta 
think, in the meridian of life. Besides the works abo^^e^ 
mentioned, and his improved edition <»f Gerard's *< Herbal,'* 
which was twice printed in bis lifetime, in 1633 and in 
1636, foL he published in 1634, " Mercurius Botanicus, 
sire planjtarum gratia suscepti Itineris, anno 1634, de- 
scriptio,'* Lond. 8?o. This was the result of a journey, 
with some associates of the company of apotbeeariea^ 
through Oxford, to Bath and Bristol, and back by South* 
ampton, the Isle of Wight, and Guildford, with the pro- 
fessed design to investigate rare plants. To this wad 
added his small tract, " De Thermis Bathonicis," with 
plans of the baths, and one of the city, which, to antiqila- 
ries, are now interesting. This was followed by a sj^cond 
part of his excursion, " Pars altera,** which extends to 
Wales. He was among the earliest botanists who visited 
Wales and Snowdon, with the sole intention of discover- 

. ' The pria<Hpal of these are corrected in a6tes appended to the Utk <d:tR>ft of 
Johnson's Works. Murphy's narrative was in truth little more thai) what ««88 
compHed in n&7, from sir John Hawkins, by the Monthly Reviewers, i»hoa« 
style and reflections he has in geuera) copied verbatim, without a word of ackno«r« 
iedgment.-^BorMPeU*8 Life of Johnson.— Hawkins's. — JoiwMn and 'Chakuerl's 
BaglisirFiMts^ ldiO/21 fols. for «4ncb edition. tiiis skcteli wasorigiaaU^jt^ro^ 


ingtbe rarities of that country in the vegetable kingdom* 
He also translated the works of Ambrose Parey, the cele* 
brated French surgeon, published at London in 1643, and 
reprinted in 167S. Miller consecrated the name of John* 
son by assigning it to a berry-bearing shrub of Carolina, 
belonging to the ietrandraus class, but it has not been re* 
tained in the Linnaean system^ where the plant is called 
caUicarpa, ' 

JOHNSON (Thomas), an excellent classical scholar 
and editor, was born at Stadhampton^ in Oxfordshire, and 
educated at King's-coUege, Cambridge, as Mr. Cole says, but 
according to others, at Magdalen -^college, of which he was 
afterwards a fellow. He took his bachelor's degree in 1688, 
and that of M. A. in 1692, after which he left the univer- 
sity, and married* He bad also an Eton fellowship, and 
was assistant at the school. He was likewise udber of Ips* 
wick school, and taught school once at Brentford, and in 
other places. Little else is known of his history^ nor have 
we been able to ascertain the time of his death. Cole says 
his character is represented as having been dissolute^ but 
he was an excellent scholar. He is best known as the 
editor of ^^ Sophocles,'* Oxon. and London, 1705, and 
1746, S vols. He published also '^ Gratius, de Vena*- 
tione, cum notis," Lond. 1699, 8vo; ^' Cebetis Tabula,'* 
Lond. 1720, 8vo;/* Novum Grsecorum Epigrammatum 
delectus," for the i;ise of Eton school, repeatedly printed 
from 1699, &c. ; ^^ The Iliad of Homer made English from 
the French version of Madame Dacier ; revised and compared 
with the Greek;" ^* Questiones Philosophies in usum. 
juventutis academics^," 1735, 8vOy at that time a most- 
useful manual ; and an edition of ^^ PuffendorfF de Offieio 
hominis et civis," 4to. To these may be added, ^^ An 
Essay on Moral Obligation, with a view towards settling 
the controversy concerning moral and positive duties,'* 
Cambridge, 1731 ; "A letter to Mr. Chandler, in vindi« 
cation of a passage in the bishop of London's second Pas- 
toral Letter," 17 34/8 vo. In this last»mentioned year ap- 
peared the new edition of Stephens's *^ Thesaurus Linguae 
Latinse," of which our author was one of the editors.* 

JOHNSTON (Arthuk)) was born at Caskieben> near 
Aberdeen, the seat of his ancestors, in 1587, and probably 

1 Ath. Ox; Tol. II. — Lloyd's Metnoin, fol. — ^Palteney's Sketches. 
9 Cole's MS Athena, ia Briu Mas,— iianrood'» Aluimu BtomiMes.— ^ 
Nichols's Bowyer, 


was edacated at Aberdeen^ as be was afterwards advanced 
to the highest dignity in that university. The study to 
which be chiefly applied, was thalj of physic ; and to im- 
prove himself in that science, he travelled into foreign 
countries. He wad twice at Rome, but the chief place of 
bis residence was at Padua, in which university the degree 
of M. D. was conferred on him in 1610, as appears by a 
MS copy of verses in the advocates' library in Edinburgh* 
After leaving Padua, be travelled through tbe rest of Iiaiy, 
and over Germany, Denmark, England, Helland, :and 
other countries, and M last settled in France, where be 
met with great applause as a Latin> poet. He lived there 
twenty years, and by two wives bad thirteen children. Al 
last, after twenty-four years abi^ence, be. returned into 
Scotland, as some say in 1632, but probably much sooner, 
as there is an edition of his <^ Epigramii^ata,'' printed at 
Aberdeen in 1632, in which he is styled the king's physi* 
cian. It appears by the counciUbooks at Edinburgh, that 
the doctor had a suit at law before that court about the 
same time. In the year following, Charles I. went into 
Scotland, and made bishop Laud, then with him, a mem- 
ber of that council ; and by this accident it is probable the 
acquaintance began between tbe doctor and that prelate, 
which produced his *^ Psalmorum Davidis Paraphrasis 
Poetica.'' We find, that in the same year the doctor 
printed a specimen of his Psalms at London, and dedicated 
the.m to bis lordship, which is considered as a proof that 
the bishop prevailed upon Johnston to remove to London 
from Scotland, and then set him upon this work ; neither 
can it be doubted but, after he had seen this sample, he 
also engaged him to perfect the whole, which took him up 
four years;, for the first edition of all the Psalms was pub* 
lished at Aberdeen in 1637, and at London in the same 
year. In 1641, Dr. Johnston being at Oxford on a visit 
to one of his daughters, who was married to a divine of 
the church of England in that place, was seized with a 
violent diarrhoea, of which he died in a few .days, in the 
fifty-fourth year of his age, not without having seen the 
beginning of those troubles which proved so fatal to his 
patron. He was buried in -the place where he died, 
which gave occasion to the following lines of his learned 
friend Wedderburn in his *^ Suspiria,^' on the doctor^s 
death : 


*' Scotia mcesta^ dole, taati vidaatafiepulchro 
Vatis ^ is Aagygenis contigit alius honoB/' 

In 1 6329^ as already remarked, was published at Aberdeen 
^ Epigrammata Arturi Jobnstoni ;'* and in 1633, be trans* 
kued Solomon's Song into Latin elegiac verse, and dedi" 
cated it to bis mi^esty ; in 1637, be edited the '* Delicias 
Poetarum Scoticorum," to whieb be was himself a large 
contributor, and which, says Dr. Johnson, would bav^ 
done honour to any country. His Psalms were reprinted 
at Middleburg, 1642; London, 1657 ; Cambridge, . . . .; 
Amsterdam, 1706; Edinburgh, by William Lauder, 1739; 
and at last on the plan of the Delpfain classics, at London^ 
1 74 1, 8vo, at the expence of auditor Benson, who dedi* 
cat^d them to bis late majesty, and prefixed to this edition 
memoirs of Dr. Johnston, with the testimonies of various 
learned persons. A laboured, but partial and injudicious 
eomparison between the two translations of Buchanan and 
Johnston, was printed the same year by Benson, in Eng- 
lish, in 8vo, entitled *^ A Prefatory Discourse to Dr. John-* 
ston's Psalms," &c. and *^ A Conclusion to it.'* This was 
ably answered by the learned Ruddiman in ^^ A Vindica* 
tion of Mr. George Bucbanan^s Paraphrase of the Book of 
Psalms,'* 1745, 8vo. Johnston's translations of the '^ Te 
Deum, Creed, Decalogue," &c. were subjoined to the 
Psalms. His other poetical works are his *^ Parerga," and 
bis *^ MussB Aulicfie," or commendatory verses upon per- 
sons of rank in church and state at that time. Johnston is 
, evidently entitled to very high pjaise as a Latin poet; and 
the late lord Woodhouselee seems to admit that from his 
days the Latin muses have deserted the northern part of 
our island : Benson's comparison between Buchanan and 
Johnston was absurd enough, but it is not fair that John-^ 
ston should suffer by his editor's want of taste. The abler 
critic we have just metitioned, does not think Johnston's 
attempt to emulate Buchanan as a translator of the Psalms, 
greatly beyond bis powers ; for, although taken as a whol^, 
his version is certainly inferior (as indeed what modern has, 
in Latin poetry, equalled Buchanan ?) yet there are a fev^ 
of his Psalms, such as the 24th, 30th, 74th, 81st, 82dy 
102d, and above all, the 137tb, which, on comparison^ 
lord Woodhouselee says, will be found to excel the cor- 
responding paraphrase of his rival. And Dr. Beattie seems 
to speak in one respect more decidedly. Johnston, he 
says, <* is not so verbose as Buchanan, and has of course 

J OH iJ S t O N. 81 

• 1 

Diorie ngour ;^* but he very justly censures the rS^dical evil 
of Johnston's Psalms, his choice of a couplet^ which l^eeps 
the reader always in mind of the puerile epistles, of Ovid.' 

JOHNSTON, or JOHNSON (Charles), author of 
•^ Cbrysal, or the Adventures of a Guinea," and other works 
of a similar kind, was a native of Ireland, and descended 
from a branch of the Johnstons of Annandale* He was 
born in the early part of the last century, but in what year . 
we have not been able to discover. After receiving a good 
classical education, he was called to the bar, and came 
over to England for practice in that profession, but being 
unfortunately prevented by deafness from attending the 
courts, be confined himself to the employment of a cham- 
ber counsel. It does not appear that his success was great, 
and embarrassed circumstances rendered him glad to em- 
br'ace any other employment, in which his talents might 
have a chance to succeed. His " Chrysal" is said to have 
been his first literary attempt, two volumes of which he 
wrote while on a visit to Mount Edgecumbe, the seat of the 
late earl of Mount Edgecumbe. He appears to have had 
recourse to some degree of art, in order to apprize the 
public of what they were to expect from it. In the news- 
papers for April 17^0, it is announced that " there will be 
speedily published, under the emblematical title of the 
^ Adventures of a Guinea,' a dispassionate, distinct account 
of the most remarkable transactions of the present times all 
over Europe, with curious and interesting anecdotes of 
the public and private characters of the parties principally 
concerned in these scenes, especially in England; the 
whole interspersed with several most whimsical and enter- 
taining instances of the intimate connection between high 
and low life, and the power of little causes to produce^reat 
events.** This, while it has the air of a pufF, is not an uur 
faithfuLsummary of the contents of these volumes, which 
were published in May of the same year, and read with 
such avidity, that the author was encouraged to add two 
more volumes in 1765, not inferior to the former, in meri^ 
or success ; and the v<rork has often been reprinted since. 
The secret springs of some political intrigues on the con^ 
tinent, are perhaps unfolded in these volumes, but it was 
the personal characters of many distinguished statesmen, 

^ Memoirs < by Beasen. — Chalmers's Life of Rnddiman, p. 42, 176. &c.«— 
Tytlttr's Life of Karnes.— Beattie't Dissections, 4to, p. (»45« 

Vol. XIX. G 


women of quality, and citizens, which rendered the work 
palatable. A few of these were depicted in such striking 
colours as not to be mistaken ; and the rest, being sup- 
posed to be equally faithful, although less • obvious, the 
public were long amused in conjecturing the originals. 
With some truth, however, there is so much fiction, and in 
a few instances so much of what deserves a worse epithet, 
that ** ChrysaP' does not appear entitled to much higher 
praise than that of the best <^ scandalous chronicle of the 
day.*' In one case, it may be remembered, the author 
occasioned no little confusion among the guilty parties, by 
^unfolding the secrets of a. club of profligates of rank, who 
used to assemble at a nobleman's villa in Buckinghamshire. 
In this, as well as other instances, it must be allowed, that 
-although he describes his bad characters as worse than they 
were, he everywhere expresses the noblest sentiments of 
indignatioi) against vice and meanness. 

Mr. Johnston's other publications, of the same kind, 
delineating in caricature the striking outlines of popular 
characters and public vices, were, "The Reverie; or a 
Flight to the Paradise of Fools," 1762, 2 vols. 12mo; "The 
History of Arbases, prince of Betlis," 1774, 2 vols. ; "The 
Pilgrim, or a Picture of Life," 1775, 2 vols. ; and " The 
History of John Juniper, esq. alias Juniper Jack," 1781, 
3 vols. None of these, however, attracted the attention of 
the public in any considerable degree. In 1782, he had 
some prospect of passiilg his days in comfort, if not in opu- 
lence, in India, and accordingly embarked for Bengal, with 
«apt. Charles Mears, in the Brilliant, which was wrecked 
off Johanna, an island situated between Madagascar and the 
continent of Africa; but capt. Mears, with his son and 
daughter, and Mr. Johnston, and some others, were saved, 
and ultimat^ely reached India. Here he employed his ta- 
lents in writing essays for the Bengal newspapers, under 
the signature of " Oneiropolos," and at length became a 
joint proprietor of a paper, and by this and some other 
speculations, acqtiired considerable property. He died 
there about 1 800. These memoirs of a man, certainly de- 
serving of some notice, have been derived from various 
ianonymous authorities, and are therefore given with diffi- 
dence.* * 

JOHNSTONE (James), an eminent physician at Wor- 
cester, was the fourth son of John Johnstone, esq. of Gala« 

> Gent Mag. iXIV. p. 591, 780s LXXYII. p. 631 i USCSX. mr 


baaky one of the most ancient branches of the family of 
Johnstone of Johnstone: he was born at Annan in 17 SO, 
and received the rudiments of his classical education under 
the rev. Dr. Henry, author of the History of Great Britain. 
In the school of Edinburgh, under Whytt, Plummer^ 
Monro, and Rutherford, he learned the science of medicine ; 
and in Paris, under Ferrein and Rouelle, he studied ana- 
tomy and chemistry. In 17^0, before he had. completed 
twenty-one years, he took the* degree of doctor of medi- 
cine, publishing a thesis *^ De Aeria factitii imperio in 
corpore humane,*' which gained him much credit, and 
some valuable friends. The following year he seated him- 
self at Kidderminster, in Worcestershire; which at that 
time, and some years afterwards, was subject to a putrid 
fever of such peculiar malignity, as to be called the Kid- 
derminster fever. His name first became known by the 
successful treatment he adopted for the cure of this dread- 
ful disorder. Instead of bleeding and purging, means then 
in common use, he recommended bark, wine, mineral acids^ 
free ventilation of air, and the affusion of water an4 vine- 
gar ; and so prominent was his success, that he was'iaim6- 
diately introduced into considerable practice. Of this fe- 
ver, as it appeared in 1756, he published an account in 
1758, which proves him to be the discoverer of the power 
of mineral acid vapours to cprrect or destroy putrid febrile 
contagion : He orders for this purpose, vitriolic acid to bci 
poured upon common salt, in a convenient vessel, over a 
proper heat. It is not a little singular, that the same means 
should be recommended by the celebrated Guy ton de 
Moirveau for the same purpose, more than twenty years 
after they were published by Dr. Johnstone, and be then 
cried up as a great discovery. 

The first sketches of Dr. Johnstone's physiological in- 
quiry into the uses of the ganglions of the nerves, were 
published in the 54th, 57th, and 60th vols, of the Phil. 
Trans.. They were afterwards enlarged, and printed sepa- 
rately. In this inquiry, he considers ganglions as ^' little 
brains, subordinate springs and reservoirs of nervous power, 
the immediate sources of the tierves sent to organs'moved 
involuntarily, and the check or cause which hinders our 
volitions from extending to them. In a word, ganglions 
limit the exercise of the soul's authority in the animal oseo* 
Domy, and put it out of our power, by a single volition, 
.to stop the motk>i\s of the heart, and in one capricious 

G 2 


moment irrecoverably to ^nd our lives.*' But his physio- 
logical researbhes did not stop here : — In a treatise on the 
Walton water, which in quality strongly resembles the 
Cheltenham, he has pointed out the probable function of 
the lymphatic glands, supposing them to be organs destined 
to purify, digest, and aninialize the matters selected and 
absorbed by the lacteals and other lymphatics ; thus fitting 
them for their union with the blood, and the nutrition of 
the body. ' . 

At Kidderminster Dr. Johnstone continued to act in a 
wide sphere of country practice, till the death of his eldest 
son, a physician fast rising into eminence, who fell a martyr 
to humanity in attending the prisoners at Worcester in- 
fected with jail-fever; and the coincidence of the death of 
his dearest friend the rev. Job Orton, induced him to re- 
move to Worcester. In this city, famous from the days of 
Dr. Cole, the friend of Sydenham, for its physicians, he 
continued, vigorous, active^ and sprightly, useful to the com- 
munity, and beloved by his friends, to practise, till a few 
dajs ^previous to his death. He had been subject to pul- 
monary complaints in his youth, which had been averted 
by temperance and caution. la his later years they re- 
curred^ and during the last spring he had bled himself ra- 
ther too profusely. In the last attack, which was aggra- 
vated by excessive fatigue and exertion, his weakness was 
such as to forbid the repetition of more than one bleeding ; 
and his strength gradually decayed, leaving his intellect 
clear and unimpaired. His death was a perfect eutha^ 
nasia : he expired April 28, 1802, after a short and in no 
wise painful struggle, having sat up and converged with 
his family, till within a few hours of the awful change, 
cheerful, patient, and resigned. He survived his wife, 
with whom he lived fifty years, only two months. 

Dr. Johnstone was the correspondent and friend of Hal- 
ler, Whytt, Cullen, and Fothergill ; the bosom-friend of 
the virtuous Lyttelton and the pious Orton, and of many 
other wise and learned men, who still improve and adorn 
society : — the active and humane physician, the sagacious 
physiologist, the recondite antiquary ; and few men have 
occupied a larger space of professional utility and private 
regard, than Dr. Johnst;one. Firm and undeviatiog in his 
own moral carriage, his vigorous and manly mind was per- 
haps, on some occasions, too little accommodating to cha- 
racters and circumstances. In bis temper he was cheerful, 


fjiough sometimes hasty — in his conversation lively and in- 
structive — in his affections warm and attached — in his do- 
mestic relations, he was the best of fathers, his whole life 
was a sacrifice to the advantage of his children — in fine^ 
although the memory of his personal services cannot be 
soon forgotten, yet has he. erected a still more durable 
monument. to his fame, in those various practical improve* 
ments of the medical art, which rank his name among the 
benefactors of mankind.^ 

JOHNSTON (John), an eminent naturalist, was born 
at Sambter, in Great Poland, in 1603: he received the 
greater part of his education in his own country ; but in 
1622, became to England, and from thence he went to 
Scotland, where he studied with great diligence in the 
university of St. Andrew's till 1625. He afterwards studied 
at Leyden and Cambridge. He undertook the education 
of the two sons of the count de Kurtzbach, and accompa- 
nied them to Holland. While he resided with his pupils 
at Leydeo, he took his degree as doctor of physic ; and 
when he went a third time to England, the same honour 
was conferred on him by the university of Cambridge. He 
died in June 1675, in the seventy-second year of his age* 
He is known in the literary world by a number of works in 
the different departments of natural history, particularly 
^^ Thftumatographia naturalis in classes decem divisa,"' 
Amst 1632, 12mo; ^^ Historia naturalis de Piscibus et 
Cetis, &c." Francfort, 1649, folio ; " Historia naturalis de 
Quadrupedibus," ibid. 1652, folio; ^^Hist. nati de Insecti- 
bus,*' ibid. 1653, folio ; " Hist. nat. de Avibus,*' ibid, folio; 
** Syntagma Dendrologicum," and ** Dendrographia," folio. 
He published also some historical works, and some oa 
ethics, &c. enumerated in our authorities.' 

JOINVILLE (John, Sire de), an eminent French states- 
man, who flourished about 1260, was descended from one 
of the noblest ajid most ancient families at Champagne, 
He was seneschal, or high-steward, of Champagne, and one 
of the principal lords of the court of Louis IjL whom he 
attended in all bis military expeditions; and was greatly 
beloved and esteemed for his valour, his wit, and the. 
frankness of his manners. That, monarch placed so much 
confidence in him, that all matters of justice, in the palace;^ 

1 Gent, and Month. Magazines, 1809. — Doddridge's Letters, p. 354. 
f Chaufepie, — Moreri. — ^Saxii Oaomast. 

8« J O I N V I L L E. 

were referred to bis decision; and his majesty .under* 
took nothing of importance without consulting him. He 
died about 1318, at not much less than ninety years of age^ 
Joinville is known as an author by his *^ History of St. 
Louis/' in French, which he composed^ in 1305: a very 
curious and interesting work/ The best edition is that of 
Du Cange, in 1668, folio, with learned remarks. On per* 
using this edition, however, it ii» easily seen, that the lan- 
guage of the Sire de Joinville has been altered. But an. 
authentic MS. of the original was found in 1748, and was 
published without alteration, in 1761, by M^lot, keeper of 
the royal library at Paris. This edition is also in fblio.^ 

JOLY (Claude), a French writer, was bom at Paris in 
1607, and obtained a canonry in the cathedral there ia 
1631. Discovering also a capacity for state affairs, he was 
appointed to attend a plenipotentiary to Munster; and^ 
during the commotions at Paris, he took a journey to Rome. 
In 1671, he was made precentor of his church, and several 
times official. He lived to the great age of ninety-three, 
without experiencing the usual, infirmities of it; when, go« 
ing one morning to matins, he fell into a trench, which had 
been dug for the foundation of the high altar. vHe died of 
this fall in 1700, after bequeathing a very fine library to 
his church. He was the aothor of many woiks in b(^ 
Latin and French, and as well upon civil as religious sub'* 
jects. One of them in French, 1^52, in 12 mo, is entitled 
^ A Collection of true and important Maxims for the Edu- 
cation of a Prince, against the false and pernicious politics 
of cardinal Mazarine;*' which, being reprinted in 1663^ 
with two *' Apologetical Letters," was burnt in 1665 by 
the hands of the common hangman. The same year, how^ 
ever, 1665, he published a tract called ^' Codicil d*Or, or 
the Golden Codicil," which relates to the former ; being a 
ftirther collection of maxima for the education of a prince^ 
taken chiefly from Erasmus, whose works be is said to have 
read seven times over.* 

JOLY (€uY), king's counsellor at the Ch&telet, and 
syndic of the anmiitants of the H6tel de Ville at Paris, 
attached himaelf to cardinal de Retz, whom he attended a 
long time as secretary in his troubles and adventures, but 
quitted his eminence when be returned to Rome. There 
are some ^^ Memoirs" by him, from 1648 to 1665, designed 

* Moreri.— Diet. Hist. * Gen. Diet— Viceron, vol. fiC and X.— Moreri. 

J O L Y. €T 

as an explanation and supplement to those of cardinal de 
RetZ| with which they were printed in 2 vols. 12mo» These 
memoirs contain some very curious particulars. He als<> 
left some tracts, written by order of the court, in defence 
of the queen's rights, against Peter Stockmans, an emi* 
nent lawyer ; particularly '< The Intrigues of the Peace/' 
and the ** Negociations*' made at court by the friends of 
M. the prince, after his retreat to Guienne, folio, with a 
iequiel c^ the same *^ Intrigues/* 4toJ 

JOMELLI (NicoLO), one of the most intelligent, learn« 
e4» d^nd affecting dramatic composers of modern times, was 
born at Avellino, a town about twenty-five miles from Na« 
plesy in which city he had his musical education under Leo 
and Durante. The first opera to which we find his name, 
is ** Riccimero R^ de' Goti," composed for the Argentina 
theatre at Rome, 1740 : and between that period and 1758| 
be composed for that city fourteen operas, besides others 
for Venice and different Italian theatres. 
. From 1758 to about 1768, he resided, in Germany, being 
engaged in the service of the duke of Wurtemburg, at 
Stutgardt, or rather at Ludwigsburg, his new capiial, 
where Jomelli's works were performed. Here he produced 
a great number of operas and other compositions, by which 
be acquired great rcrputation, and totally changed the taste 
of vocal music in Germany. On his return to Italy, he 
left all these productions behind him, upon* a supposition 
that he should again resume his station at Ludwigsburg, 
after visiting his native country. But as he never returned 
thither to claim these compositions, they fell into the hands 
of his patron, the duke of Wurtemburg, who preserved 
them as precious relics of thb great master. Very few of • 
bis entire operas were ever performed in England. The 
first was ^^ Attilio Regulo,'* in. 1753, and the second, in 
1755, '^ Andromaca." The operas of Jomelli will be al^ 
ways valuable to professors and curious collectors, for the 
excellence of the composition, though it has been thought 
necessary, in compliance with the general rage for Aovelty, 
to lay them aside and to have the same dramas new set for 
the stage, in order to display the talents, or hide the de« 
facts, of new singers. 

As Jomelli was a great .harmonist, and naturally grave 
and. majestic in his style, he seems to have manifested 

1 Moreri.— Diot. Hist, 


88 J O M E L L I. 

abilities in writing for the church superior even to thosa 
for the stage. Dr. Burney speaks of three, the only ones 
he had seen, all written by Metastasio, and all admirably 
set Dr. Burney had also a *^ Te Deum," and a " Re- 
<][uiem'* of his composition, which show him to have been 
a great master of the church styje, ^although he appears 
not to have tried that species before 1751, when he, Pe- 
rez, and Durante were employed to compose some musio 
at Rome- for passion week. But though he acquired con- 
siderable fame on this occasion, yet he was so far from 
being intoxicated by it, that in a visit to father Martini, at 
Bologna soon after, he told this learned contrapuntist that 
he had a scholar to introduce to him. Martini assured hin^ 
that he should be glad to instruct any one so well recom- 
mended ; and, a few days after, Martini asking who and 
where was the disciple he .had talked of? Jomelli answered 
~ that it was himself ; and pulling a studio of paper out of 
bis pocket, on which he had been trying his strength ia 
modulation and fugue upon eantofermOy begged of him to 
examine and point out his errors. 

From this period he produced many admirable coqipQ'- 
sitions for the church, in which he united elegance with 
learning, and grace with bold design. Among other pro'^ 
ductions of this kind, the two following merit commemo« 
ration. An " OfFertorio," or motet, for five voices with- 
out instruments, followed by an Alleluja of four parts ia 
chorus; and a " Missa pro defunctis," or bunal service, 
which he composed at Stutgardt for the obsequies of a 
lady of high rank and favour at the court of his patron, the 
duke of Wurtemburg. These compositions, which are 
learned without pedantry, and grave withoutdulness, will 
be lasting monuments of his abilities as a contrapuntist. 

But the most elaborate of all his compositions is the 
"Miserere," or fifty-first psalm, translated into Italian 
verse, by his friead Saverio Mattei, which he set for two 
voices, accompanied with instruments, in 1773, the year 
before his decease. In this production, which breathes 
^ pious gravity, and eompunction of heart suited to the 
contrite sentiments of the psalmist, there is a mani- 
fest struggle at extraneous modulation and new effects, 
perhaps too much at the expence of facility and grace. 
There are, however, admirable strokes of pajssion as well 
as science in it, which, though above the comprehension 

J O M E L L I. S9 

ttYe able to read the score, or to follow the performers 
through the labyrinths of art. This admirable composer 
had, in general, such a facility in writing, that he seldom 
courted the muse at an instrument ; and so tenacious a 
memory, that Sacchini said he frequently composed an air 
on opening a book of lyric poetry, while, like a peripa- 
tetic, he has been walking about a room, which he re- 
membered a year after, and then committed it to paper 
as fast as he could write a letter. 

As Raphael had three manners of painting, Jomelli bad 
three styles of composition. Before he went to Germany 
the easy and graceful flow of Vinci and Pergolesi pervaded 
all his productions ; but when he was in the service of the 
duke of Wurtemburg, finding the Germans were fond of 
learning and complication, he changed his style in com^ 
pliance with the taste and expectations of his audience ; 
and on his return to Italy he tried to thin and simplify his 
dramatic muse, which, however, was still so much too 
operose for Italian ears, that in 1770, upon a Neapolitan 
being> asked how he liked Jomelli's new opera of " Demo-i' 
foonte," he cried out with vehemence, *• e scelerata, Sig-* 
nore !*' The health of Jomelli began to decline in 1770,, 
and in 1771 he had a stroke of the palsy, which, however, 
did not impair his intellects, as he composed ^^ Achille in 
Sciro*' for the Roman theatre, and a cantata for the safe 
delivery of the queeh of Naples, in 1772 ; and in 1773 his 
Italian ^* Miserere,*' the most elaborate and studied of all 
bis works.' He died in Sept. 1774. 

His learned friend, Signor Saverio Mattei, the translator 
of the Psalms into Italian verse, from whose admirable ver- 
sion Jomelli had taken the ** Miserere,'* or fifty-first psalm, 
drew up a very interesting account of the works and public 
funeral of the great musician, and printed it in his ** Sag- 
gio di Poesia Latine et Italiane,'* published at Naples im- 
mediately after his decease. ' 

JONAS (An'agrimus), a learned Icelander, who ac- 
ouired a great reputation for astronomy and the sciences, 
was coadjutor to Gundebrand of Thorbac, bishop of Ho- 
lum in Iceland, who was also of that nation, a man of great 
learning and probity, had been a disciple of Tycho Brahe, 
and iinderstood astronomy very well. After his death, the 
fee of Holum was offi^red by the king of Denmark to An^- 

I By Dr. Buroey, in Rees*8 Cyclopaedia^and History of Mu^ic, 

^2 JONES. 

teach poor Welsh men, women, and children to read their 
native language ; and such was his diligence, and the 
effect of his superintendence of these schools, that he could 
enumerate 158,000 poor ignorant persons who had been 
taught to read ; and equal care was taken to catechize and 
instruct young people in the principles of the Christian 
religion. Having applied to the " Sopiety for promotipg 
Christian knowledge,*' of which be was a corresponding 
member, that body caused to be printed two large editions 
of the Welsh Bible, of 15,000 copies each, which were sold 
cheap for the benefit of the poor in Wales. He likewise 
wrote and published several instructive treatises in the 
Welsh as well as the English language ; and was enabled 
by the assistance of some charitable friends to print editions 
of from 8000 to 12,000 of these useful manuals, which were 
distributed throughout all Wales. His own charitable ex« 
ertions were extensive, and having studied medicine in a 
certain degree, he laid in a large stock of drugs, which he 
made up and dispensed to the poor gratis^ taking that op- 
portunity also to give them spiritual advice. This truly 
good man died April 8, 1761, lamented as a father to his 
Sock, and a general benefactor to the whole country. * 

JONES (Griffith), who deserves a place in the ca- 
talogue of English writers for having first introduced 
riie numerous and popular little books for the amusement 
and instruction of children, which have been received with 
universal approbation, was born in 1721, and served his 
apprenticeship to Mr. Bowyer, the learned printer. His 
education was probably not neglected, or at least it was very 
much improved by his own efforts. He was many years 
editor of the London Chronicle and Public Ledger. He 
was also associated with Dr. Johnson in the " Literary 
Magazine," and with Smollett and Goldsmith in " The 
British Magazine," and published a great number of trans- 
lations from the French, to none of which, however, was 
his name prefixed. One little publication, entitled ^^ Great 
events from little causes,'* was his composition, and met 
with a rapid and extensive sale. In conjunction with Mr. 
John Newbery, and a brother of his own, Mr. Giles Jones, 
he wrote many of those little books or Lilliputian histories 
which were the delight of the youth of many yet living. 
Mr. Jones^ who was a very amiable man, died Sept. 1 2, 1786^. 

t Sketch of his Life and Character, 1762, 8vo. 

JONES. 93 

Mr. Giles Jones, his brother (who was more thaa five-and«» 
forty years secretary tp the York Buildings Water company) 
left a son, Mr. Stephen Jones, who, among other literary 
productions, was editor of the last edition of the " Biogra- 
phia Dratnatica," which was consigned to his care by the 
late Mr. Isaac Reed. ^ 

JONES (Henry), a dramatic writer, was a native of 
Drogbeda, in Ireland, and was bred a bricklayer; but, 
having a natural inclination for the muses, pursued his de- 
votions to them even during the labours of his mere mecha* 
xiical avocations, and composing a line of brick and a line 
of verse alternately, bis walls and poems rose in growth 
together, but not with equal degrees of durability. His 
turn, as is most g^oeraily the case with mean poets, or> 
bards of humble origin, was panegyric. This procured 
bim some friends ; and, in 1745, when the earl of Chester** 
field went over to Ireland as lordrlieutenant, Mr. Jones was 
recommended to the notice of that nobleman, who, de-* 
lighted with the discovery of this mechanic muse, not only 
favoured him with his own notice and generous munificence, 
but also thought proper to transplant this opening flower 
into a warmer and more thriving climate. He brought hioi 
with him to England, recommended him to many of the 
nobility there, and not only procured him a large subscrip<^ 
tion for the publishing a collection of his " Poems," but 
it is said, even took on himself the alteration and correction 
of bis tragedy, and also the care of prevailing on the ma- 
nagers of Covent-garden theatre to bring it on the stage. 
This nobleman also recommended him in the warmest 
manner to CoUey Cibber, whose friendly and humane dis- 
position induced him to shew him a thousand acts of friend- 
ship, and even made strong eflprts by his interest at court 
to have secured to him the succession of the laurel after 
bis death. With these favourable prospects it might have 
been expected that Jones would have passed through life 
with so much decency as to have ensured his own hap- 
piness, and done credit to the partiality of his friends ; but 
this was not the case. ^^ His temper,'* says one, who 
seems to have known him, ^^ was, in consequence of the 
dominion of his passions, uncertain and capricious ; easily' 
engaged, and easily disgusted ; and, as cecooomy was a 
virtue )vhigh could never be taken into his catalogue, he 

1 Nichols's Bowyer* 

94f JONES* 

appeared to think himself born rather to be supported by 
others than under a duty to secure to himself the profits 
which his writings and the munificence of his patrons from 
time to time afforded.*' After experiencing many reverses 
of fortune, which an overbearing spirit, and an imprudence 
in regard to pecuniary concerns, consequently drew on 
him, he died in great want, in April 1770, in a garret 
belonging to the master of the Bedford coffee-house, by 
whose charity he had been some time supported, leaving 
an example to those of superior capacities and attainments^ 
who, despising the common maxims of life, often feel the 
want of not pursuing them when it is too late. His princi- 
pal performance, ^* The Earl of Essex," appeared in 1753^ 
and he also left a tragedy unfinished, called ** The Cave 
of Idra," which falling into the hands of Dr. HifFernan, he 
enlarged it to five acts, and brought it out under the title 
of '^ The Heroine of the Cave.*' His last publications 
were, "Merit ;" « The Relief;'* and « Vectis, or the Isle 
of Wight," poems ; but his poetical worth, though noi 
contemptible, was far from being of the first«rate kind. * 

JONES (Jeremiah), a Jeamed dissenting divine, was 
born in 1693, and received his academical learning under 
his^ uncle, the rev. Samuel Jones, first of Gloucester, then 
ef Tewksbuiy, the tutor of Chandler, Butler, and Seeker. 
He was fellow-student with the latter in 1711, and was 
a distinguished scholar, when he entered upon acade* 
mical studies. It is apprehended, tdat he was a native of 
the North of England, and that his father was a gentleman 
in alBuent circumstances. There was with him, at the above 
seminary, a younger brother, a youth of quick parts, who 
afterwards settled as a dissenting minister at Manchester^ 
Mr. Jones, soon after he had finished his course of prepa-^ 
ratory studies, became the miiiister of the congregation 
of Protestant dissenters, who assembled for worship in 
Forest Green, Avening, Gloucestershire, and resided at 
Kailsworth, where he also kept an academy. He had the 
character of being an eminent linguist. He was popular 
^g a preacher ; for the plaee of worship was considerably 
enlarged in his time. His discourses met with the appro- 
bation of the more judicious, for his salary amounted to 
one hundred pounds per annum, and the whole subscrip'- 
tion came from persons of superior rank in life. Though 

/ - 

JONES. 95 

a deep scholar and hard student, he was not a man of se- 
vere manners ; but of an open and social dtspositioni and 
one of a bowling party at a place still called tb^ Lodge, 
on Hampton common, at which healthy exercise he relaxed 
from his studies, and by his presence and influence pre* 
served decorum in the company. His character secured 
him the marked respect of a neighbouring clergyman. His 
anxiety to fulfil an engagement,, which he bad made, to 
perf6rm some ministerial service at a place on the other 
side of the Severn, hastened his death. It escaped his 
recollection, till the time drew near ; to prevent disap- 
pointment, he made so much speed, that his tender con- 
stitution was injured by it, and a complaint contracted, 
from which he never recovered. He died in 1724^ 
aged 3U 

Mr. Jones's first publication was '' A Vindication of the 
former part pf Saint Matthew's Gospel, from Mr. Whis- 
ton's charge of Dislocations, or an attempt to prove that 
our present Greek copies of that Gospel are in the same 
order wherein they were originally written by that Evan- 
gelist ; in which are contained many things relating to the 
harmony and history of the Four Gospels, 1719." This 
work, says Dr. Harwood, is very valuable; it abounds 
with ingenious remarks, and displays the critical acumen 
of the author. He prepared for the press before his deatk 
another excellent performance, entitled ^* A New and Full 
Method of settling the Canonical Authority of the New 
Testament," which was published in 1726, in two volumes, 
8vo. They were followed by a third volume. In drawing 
up these works, he took care, it seems, to consult and ex- 
amine the originals, instead of satisfying himself with the 
quotations of other learned men. They remain, as moni|-\ 
ments of his learning, ingenuity, and indefatigable indus- 
try ; and would have done credit, it has been observed, to 
the assiduity and ability of a literary man of sixty. Tliey 
were become very scarce, and bore a high price, when, 
with the liberality and zeal which reflects honour on thetD^ 
the conductors of the Clarendon press lately republtshed 
them at Oxford. Mr. Jones, observes Dr. Maltby, has 
brought together, with uncommon diligence and judg* 
m^t, the external evidence for the authenticity and ge- 
nuineness of the -canonical books ; and he has, with equal 
ability and fairness, stated his reasons fqr deciding against 
the authority of the apocryphal* In the prosecution of this 

96 JONES. 

ioipqrtaot design> he has not only quoted, but translated^ 
the greater part of the contents of Fabricius^s two first 
TOlumes. Mr. Jones intended anoth^ and distinct volume 
pn the apostolical fathers. ^ . 

JONES (Ij^iGo), a celebrated English architect, was:born 
about 1572, in the neighbourhood of St. PauPs, London, 
where his father^ Mr. Ignatius Jones, was a clothworker. 
At a proper age, it is said, he put his son apprentice to a 
joiner, a business that requires some skill in drawing : and 
in that respect suited well with our architect's inclination, 
which naturally led him to the art of designing. It is not 
probable, however, that he attended long to the mecha*- 
nical part of his business ; for we are told that he dis* 
tinguished himself early by the extraordkiary progress he 
made with his pencil, and was particularly noticed for his 
«kill in -landscape-painting, of which there is a specimen 
at Cbiswick-house. These talents recommended him to the 
earl of Arundel, or, as some say, to William earl of Pem- 
broke. It is certain, however, that at the expence of one 
or other of these lords he travelled over Italy, and the po* 
liter parts of Europe ; saw whatever was recommended by 
its antiquity or value ; and from these plans formed his 
own observations, which, upon his return . home, he per- 
fected by study. He was no sooner at Rome, says Wal- 
pole, than he found himself in his sphere, and acquired 
so much reputation that Christian IV. king of Denmark 
sent for him from Venice, which was the chief place of his 
residence, and where he had studied the works of Palladio, 
and made him his architect, but on what buildings he was 
employed in that countiy we are yet to learn. He had 
been some time possessed of this honourable post when 
that prince^ whose sister Anne had married James I. made 
a visit to England in 1 606 ; and our architect, being de« 
sirous to return to his native country, took that opportu*- 
nity of coming home in the train of his J)anish majesty. 
The magnificence of Jameses reign, in dress, buildings, &c. 
furnished Jones with an opportunity of exercising his ta* 
lents, which ultimately proved an honour to his country* 
Mr. Seward says, we know not upon what authority, that 
the first work he executed after his return from Italy, was 
the decoration of the inside of the church of St. Catharine 
Cree, Leadenhall-street. We know, however, that the 

I GenUMBg^ LXXIII. p. 501. 

J O N E & »7 

queen appointed him her architect, plfesently after his ar« 
rival ; and he was soon taken, in the same character, into 
the service of prince Henry, under whom he disctuorged 
his trust with so. much fidelity and judgment, that the king 
-gave him the reversion of the place of surveyor-general of 
his majesty's works. 

Prince Henry dying in 1612, Mr. Jones made a second 
visit to Italy ; and continued some years there, improving 
himself farther in his &vourite art, till the surveyor's place 
fell to him ; on bis entrance upon which he shewed an un* 
common degree of generosity. The office of his majesty's 
works having, through extraordinary occasions, in the time 
of bis predecessor, contVacted a great debt, the privy- 
council sent for the surveyor, to give his opinion what 
course might be taken to ease bis majesty of it; when 
Jones not only voluntarily offered to serve without pay 
himself, in whatever kind due, until the debt was fully 
discharged, but also persuaded his fellow-officers to do the 
like, by which means the whole arrears were soon cleared. 
It is to the interval between the first and second of Jones's 
travels abroad, that Walpole is inclined to assign those 
buildings of bis which are less pure, and border too much 
on a bastard style of Gothic, which he reformed in his 
grander designs. 

The king, in his progress 1620^ calling at Wilton, the 
seat of the earl of Pembroke, among other subjects, fell 
into a discourse about that surprising group of stones called 
StonehengCy upon Salisbury plain, near Wilton. Our ar-« 
chitect was immediately sent for by lord Pembroke, and 
received bis majesty's commands to make observations and 
deliver bis sentiments on the origin of Stoiie-henge. In 
obedience to this command, he presently set about the 
work ; and having, with no little pains and expence^ 
taken an ex&ct measurement of the whole, and diligently 
searched the foundation, in order to find out the originsd 
form and aspect, he proceeded to compare it with other 
antique buildings which he had any where seen. After, 
much reasoning, and a long series of authorities, his head 
being full of Rome, and Roman edifices and precedents, 
he concluded, that this aiicient and stupendous pile must 
have been originally a Roman temple, dedicated to Coelus, 
the senior of the heathen gods, and built after the Tuscaa 
order ; that it was built when the Romans flourished in 
peace and prosperity in Britain, and, probably, betwixt 

Vol. XIX. H 

Sft J (> 17 K SL 

that ttine dE AgipeoWs goyfetntaeat and the teign of Con- 
staAtine tdM Giemk. This acco^aiik be pfesented t<^ Us roy^ttl 
maslof in the same year, 1620, and was imnedialdy ap-* 
pointed one of the commissioners for r^airiiig Su Paul's- 
dathedral in Lpndon. 

Upon the d^s^th of king James, he was continued in hir 
post bj Charles I. whose consort entertained him likewise 
in the same station. He h^ dm^wn the designs for the 
palace of Whitehall in his former master's time ; and that 
part of it, the banqueting-house, in a most pare and- 
beautiful taste, was now carried into execution. It waa 
first designed for the reception of foreign ambassadors ; 
and the eieling was painted, somts years after, by Rubens, 
with the felicities of Jamea's reign. In June 1633 aa 
order was issued out, requiring him to set about the repa* 
ratioa of St PauVs ; and the work was begjun soon after 
at the east end, the first stone being* laid by Laud, then 
bishop of London, and the fourth by Jones* Iiit this work, 
Mr. Walpole remarks that he made two ca{Mtal fiialts. He 
first renewed the sides with very bad Gothic, and then 
added a Roman portico, magnificent and beautiful indeed, 
but which bad no affinity with the ancient parts that re* 
mained, and made his own Gothic appear ten times heavier. 
He committed the same error at Winchester, thrusting a 
scrisen in the Roman or Grecian taste into- the middle of 
that cathedral. Jones, indeed, was^ by no means successful 
when he attempted Gothic, ibe taste for which had de- 
clined before his time. 

During this reigti he gave many proofs of his genius and 
fancy in the pompous machinery for masques and int^* 
ludes so much in vogue then. Several of these represent* 
ations are still extant in the works of Chapman, Davenant, 
I^aniel,, and particularly Ben Jonson. The subject was 
chosen by the poet, and the speeches and songs were also 
of h]3 composing ; but the invention of the scenes^ orna- 
menta, and dresses of the figures, was the contrivance of 
Jones ^. And in this he acted in harmony with father Ben 
for awhile; but, alxHit 1614, there happened a quarrel 
between them, w4iieh provoked Jonson to ridicule his 

^ In Jonson's " Magqne of QaeeD%** bell in ** Paradise Lott ;** thert betng 

Hie first scene representing an ugly a tradition, that he conceived the first 

htXi, which, filming beneath, smoked idea of that bell from some tbeatricaft' 

unto tte top d the roof, probably far- feprewptationi iwreoted by hufp^omuk 
ailibed Miltoa witb the first hint of bi» 



associate, ihider the character of Lantern Leatberbead, a 
hdbby-horse seller, in his comedy of ** Bartholomew Fair.'* 
Nor did the rupture end but with Jonson's death ; a very 
few years before which, in 1635, he wrote a most virulent 
coarse satire, cdled ''An Expostulation with Inig^ Jones;*' 
and, afterwards, '' An Epigram to^ a Friend ;'* and also a 
third, inscribed to '' Inigo Marquis Would-be." The 
quarrel not improbably took its rise from our architect'i 
riTalsbip in the king^s favour ;' and it is certain the poet 
was much censured at court for this rough usage of his 
rival : of which b^ing advised by Mr. Howell, he suppressed 
the whole satire*. 

In the mean time, Mr. Jones received such encourage* 
meat from the court, that he acquired a handsome fortune f; 
which, however, was much impaired by what he. suffered 
during the rebellion; for, as he had a share in his royal 
master's prosperity, so he had a share too in his ruin. 
Upon the meeting of the long parliament, Nov. 1640, he 
was called before the house of peers, on a complaint against 
him from the parishioners of St. Gregory's in London, for 
damage done to that church, on repairing the cathedral of 
St Paul. The church being old, and standing very near 
the cathedral, was thought to be a blemish to it, and 
therefore was taken down, pursuant to his majesty's signi-^ 
fication, and the orders of the council in 1639, in the 
execution of which, our surveyor no doubt was chiefly 
concerned. But, in answer to the complaint, he pleaded 
the general issue ; and, when the repairing of the cathedral 
ceased, in 1642, some part of the materials remaining 
were, by order of the house of lord?, delivered to the 
parishionerzd of St Gregory's, towards the rebif ildihg of 
their church. This prosecution must have put Mr. Jones to a 
very large expence ; and, during the usurpation afterwards, 
he was constrained to pay 545Z by way of composition for 

* It is said, tiie king forbad it to be 
printed at that time ; but it is printed 
since from a MS. of the iate Vertue, the 
engraver, and is inserted among the 
epigrams in the 6th vol. of Jonaon't 
Works, ediU 1756, in 7 vols. 8vo. 

f Uis fee as surveyor^vas eight shil- 
lings and four pence per day, with an 
allowance of forty-six pounds a year 
for house-rent, besides a clerk, and in- 
cidental expences. What greater re- 
wards he had are not upon record. But 

Philip earl of Pembroke, who, if oiic« 
the patroD of Jones, afterwards fell oat 
with him, says, in- some MS notes oB 
the edition of Stonehenge, that Jones 
^had 16,0001 a year for keeping th« 
king's bouses in repair. This is pro* 
bably exaggerated. Jones built thn 
noble front of Wilton-bouse, and, as 
Walpole ooi^ectures, some disagrees 
^leiit took p]aoe between bim and Uif 
earl while employed here* 

a 2 



kis estate, ad a malignant. After ttie death of Cbarles f*> 
he was continued in his post by Charles 11, ; but it was only 
an empty title at that tinae, nor did Mr. Jones live long: 
enough to make it any better. In reality, the grief, at his- 
years, occasioned, by the fatal calamity of his former mu- 
nificent master, put a period to his life July 21,1 6^2, and 
he was buried in the ehancel of St. Bennei's church, near 
St. Paul's wharf, London, where there was a monument, 
erected to his memory, \which suffered greatly by the- 
dreadful fire in 1666. 

In respect to his character, we are assured, by one who- 
knew him well, that his scientific abilities surpassed most 
of his age. He was a perfect master of the mathematics, 
add was^ not unacquainted with the two learned languages,. 
Greek and Latin, especially the latter ; neither was he 
without some turn for poetry *. A copy of verses com- 
posed by him is published in the " Odcombian Banquet," 
prefixed to Tom Coryate's " Crudities," in 161 1, 4to. But 
his proper character was that of an architect, and the most 
eminent of his time ; on which account he is still generally 
styled the British Vitruvius ; the art of designing being, 
little known iii England till Mr. Jones, under the patronage 
of Charles I. and the earl of Arundel, brought it into use. 
This is the character given hicn by Mr. Webb, who wa& 
bis heir; and who, being born in London, and bred iu 
Merchant Taylors' -school, afterwards resided in Mr. Jones's, 
faniily, married his kinswoman, was instructed by him ia 
matlienoatics and architecture, and designed by him for hi» 
successor in the ojffice of surveyor-general of his majesty's* 
wof ks,, bat was prevented by Sir John Denham. Mr. Webb 
{Kibli^bed some other pieces besides his '^ Vindication oi 
Stone- hei3ge restored f ;'' and dying at Butleigh, his seat 
in Somersetshiire, Oct. 24, 1672, was buried in that church.. 

* Ben Jonson, by way of ridicule, 
calls him, in " Bartbolomew Fair," a 

-' fInigoJones*s Discourse QponStone- 
benge being left imperfect at bis deatb, 
Mr. Webb, at the desire of Dr. Har- 
vey, Mr. Seidte, and others, perfected 
and published it at London in 1655, fol. 
trader the title of ** Stonebenge re- 
stored ;" and prefixed to it a print of 
cor autbor etched by Hollar, from a 
painting of Yandyck. Dr. Stnkeley, in 
bis ** Stone-beoge a Temple of tbe 
Druids/' gires seTecal reasonst fiMr 

ascribing tbe greatest part of this trea- 
tise to Webb. 2. " The Vindication of 
Stcnehenge, Restored," &c. was pub- 
lished in 1665, fol. and s(gatn, together 
witb'^nes's and Dr. Charlton's upon- 
the same subject; in 1725, foK h is 
remarkabfb-, that atinost all tbe difier- 
ent inhabitants of our island bflvre bad* 
their advocates in claiming the honour 
of this antiquity. Mr. Sammes, in his 
*' Britannia,'' will have the structure 10^ 
be PheeniciaB ; Jones and Webb be« 
lieved it Roraao ; . Aiibrey fcbtnks it. 
British i Cbarlum decix£s it from ihc: 

JONES. 101 

Walpole •emimerates among his works which are still in 
part extant, the new quadrangle of St. Jobn^s college, 
Oxford ; the queen^s chapel at St. James's ; the arcade of 
Covent-garden and the church ; Gunnersbury, near Brent- 
ford ; Lincoln^s Inn Chapel, and one or two of the houses 
•in Lincoln's-inn*fields ; Coleshiil in Berkshire, and Gobham 
"ball in Kent; the. Grange, in Hampshire; the queen's 
lioiise at Greenwich, &c. Several other of his buildings 
may be seen in CampbeH's " Vitruvius Britannicus." The 
principal of his designs were published by Mr. Kent in 
1727, fol. as also some of his less designs in 1744, fol« 
Others were published by Mr. Isaac Ware. Our artist left 
in MS. some curious notes upon Palladio's ^'Architecture/* 
now in Worcester college, Oxford, some of which are in- 
serted in an edition of Palladio, published at London, 
1714, fo). by Mr. Leoni; which notes, he says, raise the 
value of the edition above all the preceding ones. His 
•original drawings for Whitehall-palace are also in Wor- 
cester library.* 

JONES (John), an old medical writer, was either born 
in Wales, or was of Welsh extraction ; studied at both 
our universities, took a medical degree at Cambridge, and 
practised with great reputation at Bath, in Nottingham- 
shire, and Derbyshire. He mentions curing a person at 
Louth in 1562, and the date of his last publication i« 

His principal pieces are, ^' The Dial of Agues,^^ 1556; 
^^ The Benefit of the antient Bathes of Buckstone,** 1572; 
^* The Bathes of Bath's ayde,*' 1572 ; *' k brief, excellent, 
and profitable Discourse of the natural beginning of all 
growing and living things, &c." 1574: perhaps this is 
taken from *^ Galen's Four Books of Elements," which be 
translated and printed the same year, or is the same book 
with another title ; *^ The Art and Science of preserving 
the Body and Soul in Health,'* &c. 1579, 4to.* 

JONES (John), a learned English Benedictine, was 
born in London in 1575, although originally of a family 

Danes ; and bitbop Nicolson is of opi- Essay, endeavouring to prove that the 

ttian, that the Saxons have as just a Language ef China is the primitive Lan- 
title to it as any^ At last. Dr. Sluke- ' guage." 4. He also translated, from 

ley begins the round again» and main- the Italian into English, ** The History 

^iss it,' with Sammes, to be of a Phoe- of the World," written by George 1>- 

ilMian original. But to return to Webb, ragnota. 
frho also poblisbed^ 3. '* An Historical 

1 Biog. Diet. — ^Walpole*s Anecdotes. 

* Aikin's Biog. Memoirs of Medicipiek-— Ath.- Ox. vol. L 

tea JONES. 

0f BreckBOcksbire. He was educated at Merchant Taylors* 
school, from whence he was elected a scholar of St. John's 
college, Oxford, in 1591, where he was chamber*fellow 
with Mr. Laud, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury. 
Here he studied civil law, took a bachelor's degree in that 
faculty, and was made a fellow of the college. In conse- 
quence of a course of reading on the controversies of the 
lime, he embraced the doctrines of popery, and, going 
abroad, became a Benedictine monk in Spain, assuming 
the name of Leander i, Sancto Martino. He then pursued 
bis studies at Compostella, and was created D. D. When 
the English religious of his order had formed themselves 
into a congregation, he was invited to Douay, and made 
professor of Hebrew and divinity in St. Vedast's college, 
during which time he was vefy instrumental in founding a 
monastery of Benedictine nuns at Cambray. He was also 
appointed their confessor, prior of the monastery of Douay, 
and twice president of the English congregation. It has 
been said that archbishop Laud gave him an invitation to 
England, for which various reasons were assigned, and, 
among others, that they might consult abou* the reunion 
qI the churches of England and Rome ; but there seems 
no great foundation for this story. That he did return to 
England, however, is certain, as he died at London Dec. 
17, 1636, and was buried in the chapel at Sbmerset>hous^. 
He wrote, 1. ^' Sacra ars mempriie, ad Scripturas divine 
in promptu habendas, &c. accommodata," Douay, 1623, 
Svo. 2. <^ Coociliatio locorum communium totius Scrip- 
turse,** ibid. 1623. He ^Iso edited ^* Biblia Sacra, ctim 
glossa interliiieari,'' 6 vols. fol. ; ''^ Opera Blosii ;" arid 
*' Arnobius contra gentes," with notes, Douay, 1634; and 
had some hand in father Reyner*s ^^ Apostohttus Benedic«> 
tino)*um,*^ 1626." 

JONES (John), an English divine of some note for 
exciting a controversy respecting the Liturgy, was born in 
1700, and is supposed to have been a native of Carmarthen. 
He was admitted of Worcester college, Oxford, where he 
took the degree of B. A. about 1721, and quitted the unir 
Tersity in or before 1726, in which year he received 

Eriest's orders at Buckden, from Dr. Reynolds, bishop of 
.incoln. He bad a curacy in that diocese, but in what 
part is not known. In 1741 he was resident at AbbotSr 

' Ath. OxoD. vol. l.-*-Dodd*8 Cburvlr History. 

J O N B S. 103 

ftipton in Himttngfdonifaire, bqcI toon after was presented 
to (be ricarage of Alconborjr, wUoh be resigoed in 1 751 
for tiie rectory of Boulae-Hurst in Bedfordshire. In 1755 
he was vicar oiF Hitchii>, and in 1759 accepted the 'Curaig^ ^ 
<tf Welwyn from Dr. Young, and continued there until 
1765, when that celebrated poet died, and Mr. Jones wtti 
appointed o»e of his execotors. ile^aftervrards returned 
to Bookie^Hurst, and probably obtained no other prefeiw 
aaeot He was killed by a faU from bis horse in going to 
Abbots-Ripton, but in what year we have not been able 
4o discover, although such a circumstance muat hasiw beM 
Isnown to his friends, who, however, have neglected to 
record it. After his death, many, if not all his manu- 
cripts, passed into the hands of the Rev. Thomas DawSon, 
M. D. a dissenting minister of Hackney, whence they 
passed to the dissenters' library in Redoross-^street. Some 
biogrq[>hioal notices which have appeared in the Gentle^ 
man's Magazine were extracted from them. Mr. Nichols 
has given, an extensive series of extracts from his literary 
correspondence with Dr. Birch, from which many partis 
cnlars of hia talents and character may be gleaned. Hi6 
chief work was entitled *^ Free and Candid Disquisitions,'^ 
published in 1749. These contained many observations 
on the defects and improprieties in the liturgical forms of 
faith and worship of the established church, and proposals 
of .amendments and alterations of such passages as were 
liable to reasonable objections. There was also a compila- 
tion of authorities taken from the writings of some emi" 
nent divines of the church of England,* with a view to shev^ 
the necessity, or at least the expedience, of revising the 
liturgy, &c. Schemes like this have succeeded each othel* 
since the time of Dr. Clarke, but have never been attended 
with complete conviction, either of their necessity or ex-* 
pedience.^ The author's name did not appear to this pub* 
lication, and Mr. Blackburne, whom he consulted previous 
to publication, was dissatisfied with hift timidity. He 
wrote, however, a pamphlet in defence of it, and other 
pamphlets sppearpro and con ; but the controversy was of 
no long duration. In 1765 be published ** Catholic Faith 
and Practice," and << A Letter to a Friend in the Coun-^ 
try;" but with the subjects of these we are unac* 

i Nichob'8 Bowyer.— Gent. M^g. LXX^I. Parti, p. 510. 

104 JONES. 

JONES (Thomas)i an eminent and learned tutor of the 
tiniversity of Cambridge» was born at Beriew in Montgo- 
meryshire, June 23, 1756. His education, till be entered 
on bis twelfth year, was confined to the instruction of a 
common country school, first at Beriew, and afterwards in 
the neighbouring parish of Kerry. During the time that 
be frequented the latter school, the vicar of the parish, 
discovering in him those talents which he afterwards so 
eminently displayed, advised his mother (for he lost hb 
father at an early age) to send him to the grammar-school 
at Shrewsbury, wfaere he continued nearly seven years, 
and was inferior to none of his schoolfellows, either in 
attention to study or in regularity of conduct. In May 
1774, be^was admitted of 8t. John's college, Cambridge, 
and came to reside there in October following. From that 
time the excellence of his genius became more particularly 
conspicuous. He bad acquired, indeed, at school, a com- 
petent share of classical learning ; but his mind was less 
adapted to Greek and Latin composition than to tbe inves- 
tigation of philosophical truths. At the public examina- 
tions of St. John's college he not only was always in the 
first class, but wa^ without comparison the best mathema- 
tician of bis yean- His first summer vacation was devoted 
entirely to his favourite pursuit ; and at that early period 
be became acquainted with mathematical works, which are 
aeldom attempted before the third year of academical 
study. He remained at St. John's college till after the 
public examination in June 1776, when, having no prospect 
t)f obtaining a fellowship, there being already a fellow of 
tbe diocese of St. Asaph in that college, and the statutes 
limiting tbe fellowships to one from each diocese, he re- 
moved to Trinity college, ^ Here he took his bacbelor-s 
degree in 1779, and his superiority was so decided, that 
no one ventured to contend with him. The honour of 
senior wrangler, as it is called in academical phrase, was 
conceded before tbe examination began, and the second 
/place bedame the highest object of eempetition. ' If any 
thing was wantine to shew bis superiority, it would be 
rendered sufficientTy conspicuous by tbe circumstance, that 
be was tutor to tbe second wrangler, now the learned Dr. 
Herbert Marsh, professor of divinity at Cambridge, who 
acknowledged that for the hpnour which he then obtainedi 
be was indebted to tbe instruction of his frieud. 

J O N E 8. 105 

In the same year in which Mr. Jones took his -bachelor^s 
degree be was appointed assistant tutor at Trinity college. 
In Oct. 1781 he was elected felloMr, and in Oct 1787, on 
the resignation of Mr. Cranke* he was appointed to tl^ 
•office of head tutor, which he held to the day of his death. 
, In 1786 and 1787 be presided as moderator in the philoso- 
phical schools, where his acuteness and impartiality, were 
equally conspicuous. It was about this time that he intro- 
duced a grace, by which fellow<-commoners, who used to 
obtain the degree of bachelor of arts with little or no exa- 
mination, were subjected to the same academical exercises 
as other under-graduates. During many years he con- 
tinued to take an active part in the senate^house examina- 
tions; but for some years before bis death confined himself 
to the duties of college-tutor. These, indeed, were suf- 
ficiently numerous tq engage his whole attention ; and be 
displayed in them an ability which was rarely equalled, 
with an integrity which never was surpassed. Being per- 
fect master of bis subjects, he always placed them in the 
clearest point of view ; and by his manner pf treating 
them he made them interesting even to those who had 
otherwise no relish fqr mathematical inquiries. His lectures 
on astronomy attracted more than usual attention, since 
that branch of philosophy afforded the most ample scope 
for inc'ulcating (what, indeed, he never neglected in other 
branches) his favourite doctrine of final causes; for ar- 
guing from the contrivance to the contriver, from the 
.structure of the universe to the being and attributes of 
God. And this doctrine he enforced, not merely by ex- 
plaining the harmony which results from the established' 
laws of nature, but by shewing the confusion which would 
have arisen from the adoption of bther laws. His lectures 
on the principles of fluxions were delivered with unusual 
clearness ; and there was so much originality in them, that 
bis pupils often expressed a wish that they might be printed. 
.But such was his modesty, that though frequently urged, be 
never would consent ; and when he signed his will a short 
time before his death, he made the most earnest request 
to Dr. Mar^, that none of his manuscripts should be 
printed. But it is a consolation to know, that his lectures 
in philosophy will not be buried in oblivion : all his writings 
on those subjects were delivered to his successor in the 
tuition, and,* though less amply than by publication, will 
coatinue to benefit mankind. The only things he ever 


106 J O N £ 6. 

fmblislied were ^' A Sermon on Dadlif>g/' and ^ An Ad<- 
dfess to tbe Volunteers of Montgomeryshire.^ The former 
was published as a warning to the young men of the uni- 
irersity, soon after a fatal duel had taken place there. The 
latter, which he wrote with great animation (for he was a 
zealous advocate of the volunteer system) was calculated to 
rouse tbe volunteers to a vigorous defence of their country; 

As tbe admissions under him as* tutor were numerous 
lieyond example, the labour and anxiety attendant on tbe 
discbarge of his duties gradually impaired a constitution 
which was naturally feeble. During many years he suf- 
fered from an infirmity of tbe breast, and wb'en he seemed 
to have recovered from this complaint, was attacked by 
another of more dangerous tendency, an internal nlcei'^ 
which after some rariations iu the symptoms, and some ap« 
pearance of relief, proved fatal on July 18, 1807,. Being^ 
•t that time in London for advice, he was, at bis own de« 
aire, interred in the burial-ground of Dulwich-college. 

His academical character has been already described. 
As a companion be was highly convivial ; he possessed % 
Tein of humour peculiar to himself; and no one told It 
story with more effect. His manners were mild and on* 
assuming, and his gentleness was equalled only by his 
firmness. As a friend be had no other limit to his kindneffs 
than bis ability to serve. Indeed his whole life was a life 
of benevolence, and he wasted his strength in exerting 
himself for others. The benefits he conferred were fre- 
quently ^ great, and the persons who subsisted by his 
bounty were so numerous, that he was often distressed in 
the midst of affluence. And though he was head tutor of 
Trinity-college almost twenty years, with more pupils than 
any of his predecessors, he never acquired a sufficient 
capital to enable him to retire from office, and still con« 
tinue his accustomed benevolence. 

In theology and politics Mr. Jones appears to have held 
some sentiments, to which his biographer adverts with so 
much delicacy and caution, that we cannot guess at them ; 
when he adds, however, that ^^ his sentiments on various 
speculative points underwent a material alteration,^' we 
may infer that such an alteration was for the better. ** Of 
bis practical theology,'* says Dr. Marsh, ** #bich remained 
always the same, the best description which can be given 
is the description of his latter end. He waited the ap- 
proach of death with a dignified firmness^ a placid resigna^ 



(ioo, and an unaflSeeted piety, which are rarely equalled. 
Even after his eyes were grown din and hb speech began 
to faalter, be uttered with great fervency what be bad fre- 
quently repeated during ^e course of his illness, that, 
prayer in the ' Visitation of the Sick/ ^ Sanctify, we be- 
aeech thee, this thy fatherly correction, that the sense cf 
sny weakness may add strength to my faith and seriousness 
to my rq»eotance.^ On these last words be dwelt with pe- 
culiar emphasis. About the same time he said to his surw 
rounding friends, as distinctly as the weakness of his voice 
would permit, * I am conscious, no doubt, of many fail- 
ings; but I believe I have employed the abilities with 
which God has blessed me to the advantage of my fellow- 
creatures. I resign myself, then, with confidence into the 
bands of aoiy Maker.' He shortly after expired, without k 
groan or struggle.*' V 

JONES (William), an eminent mathematician, was born 
in 1680, in the island of Anglesey, North Wales. His 
parents were yeomen, or little farmers, in that island, and 
gave to their son the best education which their circum- 
stances would allow ; but he owed his future fame and for- 
tune to the diligent cultivation of the intellectual powers 
by which he was eminently distinguished. Addicted from 
early life to the study of mathematics, be commenced his 
career of advan<iement in the humble office of a teacher of 
these sciences on board a man of war. In this situation he 
attracted the notice, and obtained the friendship of lord 
Ansoh. He appeared as an author in his. 22d year ; when 
his treatise on the art of navigation was much approved. 
We may judge of his predominant taste for literature and 
science by a trivial circumstance which occurred at the 
capture of Vigo, in 1702. Having joined his comrades in 
pillaging the town, he Selected a bookseller's shop, in hope 
of obtaining some valuable plunder ; but, disappointed in 
his expectations, he took up a pair of scissars, which Was 
his only booty-, and which he afterwards exhibited to his 
friends as a trophy of bis military success. On his return 
to England, he established himself as a teacher of mathe« 
matics in London ; and here, in 1706, he published his 
'< Synopsis Palmariorum Matheseos ; or, a new Introdttc«> 
don to the Mathematics," a work which has ever since 
Wfen held in the highest estimation as a compendious but 

> McBMirt by Dr« Manh m the AUi«De«ai> ? <4* IIL 


. ieomprehensive sumniaiy of mathematical science. Mr. 
Jones was no less esteemed and respected on account of 
his private character and pleasing manners, than for his 
natural talents and scientific attainments ; so that he reck* 
oned among his friends the most eminent persons of the 
period in which he lived. Lord Hardwicke selected him 
as a companion on the circuit, when he was chief justice; 
and when he afterwards held the great seal, conferred upon 
him the office of ^retary for the peace, as a testimony of 
his friendship and regard. He was also in habits of inti- 
mate acquaintance with lord Parker, president of the royal 
society, sir Isaac Newton, Halley, Mead, and Samuel John- 
son. So highly was his merit appreciated by sir Isaac 
Newton, that he prepared, with his permission, and very 
much to his satisfaction, a very elegant edition of small 
tracts in the higher mathematics. Upon the retirement of 
lord Macclesfield to Sherborne castle, Mr. Jones resided 
in his family, and instructed his lordship in the sciences. 
Whilst he occupied this situation he had the misfortune, by 
the failure of a banker, to lolie the greatest part of that 
property which he had -accumulated by the most laudable 
industry and economy ; but the loss was in a great measure 
repaired to him by the kind attentidn of his lordship, who 
procured for him a sinecure place of considerable emolu- 
ment. He was afterwards offered, by the same nobleman, a 
more lucrative situation ; which, however, he declined, that 
be might be more at leisure to devote himself to his favourite 
scientific pursuits. In this retreat he formed an acquaint* 
ance with miss Mary Nix, the daughter of a cabinet-maker, 
who had become eminent in his profession, and whose ta- 
lents and manners had recommended him to an intimacy 
with^lord Macclesfield. This acquaintance terminated in 
marriage ; and the connection proved a source of personal 
satisfaction to Mr. Jones himself, and of permanent honour 
to his name and family. « By this lady Mr. Jones had three 
children *, two-sons and a daughter. One son died in in- 
fancy ; the other will be the subject of the next article ; 
and the daughter, who was married to Mr. Rainsford, an 
opulent merchant retired from business, perished misera- 
bly, in 1802, in consequence of her clothes accidentally 
taking fire The death of Mr. Jones was occasioned by a 
polypus in the heart, which, notwithstanding the medical 
attention and iissistance of Dr. Mead, proved incurable. 
He died in July 1749. 

JONES. '109 

. Mr. Jones^^s papers in the Philosophical Transactions ftre: 
*^A compendious disposition of Equations for exhibiting 
the relations of Goniometrical Lines," vol. XLIV. "A 
Tract on Logarithms," vol. LXL •* Account of the per- 
son killed by lightning in Tottenham-court-chapel, and its 
effects on the building," vol. LXII. " Properties of the 
Conic Sections^ deduced by a compendious method,** voL 
LXIIL In all these works of Mr. Jones, a remarkable 
neatness, brevity, and accuracy, everywhere prevails. He 
seemed to delight in a very short and comprehensive mode 
of expression and arrangement ; insomuch that sometimes 
what he has contrived to express in two or three page^, 
would occupy a little volume in the ordinary style of writ- 
ing. Mr. Jones, it is said, possessed the best mathematical 

• library in England ; which by will he left to lord Maccles- 
field. He had collected also a great quantity of manu- 
script papers and letters of former mathematicians^ which 
have often proved useful to writers of their lives, &c. After 
his death, these were dispersed, and fell into different per^ 
sons bands ; many of them, as well as of Mr. Joneses own 
papers, were possessed by the late Mr. John Robertson, 
librarian and clerk to the royal society ; at whose death 
Dr. Hutton purchased a considerable qviantity of them. 
From such collections as these it was that Mr. Jones was 
enabled to give that first and elegant edition, 1711, in 4to, 
of several of Newton's papers, that might otherwise have 
been lost, entitled ^^ Analysis per quantitatum Series, Flnx- 
iones, ac Differ^tias : cum Enumeratione Linearum Ter- 
tii Ordinis." 

We learn from the ^* Anecdotes of Bowyer," that the 
plan of another work was formed by this eminent mathe- 
matician, intended to be of the same nature with the '^ Syn- 
opsis," but far more copious and diffusive, and to serve 
as a general introduction to the sciences, or, which is the 
same thing, to the mathematical and philosophical works 
of Newton. A work of^his kind had long been a deside- 
ratum in literature, and it required a geometrician of the 
first class to sustain the weight of so important an under-> 
taking; for which, as M. d'Alembert justly observes, "the 

. combined force of the greatest mathematicians would not 
have been more than sufficient." The ingenious author 
was conscious how arduous a task he had begun ; but his 
very numerous acquaintance, and particularly his friei^d 
the earl of Macclesfield, never ceased importuning and 

na JONES. 

urging him to persist^ till be hid finished the whole wOtfc, 
the result of all his knowledge and experience through » 
life of near 70 years^ and a standing monnmenti as he had 
reason to hope, of his talents and industry. He had 
si:arcely .sent the first sheet to the press, when a fatal ill* 
i>ess obliged him to discontinue the impression ; and a few 
days before his death, he intrusted the MS. fairly tran- 
scribed by an amanuensis, to the care of lord Maccles" 
field, who promised to publish it, as well for the honour 
of the author as for the benefit of his family, to whom the 
property of the book belonged. The earl survived his 
friend many years : but the ^^ Introduction to the Mathe* 
tics*' was forgotten or neglected ; and,' after his death, the 
IMS. was not to be found : whether it was accidentally de-^^ 
stroyed, which ia hardly credible, or whether, as hath beet^ 
suggested, it had been lent to some geometrician, unworthy 
to bear ^be natoe either of a philosopher or a man, who haa 
since concealed it, or possibly burned the original for fear 
of detection. Lord Teignmouth, however, informs us, in 
bis life of Mr. Joues's illustrious Son, that there is no evi-* 
dence in his memoranda to coniGrin or disprove this account. * 
JON£S (Sir William), one of the most accomplished 
scholars in Europe, the son of the preceding, was born 
Sept. 28, 1746. As bis father died when he had scarcely 
reached his third year^ the care of his education devolved 
on his mother, whose talents and virtues eminently quali- 
fied her for the task. Her husband, with affectioimte pre- 
cision, characterized her as one who ** was virtuous with- 
out blemish, generous without extravagance, frugal but 
not niggard, cheerful but not giddy, close but not sullen, 
ingenious but not conceited, of spirit but not passionate^ 
of tier company cautious, in her friendship trusty, to her 
parents dutiful, and to her husband ever faithful, loving^ 
and obedient." She must have been yet a more extraor* 
dinary woman than all this imports ; for we are told that 
under her husband's tuition she became A considerable pro« 
ficient in Algebra, and with a view to act as preceptor to 
her sister^s son, who was destined for the sea, she ntade 
herself perfect in trigonometry, and the theory of naviga^ 
tion, sciences of which it is probable she knew nothing 
before marriage, and which she now pursued amidst the 
anxious, and, usually, monopolis^iiig cares of a family. 

1 Lord Teignmouth'0 Life of sir William Jooes.^HuUoa's Dictionary.— » 
Kioiiois*t Bowjer. 

J O N £ a 111 

In educaidng bet aoA, she appears to have preferred a 

thod ak once affectiooate and judicioua. Discovering in 

* ' :i a natural ciirioaity and thirst for knowledge, beyond 

\at children generally display, she made the gratification 

^ these passions to depend on his own industry, and con- 

' ^ntly poinied to a book as the soorce of information. So 

iccessful was this method, that in his £oarth year be wai 

ble distinctly and rapidly to read any English book, while 

lis memory was agreeably exereised in getting by beift 

uch popular pieces of poetry as were likely to engage tbn 

ancy of a child. His taste for reading gradually became 

X habit ; and having in his fifth year, while looking over a 

Bible, fallen upon the sublime description of the Angel 

in the tenth chapter of the Apocalypse, the impression 

which his imagination received from it was qever effaced^ 

In his sixth year an attempt was made to teach him 
Latin, but the accpiisition of a new language had as yet no 
charms^ At Michaelmas 1753, when he had completed 
his seventh year, he was placed at Harrow-school, vnder 
the tuition of Dr. Tfaackery. Here dnring the first two^ 
years he applied with diligence to his prescribed tasks, but 
without indicating that superiority of talents which in 
eminent characters biographers are desirous to trace to riie 
earliest years. It was enough, however, that he learned 
what was taught, and it was fortunate that bis mind was 
gradually informed, without being perplexed. During die 
vacations his mother- resumed her ** delightful task,'' and 
initiated him in th^ art of drawing, in which she excelled* 
Her private instructions became more necessary and indeed 
indispensible, when in his ninth year bis- thigh*boiie was 
accidentally fractured. During his confinement, which lasted 
twelve months, his mother diverted his taste for reading to 
the best English poets, whom he already endeavoured to 
imitate ; but whether any of these very early e£ki^t» are in 
eodstence his biographer has not informed usi 

On hia return to school, he was placed in the ^me elasa 
which he should have attained if the progress of his studies 
had not been interrupted. Whether this- was from fnvour 
or caprice in the master, it might have been attended with 
fatal conisequences to young Jones, had his temper been 
of that iiiascible and wayw»'d kind which sometimes ae« 
companies genius. He found himself in a situati 
which he was necessarily a year behind his scho^l^f 
and yet his master affected to presume on his eqr 

112 JONES* 

ficiency, and goaded bim by punishment and degradatuMi 
to perform tasks for which he had received uo preparatory 
instructions. In a few months, however, he applied him- 
self so closely during his leisure hours to recover what he 
bad lost, that he soon reached the head of his class, and 
uniformly gained every prize offered for the best exercise. 
In bis twelfth year he moved into the upper school, when 
be entered upon the study of the Greek, and, as was hia 
practice when in the lower, exercised himself in various' 
translations and compositions which, not being required by 
his instructors, elevated him in the eyes of his school-fel- 
lows, while his kindness prevented the usual effects of 
jealousy. They felt nothing unpleasant in the superiority 
of a school-fellow whose talents were employed in their 
service, either to promote their learning or their amuse- 
ments. On one occasion when they proposed to act the 
play of the ^^ Tempest,'' but had no copy at hand, Jie 
wrote it for them so correctly from memory, that they acted 
it with as much reputation as they probably could have 
derived from the best edition. His own part was Prospero. 
On another occasion, he composed a dramatic piece on 
the story of Meleager, which was acted by his school-fel- 
lows, as a tragedy. Such efforts of memory and invention 
at so early an age are truly wonderful. His tragedy, in- 
deed, will not bear criticism ; but the lines which his bio- 
grapher has given as a specimen, will not suffer much by 
a comparison with the general strain of verses in the infant 
aera of English tragedy. 

His predilection for whatever concerned poetry, appear- 
ed in the pains, he now took to study the varieties of the 
Roman metre. His proficiency was indeed so superior to 
that of most of his associates in every pursuit, that they 
were glad to oonsult him as a preceptor, and to borrow 
from him, as a friend, those helps which they were other- 
wise unable ta procure. — During the holidays he learned 
French and arithmetic, and as he was admitted to the com- 
pany of the ingenious philosopher Mr. Baker, and his 
learned friends, his mother recommended to him the 
^^ Spectacle de la Nature," as a book that might enable 
bim to understand their conversation. He obeyed her in- 
junction, as he uniformly did upon every occasion, and was 
probably not uninterested in many parts of that ouce in- 
structive work; but he had not, yet begun to make excur- 
sions into the field of natural history, and be acknowledged 

JONES. 113 

th^i h^ was more entertained with the Arabian Tales and 

Although he did not yet cease to be the boy^ he fre- 
quently gave indications of the man, and perhaps in nothing 
more than the useful turn of his amusements, which ge- 
nerally had some reference to his studies, and proved that 
Jearning was uppermost in his mind. Of this disposition, 
the following anecdote, related by lord Teignmouth, is 
pleasingly characteristic. — ** He invented a political play, 
in which Dr. William Bennet, bishop of Cloyne, and the 
celebrated Dr. Parr, were his principal associates. They 
divided the fields in the neighbourhood of Harrow, accord* 
ing to a map of Greece, into states and kingdoms ; each 
fixed upon one as his dominions, and assumed an ancient 
name. Some of their schoolfellows consented to be styled 
barbarians, who were to invade their territories, and attack 
their hillocks, which were denominated fortresses. The 
chiefs vigorously defended their respective domains against 
the incursions of the enemy ; and in these imitative wars, 
the young statesmen held councils, made vehement ha- 
rangues, aiid composed memorials ; all doubtless very 
boyish, but calculated to fill their minds with ideas of le- 
gislation and civil government. In these unusual amuse- 
ments, Jones was ever the leader; and he might justly 
have appropriated to himself the words of Catullus : 

* £go gymnasii flos> ego decus olei\*' 

Dr. Bennet informs us that ^< great abilities, great par- ' 
ticularity of thinking, fondness for writing verses and plays 
of various kinds, and a degree of integrity and manly cou- 
rage, distinguished bi6i even at this period.*' And Dr. 
Thackeray, the master of the school, however niggardly 
in general of bis praises before the objects of bis esteem, 
confessed in private that ^^ he was a boy of so active a 
mind, that if he were left naked and friendless on Salis- 
bury Plain, be would nevertheless find the road to fame 
and riches.'* When Dr. Sumner succeeded. Dr. Thackeray 
in 176), be more publicly distinguished Mr. Jones, as one 
whose proficiency was marked by uncommon diligence and 
success. To a critical knowledge of Greek and Latin, be 
began now to add some acquaintance with the Hebrew, and 
even learned the Arabic characters, while during the va- 
cations, he improved his former knowledge of the French 
and Italian languages. His ardent thirst for knowledge. 

Vol. XIX. I 

11* JONES. 

however, at this time^ induced him to study with so littlf 
intermission from sleep or exercise, that hei was beginning 
to contract a weakness of sight. On this occasion, his 
friends interposed their advice, and for some time he con^ 
sented to relax from fatigues so unsuitable to his teif der 
age^. It is probable, however, that he bad already gqne 
too far, for weakness of sight was one of the first com- 
plaints which impeded his studies when in India. 

A letter to hi$ sister, written at the age of fourteen, 
which his biographer has inserted at this period of his his-' 
tory, contains refleptions on the folly of sorrowing for th^ 
death of friends, which perhaps might be placed in a mor^ 
just light, but from one of his age, certainly indicate very 
extraordinary powers of thinking; and the transition fro^i 
these to the common trifles of correspondence, shews an 
inclination to play the youthful philosopher, which gives 
considerable interest to this singular epistle. The reflec- 
tions, it is true, are trite, but they could not have beeif 
trite to one just entering upon life, nor could so lively a 
youth have long revolved the uncertainties of fame and 

When he had attained the age of seventeen, his friendsj 
determined to remove him to one of the universities, but. 
bis mother had been advised to place him in the office of 
some special pleader. He had, in the course of his desul- 
tory reading, perused a few law books, and frequently 
amused his mother's visitors by discussing topics of legal 
subtlety. But the law had not taken a complete hold on 
his inclination at this time, and his preceptpr Dr. Sumnei*. 
easily prevailed in recommending an academical course.' 
He was, accordingly, in the sprifig of 1764, entered of 
University college, Oxford, in which city his mother now 
took up her residence. This latter circumstance was pe- 
culiarly grateful to Mr. Jones, who was as much distin- 
guished above the niass of mankind for filial affection, as 
for his literary accomplishments. 

The passion be had imbibed for general learning, and 
the desultory manner in which his unremitting application 
left him at liberty to indulge it, were at first in danger of 
being interrupted by the necessity of attending to a routine 
of instructions from which he imagined he could derive 
ver^ little advantage. But in time he became accustomed' 
to the mode of study then prevalent, and withput neglect- 
ing any thing which it was necessary to know, .piursued at 

JONES. 115, 

his leisure hours that course o( classical and polite litera-^ 
tare which had already proved that he was not to be sa- 
tiated by the common allowances of education. Oriental 
literature presented itself to his mind with unusual charms, 
as if the plan of his future life, and the avenues to his 
future fame, had been regularly laid down before him ; 
and he had not applied himself long to the Arabic and 
Persic, before be conceived that greater advantages were 
to be reaped from those languages, than from the mora 
popular treasures of Greece and Rome. Such was at the 
same time his enthusiasm in this undertaking, that having 
accidentally discovered one Mirza, a native of Aleppo, in 
London, he prevailed on him to accompany him to Ox- 
ford, not without hopes that he might induce some of his 
companions to avail themselves of this Syrian's labours, an4 
assist him in defraying the expence of his maintenance ; 
but in this he was disappointed, and- for some months the 
whole of the burthen fell upon himself. 

During his residence at Oxford, his time was regularly 
divided into portions, each of which was filled up with the 
study of the ancients or moderns, and t|;)ere have been fevv 
examples of such extensjve accumulation of knowledge by 
one so young ; yet, amidst this severe course of application, 
he regularly apportioned some time for the practice of 
those manly exercises which promote health. As all this 
necessarily became expensive, be anxiously wished for a 
fellowship, that he might be enabled to relieve his mother 
from a burthen which she could ill support. He had ob« 
tained a scholarship a few months after his matriculation,, 
but a fellowship appeared more remote, and he was begin- 
ning to despair of achieving this object, when he. received 
jin offer to be private tutor to lord Althorpe, now earl 
Spencer. He had been recommended to the Spencer fa- 
mily by Dr. Shipley, who had seen and approved some of 
his performances at Harrow, and particularly a Greek ora- 
tion in prai'se of Lyon, who founded the school at th$kt place 
in the reign of Elizabeth. 

This proposal was cheerfully accepted by Mr. Jones,, 
. and, in the summer of 1765, he went for the first time to 
Wimbledon Park, to take upon him the education of his 
pupil, who was just seven years old, and with whose man-* 
nerd he ,was delighted. It would be needless to point out 
the advantages of such a situation ^s this to a young man 
of Jones's accomplishments and expectations. It presented 

I 2 

116 JONES. 

every thing he could wish, liberal patronage to promote 
his views, elegant society to form his manners, and oppor- 
tunities for study, which were inferior only to what he 
enjoyed at Oxford. In the course of the following summer, 
he obtained a fellowship, which, although not exceeding 
one hundred pounds, appeared to him a sufficient provi- 
sion, and a solid independency. His time was now divided 
between Oxford, London, Wimbledon, and Althorpe ; and 
in 1767, he visited the Continent with the Spencer family, 
and during this trip, which was but short, acquired some 
knowledge of the German language. Before? setting out, 
and in the twenty-first year of his age, he began his Com- 
mentaries on Asiatic Poetry, in imitation of Dr. Lowth's 
Prelections at Oxford on the sacred poetry of the Hebrews; 
and soon after his return, in the winter of 1767, he nearly 
completed his Commentaries, transcribed an Asiatic ma- 
nuscript on Egypt and the Nile, and copied the keys of 
the Chinese language, which he wished to add to his other 

Into these pursuits Mr. Jones appears to have been in- 
sensibly l#d, without the hopes of higher gratification than 
the pleasure they afforded ; but a circumstance now oc- 
curred which may be coniSidered afe the first step of his pro- 
gress to what finally constituted his fame as a scholar an4 
public character. The circumstance is thus related by 
lord Teignmouth, nearly in Mr. Jones's words : 

** The king of Denmark, then upon a visit to this coun- 
try (1768), had brought with him an eastern manuscript, 
containing the life of Nadir Shah, which he was desirous 
of having translated in Englancil. The secretary of state^ 
with whom the Danish minister had conversed upon the 
subject, sent the volume to Mr. Jones, requesting him to 
give a literal translation of it in the French language : but 
he wholly declined the task, alleging for his excuse> the 
dryness of the subject, the difficulty of the style, and 
chieily his want both Of leisure and ability, to enter upon 
an undertaking so fruitless and laborious. He mentioned; 
however, a gentleman, with whom he was not then ac- 
quainted, but who had distinguished himself by the trans- 
lation of a Persian history, and some popular tales from 
the Persic, as capable of gratifying the wishes of bis Da- 
nish Majesty. Major Dow, the writer alluded to, excused 
himself on account of his numerous engagements; and the. 
application to Mr. JouSts was renewed. It was hinted, that 



his <;omp1iance would be of no small advantage to him, at 
his entrance into life ; that it would procure him some mark 
of distinction, which would be pleasing to him; and above 
all, that it would be a reflection upon this country, if the 
king should be obliged to carry the manuscript to France. 
Incited by these motives, and principally the last, unwill* 
ing to be thought churlish or morose, and eager for repu- 
tation, he undertook the work, and sent the specimen of 
it to his Danish majesty, who returned his approbation of 
the style and method, but desired that the whole transla- 
tion might be perfectly literal, and the oriental images ac^ 
curately preserved. The task would have been far easier 
to him, if he had been directed to finish it in Latin ; for 
the acquisition of a French style was infinitely more tedious, 
and it was necessary to have every chapter corrected by a 
native of France, before it could be offered to the discern- 
ing eye of the public, since in every language there are 
certain peculiarities of idiom, and nice shades of meaning, 
which a foreigner can never attain to perfection. The 
work, however arduous and unpleasant, was completed in 
a year, not without repeated hints from the secretary's 
office, that it was expected with great impatience by the 
court of Denmark. The translation was not, however, 
published until 1770, Forty copies upon large paper were 
sent to Copenhagen ; one of them, bound with uncommon 
elegance, for the king himself : and the others as presents 
to his courtiers." 

What reward he received for this undertaking is but ob- 
scurely related. His Danish majesty, we are told, sent 
him a diploma, constituting him a member of the royal 
society of Copenhagen, and recommended him in the 
strongest terms, to the favour and benevolence of his own 
sovereign. Jn all this there seems but an inadequate re- 
compense for a work which at that time perhaps no person 
could have executed but himself^. 

* Mr. Jonesi in a letter to one of hii 
correspoodenu, says, ** When he (the 
king of Denmark) was considering what 
recompense he shouM bestow upon me, 
a noble friend of mine informed his 
majesty, that I neither wished for, nor 
valued money, but wati anxious only 
for some honorary mark of his appro- 
bation." Whether Mr. Jones had in- 
structed his noble friend to use this 
language, does not appear, but it is 
certain that he felt a degree of disap- 

pointment. In 1773» when he pub* 
lished an abridged Life of J^adir Shah, 
m bis preface he takes an opportunity 
to lament that the profession of litera- 
ture leadi> to no benefit or true glory 
whatsoever ; and adds, " Unless a man 
can asKert his own independence in ac- 
tive life, it will avail him liule, to be 
favoured by the learned, ctieemed by 
the eminent, or recommended even io 

118 JONES. 

His noble pupil being removed to Harrow, Mr. Jones 
had an oppottunity of renewing his intimacy with Dr. 
Sumner/ who had always estimated his talents and learning 
at their full value. While here, he transcribed a Persian 
grammar, which he had three years before composed fol: 
the use of a schoolfellow destined for India, and also be- 
gan a Dictionary of the Persian language, in which the 
principal words were illustrated from the most celebrated 
authprs of the East ; but he appears to have been aware of 
the expeuce attending this work, and was unwilling to con« 
tinue it, unless the East India company would purchase it. 
Jn 1770 he issued proposals for a new edition of Meninski's 
Dictionary, which was to have been published in 1773, but 
the scheme was dropt for want of encouragement. 

Amidst these occupations, so far beyond the common 
reach of literary industry, he became a serious inquirer 
into the evidences of Christianity, about which he appears 
at this time to have entertained some doubts. In this, as 
in all his studies, ^is application was intense, and his in- 
quiries conducted upon the fairest and most liberal prin*. 
ciples. The result was a firm belief in the authenticity 
and inspiration of the Holy Scriptures, and a life dignified 
by purity of conduct, and the exercise of every Gbristiafi 

In 1770, he passed the winter on the Continent with the 
Spencer family, during which, he informs one of his cor-, 
respondents, his occupations were *^ music, with all its 
sweetness and feeling ; difficult and abstruse problems in 
mathematics ; and the beautiful and sublime in poetry and 
painting." He wrote also in English a tract on " Educa-^ 
tion in the analytic manner -y^ a tragedy founded on the 
stoiy of Mustapha, who was put to death by his father So- 
liman ; and made various translations from the oriental 
poets. He appears on this tour to have been less intent on 
those objects of curiosity which usually interest traveUers, 
than on adding to his knowledge of languages, and habi- ' 
tuating himself to composition in all its modes, from the 
gay and familiar letter of friendship, to the serious and 
philosophical disquisition. Of the " Tract on Education,'* 
just mentioned, a fragment only remains,' which his bio- 
grapher has published. It appears to include the plan 
which he pursued in his own case. The tragedy has been 
totally lost, except part of a preface in which he professes 
to have taken Shakspeare for his model, not by adopting 

JONES. lid 

his sentiments^ or borrowing bis expressions, but by aim- 
ing at his manner, and by striving to write as he supposes 
he would hav'e written himself, if he had lived in the eigh- 
teenth century. The loss of such a curiosity cannot be 
too much regretted, unless our regret should be lessened 
by reflecting on the hazard of any attempt to bring Shak- 
^eare on the modern stage. It is surely not less difficult 
than that of Mason, who unsuccessfully strove to write as 
the Greek tragedians '< would have written, had they lived 
in the eighteenth century.*' 

On his return from this tour, he appears to have con- 
templated his situation as not altogether corresponding with 
the feelings of an independent mind, and with the views 
he entertained of aioiing at the dignity and usefulness of a 
public character. The advice given by some of his friends, 
when he left Harrow school, probably now recurred to his 
memory, and was strengthened by additional and more 
urgent motives, for hie finally deterntined on the law a^ a 
profession ; and, having resigned his charge in lord Spen- 
cer^s fistmily, was admitted into the Temple on the 19lh of 
September, 1770, in the twenty -fourth year of his age. 
Those who consider the study of the law as incompatible 
with a mind devoted to the acquisition of polite literature, 
and with a taste delighting in frequent excursions to the 
regions of fancy, will be ready to conclude that Mr. Jones 
would soon discover an invincible repugnance to his new 
pursuit. But the reverse was in a great measure the fact 
I|e found nothing in the study of the law so dry or labo- , 
rious as not to be overcome by the same industry which 
had enabled him to overcome, almost in childhood, the 
difficulties which frequently deter men of mature years ; 
and he was stimulated by what appears to have predomi- 
nated throiigh life, an honest ambition to rise to eminence 
in a profession which, although sometimes successfully 
followed by men of dull capacity, does not exclude the 
most brilliant acquirements. Still, however, while labour- 
ing to qualify himself for the bar, he regarded his pro- 
gress in literature as too important or too delightful to b6 , 
altogether interrupted ; and from the correspondence pub- 
lished by lord Teignmouth, it appears that he snatched 
many an hour from his legal inquiries, to meditate plans 
connected with his oriental studies. What he executed, 
indeed,, did not always correspond with what he projected, 
but we &ad that within the first two years of iiis residence 

r* f 

120 J O N E & 

io the Temple, be sketched the plan of an epic poeaiy^.aiid 
of a Turkish history, and published a French letter to An- 
quetil du Perron, who, in his Travels in India, bad treated 
the university of Oxford, and some of its learned members 
and friends of Mr. Jones, with disrespect In this letter he 
corrected the petulance of the French writer with more 
asperity than perhaps his maturer judgment would have: 
approved, but yet without injustice, for Perron stood con- 
victed not only of loose invective, but of absolute false- 
hood. —Besides these Mr. Jones published, in 1772, a 
small volume of poems, consisting chiefly of translations 
from the Asiatic languages, with two elegant prose disser- 
tations on Eastern poetry, and on the arts commonly called 
imitative. Most of these poems had been written long 
before this period, but were kept back until they had re- 
ceived all the improvements of frequent revisal, and the 
criticisms of his friends. 

From his first entrance intg the university, until Mi- 
chaelmas 1768, when he took his bachelor^s degree, he 
had kept terms regularly, but from this period to 1773,^ 
only occasionally. During tbe Encaenia, in Easter-term 
1773, he took his master^ s degree, and composed an ora- 
tion which he intended to have spoken in the theatre ; but 
which was not published till about ten years after* In the > 
beginning of 1774, he published his ^^ Commentaries on. 
Asiatic poetry,*' which have been already noticed as bav- . 
ing been begun in 1766, and finished in 1769, when he 
was only in his twenty-third year. The same motives which 
induced him to keep back his poems, prevailed in the . 
present instance ; a diffidence in his own abilities, and a 
wish to profit by more mature examinatiqu, as well as by 
the opinions of his friends. By the preface to this work, 
it would appear that be was not perfectly satisfied with the 
profession in which he had engaged^ and that had circum- 
stances permitted, he would have been better pleased to 
have devoted his days to an uninterrupted course of study. 
But such was his fate, that he must now renounce polite 
literature; and having been admitted to tbe bar in 1774, , 
b/adheredto this determination* inflexibly for some years*, 
(itfiring which his books and manuscripts, except such as; 
related to law and oratory, remained locked up at Oxford, 

* About Uiis time he issued pro- either for want of time or encottragor 
posals for publishing his fether's ma- ment, he proceeded no farther, 
th^ip^tical works, in which, hoireyer. 

JONES. 121 

He seems to have been seriously convinced that the new 
science he was about to enter upon was too extensive to 
admit of union with other studies ; and he accordingly pur- 
sued it with his usual avidity, endeavouring to embrace the 
whole of jurisprudence iji its fullest extent, and to make 
himself not only the technical but the philosophical lawyer. 
For some time be had but little practice, but it gradually 
came in, and with it a very considerable share of reputa* 
tion. Towards the end of the year 1776, he was appointed 
a commissioner of bankrupts, a favour which he seems in- 
clined to estimate beyond the value usually put upon it by 
professional men. Notwithstanding his determination to 
suspend the study of ancient literature, there was a grati- 
fication in it which be found it impossible to resign, while 
bis practice continued so scanty as to afford him any dis- 
posable time. In the year last mentioned, we find him. 
reading the Grecian orators again and again, and trans- 
lating the most useful orations of Isa&us. Some part of his. 
time, likewise, he devoted to philosophical experiments 
and discoveries, attended the meetings of the royal so- 
ciety, of which he had been elected a fellow in 1772, and 
kept up an extensive epistolary intercourse with many of 
the literati of Europe. In these letters, subjects of law 
seldom occur, unless as an apology for bis barrenness on 
topics more congenial. From the commencement of the 
unhappy contest between Great Britain and America, he 
was decidedly against the measures adopted by the mother 

In I77S, he published his translation of the /^ Orations 
of Isseus,^' in causes concerning the succession to property 
at Athens; with a prefatory discourse, notes historical and. 
critical, and a commentary. This 'work he dedicated to 
earl Bathurst, who among all his illustrious friends, was as t 
yet his only benefactor, by conferring on him the place of 
commissioner of bankrupts. The elegant style, profound 
research, and acute criticism, displayed in this translation^ 
attracted the applause of every judge of classical learning. 
His next publication was a Latin ode to liberty, under the 
title of '* JtUti Melesigoni ad Libertatem^^'* a name formed 
by the transposition of the letters of ^* Gtilielmus Jonesim.^^ 
lu this ode, the author of which was soon^ known, he made 
a nior^ ample acknowledgment of his political principles ; 
and this, it is feared, had an unfavourable influence on the 
hppes which he was^ encouraged to entertain of promotion 

11J3 JONES. 

by the then administration. In 1780^ there was a vacant 
seat on the bench of Fort William in Bengal, to which the 
kindness of lord North ied him to aspire ; but, for some 
time, be had very little prospect of success. While this 
matter was in suspense, on the resignation of sir Roger 
N«wdigate, he was advised to come forward as a candidate 
fdr the representation of the university of Oxford in par- 
liament; but, finding that there was no chance of success, 
he declined the contest before the day of election. His 
principles on the great question of the American war were 
s0 avowedly hostile, not only to the measures pursued by 
administration, but to the sentiments entertained by the 
majority of the members of the university, that, although 
he might be disappointed, he could not be surprised at bis 
failure, and accordingly appears to have resigned himself 
to his former pursuits with tranquil satisfaction. 

During this year (1780), he published "An Inquiry into 
the legal mode of suppressing Riots, with a constitutional 
plan of Future Defence," ^ pamphlet suggested by the 
dreadful riots in London, of which he had been a witness. 
His object is to prove that the common and statute laws of 
the realm then in force, give the civil state in every county 
a power, which, if it were perfectly understood and conti- 
nually prepared, would effectually quell any riot or insur- 
rection, without assistance from the military, and even 
without the modern l^iot-Act. In a speech which he in- 
ti^nded to have delivered at a meeting of the freeholders of 
Middlesex in September following, he more explicitly de- 
clared his sentiments on public affairs, and in language 
rather stronger than usual with him, although suited to 
the state oiF popular opinion in that county. 
' During a short visit to Paris, be appears to have formed 
the design of writing a history of the war. On his return, 
however, he recurred to his more favourite studies, and 
bis biographer has printed a curious ri)emorandum, dated 
1780, in which Mr. Jones resolves to learn no more rudi- 
ments of any lind, but to .perfect himself in the languages 
he had already acquired, viz. Greek, Latin, Italian, French, 
Spanish, Portuguese, Hebrew, Arabic, Pei"siah, Turkish, 
Gerkhan, and English, as the means of acquiring a more 
accurate knowledge of history, arts, and sciences. With 
such wonderful acquisitions, he was now only in his thirty- 
third year ! 

In the winter of 1780-1, be found leisure to complete 


bis trahilation of ^* Seven ancient Poems** of the bigbest 
reputation in Arabia, which, however, were not published 
till 1783 : and he celebrated, about the same time, the 
nuptials of lord Althorpe with Miss Bingham, in an elegant 
ode, entitled '^ The Muse recalled." In his professional 
line he published an ^* Essay on the Law of Bailments,** a 
aubject handled under the distinct heads of analysis, his* 
tory, and synthesis ; in which mode he proposed at some 
future period to discuss every branch of English law, civil 
and criminal, private and public. His object in all his 
legal discussions was to advance law to the honours of a 
science. It may be doubted which at this time predomi^ 
nated inhis^mihd, his professional plans, or his more £a» 
vourite study of the eastern poets. He now, however, un<*- 
dertook a work in which he might gratify both duty and 
inclination, by translating an Arabian poem on the Ma<* 
hommedan law of succession to the property of intestates. 
The poem had indeed but few charms to reward hts labour 
by delighting bis fancy, but in the prospect of obtaining a 
judge's seat in India, he foresaw advantages from every 
opportunity of displaying his knowledge of the Mahom* 
medan laws. 

In 1782 he took a very active part among the societies 
formed to procure a more equal representation in the com<^ 
mons house of parliament. The speech which he delivered 
at the London tavern on this subject was long admired for 
its elegance, perspicuity, and independent spirit. He was 
also elected a member of the society for constitutional in* 
formation, and bestowed considerable attention to the ob- 
jects it professed. The ^' Dialogue between a farmer and 
a country gentleman on the Principles of Government,'* 
which he wrote some time before, was circulated by this 
society with much industry. When the dean of St. Asaph 
(afterwards his brother<-in*law) was indicted for publishing 
an edition of it in Wales, Mr. Jones sent a lietter to lord 
ICenyon, then chief justice of Chester, avowing himself to 
be the author, and maintaining that every position in it 
was strictly conformable to the laws and constitution of 

On the succession of the Shelburne administration, whose 
views of political affaii's were in some respects more' don- 
sonant to Mr. Jones's principles than those of their pre- 
decessors, by the particular interest of lord Ashburtbn, he 
achieved the object to which for some time past he had 

124 JONES. 

anxiously bspired. In March 1783 he was appointed a 
judge of the supreme court of judicature at Fort William, 
on which occasion the honour of Icnighthood was conferred 
on him. In April following he ms^rried a young lady to 
whom he had been long attached, - Anna Maria Shipley, 
eldest daughter of the bishop of St Asaph. He had now 
secured, as his friend lord Ashburton congratulated him, 
^^ two of the .first objects of human pursuit, those of am- 
bition and love.'' 

• His stay in England after these events was very short, as 
he embarked for India in the month of April. During the 
voyage his mind was sensibly impressed with the import- 
ance of the public station he was now about to fill, and 
began to anticipate the objects of inquiry which would en- 
gage his attention, and the improvements he might intro- 
duce in India from the experience of a life, much of which 
had passed in acquiring a knowledge of its learning and 
laws. Among other designs, very honourable to the extent 
of his benevolent intentions, which he formed at his outset, 
we find the publication of the gospel of St. Luke in the 
Arabic, the Psalms in Persian verse, and various law tracts 
in Persian and Arabic. He intended also to compose ele- 
ments of the laws of England, a history of the American 
war, already poticed, and miscellaneous poems, speeches 
and letters, on subjects of taste, oratory, or general polity. 
But the pressure of his official duties during the short re- 
mainder of his life, prevented his completing most of those 
designs. . . 

He arrived at Calcutta in September, and was eagerly 
welcomed by all who were interested in the acquisition of 
a magistrate of probity and independence, of a scholar who 
was confessedly at the head of oriental literature, and one 
in the prime and vigour of life, who bade fair to be long 
the ornament of the British dominions in India. His own 
satisfaction was not less lively and complete. He had left 
behind him the inconstancy and the turbulence of party, 
and felt no longer the anxieties of dependence and delay. 
New scenes were inviting his enthusiastic research, scenes 
which he had delighted to contemplate at a distance, and 
which promised to enlarge his knowledge as a scholar, and 
his usefulness as a public character. He was now brought 
into those regions, whose origin, manners, language, and 
religion, had been the subject of his profound inquiries. ; 
and while his curiosity was heightened, he drew nearer ta 
the means of gratification. 

JONES. 121 

He had not been long in his new situation before he 
began, with his usual judgment, to divide his time into 
such regular portions^ that no objects connected with duty 
or science should interfere. One of his first endeavours 
was to institute a society in Calcutta, the members of 
which might assist him in those scientific pursuits which he 
foresaw would be too numerous and extended for bis indi- 
vidual labour ; and be had do sooner suggested the scheme 
than it was adopted with avidity. The new association assem- 
bled for the first time in January 1784. The government 
of Bengal readily granted its patronage, and Mr.Hastings^then 
governor general, who had ever been a zealous encourager 
of Persian and Sanscrit literature, was ofiered the honorary 
title of president ; but, as his numerous engagements pre-> 
vented his acquiescence, sir William Jones was immediate* 
ly and \inanimously placed in the chair. The importance of 
this society has been long acknowledged, and their ^^ Trans- 
actions'' are a suificient testimony of their learning, acute- 
ness, and perseverance, qualities the more remarkable that 
they have been found in men most of whom embarked for 
India with views of a very different kind,^ and which might 
have occupied their whole attention without their incurring 
the imputation of neglect or remissness. — ^To detail* the 
whole of sir William Jones's proceedings and labours, as 
president of this society, would be to abridge their Trans- 
actions, of which he lived to see three volumes published ; 
but the following passage from lord Teignmouth's narrative 
appears necessary to complete this sketch of bis life. 

Soon after his arrival ^' he determined to commence the 
study of the Sanscrit. His reflection had before suggested 
that a knowledge of this ancient tongue would be of the 
greatest utility, in enabling him to discharge with confi- 
cjence and satisfaction «to himself, the duties of a judge; 
and he soon discovered, what subsequent experience fully 
confirmed, that no reliance could be placed on the opinions 
or interpretations of the professors of the Hindoo law, un- 
less be were qualified to examine their authorities arid 
Zuotatioiis, and detect their errors and misrepresentations, 
^n the other bandy he knew that. alL attempts to explore 
the. religion or literature of India through any other me- 
dii|m than a knowledge of the Sanscrit, must be imperfect 
and unsatisfactory; it was evident that the most erroneous 
and discords^nt opinions on these subjects had been circu-: 
late4 by th^ ignorance of those who had collected their 

126 JONES. 

ioformatidn fi^oni oral Goniifaunicatioiis only, arid that the 
pietures exhibited ia Earope,. of the religion and Uteratuve 
of Indi% could only be compared to the maps constfuct^d 
by the natives, in which every position is distorted, attd 
all proportion violated. As a lawyer, he knew the vattie 
and importance of original documents and records, and- 2ih 
a scbolal: and man of science, he disdained the ided of 
aoKisiog the learned world with secondary informaitioni on 
subjects wbich bad greatly interested their curiosity, wkeil 
be bad tbe me^ns of access to the original scnirtes^.* He 
was also aware, that much was expected by the literati of 
£urope, from bis sitperior abilities and learning, and ht 
felt the strongest inclination to gratify their expectations 
in the fullest possible extent," ' 

The plan to be promoted by his knowledge of the^ Sans- 
crit was at this time very distant as to probability of ete^ 
cution) but he bad carefully weighed it in his mind, and 
was. gradually preparing the way for its aecomplisbtnent; 
It was, indeed, worthy of his great and liberal mind, 16 
provide for the due administration of justice among tb^ 
Iixdians, by compiling a digest of Hindu and Mahomiriedkn 
laws, similar to that which Justinian gave t6 his Gredc and 
Roman subjects. When he had made such progr6s|^ in thd 
language as might enable him to take a principal pa^t iti 
this important design, he imparted his views to lord Corh<t 
wallis, then (1788) governor general, in a- long letter, which 
will ever remain a monument of his esctensive understknd-* 
ing, benevolence, and public spirit. That his plati met with 
ac<:eptance from lord Comwallis will not appedr ^irprizing 
to those who knew that excellent nobleman, Who, white' 
contemplating the honour which such an undertaking would 
confer on his own administration, conceived the highest 
hopes from sir William Jones's offer to co-operate, or 
rather to superintend the execution of it. ^' At the period^'* 
says his biographer, " when this work was undertaken by 
sir William Jones, he had not resided in* India more thair 
four years and a half; during which time he had n6t only 
acquired a thorough knowledge of the Sanscrit language, 
but bad extended his reading in it so far as to be qualified 
to form a judgment upon the merit attd^ authority of the 
authofs to be used in the compilation of bis work ; and al- 
though his labour was only applied to the dispositibn of 
materials' alresydy formed, he was enabled by his previous 
studies to give them an arrangemeht superior to any exist-- 

JONES. 127 

iogy and which the learoed ^ natives themselves approved 
and adoxired. In the dispensations of Providencei it may 
be remarked, as an occurrence of no ordinary naturet that 
the professors of thje Braminical faith should, sq far re« 
noHnce their reserve and distrust as to submit to the direc-* 
tion of a. native of Europe, for compiling a digest of theiv 
•wn laws." 

In 1789 the first volume of the " Asiatic Researches'^ 
was published, and the same year sif William Jones finisjied 
his translation of '^ Sacontala* or the Fatal Ring/' an an* 
cient Indian drama, and one of the greatest curiositiies that 
the literature of Asia had yet brought to. light. In 1794 he 
publisl^ed^ as an institute, prefatory to his larger work, a 
translatiQ|[i of the ordinances of Menu, who is es^eiemed by 
the Hindus the first of created beings, and npt only the 
oldest) but the holiest of legislators. The judgment and 
candour of the translator, however, led him to appreciate 
this work no higher than it deserved, as not being calcu- 
lated Cor general reading, but exhibiting the manners of a. 
remarkable people in a remote age, as including a system^ 
of despotism and priest<;raft^ limited by law, yet artfully 
conspiring to give mutual support, and as filled with con* 
ceits in metaphysics and natural philosophy, which might, 
be liable to misconstruction*, Amidst these .employments, 
be still carried on bis exteiisive correspondenca with his 
learned friends in Europe, unfolding with candour his va-^ 
ripus pursuits and sentiments, and expressing such.anxiety 
about every branch of science as proved that even what he 
called relaxation, wa$ but the diversion of. h|s researches 
from one channel into anothen In addition to the various 
studies already noticed, botany appears to have occupied 
a considerable share of his attention ; and in this, as in 
every new, acquisition, he disdained (o stop at a moderate 
progress, or be content with a superficial knowledge. 

The indisposition of lady Jones in 1793, rendered it 
absolutely necessary that she should return to. England, and. 
her affectionate husband proposed to follow her in 1795, 
but still wished to complete a system of Indian laws be«, 
fore be left the situation in which he coi)ld promote thit^ 
great work with most advantage. But he had not pro-, 
ceeded long in this undertaking before symptoms appeaVed 
of that disorder which deprived the >world of one of. ilstr 
brightest ornainents. The following account of his dis^otv 
lution is given in the words of his bibgrapher^ 


**Onthe evening of the twentieth af April, of nearly 
about that date, after prolonging his walk to a late hour, 
during which he had imprudently remained in conversa- 
tion, in an unwholesome situation, he called upon the writef 
of these sheets, and complained of aguish symptoms, men- 
tioning his intention to take some medicine, and repeating 
jocularly an old proverb, * that ^ an ague in the spring is 
medicine for a king.^ He had no suspicion at the time 
of the real nature of his indisposition, which proved,' in 
fact, to be a complaint common in Bengal, an inflammation, 
in the liver. The disorder was, however, spon discovered 
by the penetration of the physician, who, after two or three" 
days, was called in to his assistance ; but it had then^ 
advanced too far to yield to the efficacy of the medicines 
usually prescribed, and they were administered in vain» 
The progress of the complaint was uncommonly rapid, and 
terminated fatally on the twenty-seventh of April 1794.: 
On the nctorning of that day his attendants, alarmed at. the 
evident symptoms of approaching dissolution, came pre-^ . 
cipitately to call the friend who has now the melancholy 
task of recording the mournful event. Ngt a moment was 
lost in repairing to his house. He was lying on his bed in 
a posture of meditation ; and the only symptom of remain^r 
ing life was a small degree of motion in the heart, which 
after a few seconds ceased, and he expired without a pang 
or groan. His bodily suffering, front the complacency of 
his features and the ease of bis attitude, could not have 
been severe ; and his mind must have derived consolation 
from those sources where he had been ^n the habit of seek- 
ii)g it, and where alone, in our last moments, it can ever 
)be found." 

Thus ended the life of a man who was the brightest ex- 
ample of rational ambition, and of extensive learning, vir- 
tue, and excellence, that modern times have produced ; a 
man whp must ever be the subject of admiration, although 
it can happen to the lot of few to equal, and, perhaps, 
of none to excel him. When we compare the shortness^ . 
^f his life with the extent of his labours, the mind is over- 
powered ; yet his example, however disgraceful to the . 
indolent, and even apparently discouraging to the hunible 
scholar, will noC be without the most salptary effects, if it ^ 
be allowed to prove that no difficulties in science are in-r - 
aufmoun table by regular industry, that the human faculties .. 
can be exalted by e^rcbe beyond the common degrees , 

J O N E a 1S9 

vith vrfuch we are apt to be satisfied, and that the finest 
taste is not incompatible with the profoundest studies, tt 
was the peculiar felicity of this extraordinary man, that 
Ae whole plan of his life appears to have been the best 
that could have been contrived to forward bis views and to 
accomplish his cbaracten In tracing its progress we see 
very little that could have been more happily arranged : 
few adverse occurrences, and scarcely an object of serious 
Kegret, especially when we consider how gently his ambi- 
tion was chastened, and his integrity purified, by the few 
delays which at one time seemed to cloud his prospects* 
In 1799 his Works were published in six volumes quarto^ 
and have been since reprinted in thirteen volumes octavo^ 
with the addition of his life by lord Teignmouth, whicK 
first appeared in 1804. Among the public .tributes to his 
memory are, a monument by Flaxman in University college, 
at the expence of lady Jones ; a monument in St. Paul's, 
and a statue at Bengal, both voted by the hon. East India 
company. A society of gentlemen at Bengal who were 
educated at Oxford, subscribed a sum for a private disser- 
tation on his character and merits, which was adjudged to 
Mr. Henry Pbilpots, M. A.^of Magdalen college. Among, 
the many poetical tributes paid to his memory, that by the 
rev. Mr. Maurice, of the British Museum, seems entitled 
to the preference, from his accurate knowledge of sir Wil- 
liam Jones's character and studies. 

• '^ A mere catalogue of the writings of sir William Jones,*' 
says his biogragher, *^' would shew the extent and variety 
of his erudition ; a perusal of them will prove that, it was 
no less deep than miscellaneous. Whatever topic he dis- 
cusses, his ideas flow with ease and perspicuity, his style 
is always clear and polished ; animated and forcible, when 
his subject requires it. His philological, botanical, philo- 
sophical, and chronological disquisitions, bis historical re- 
searches, and even his Persian grammar, whilst they fix 
the curiosity and attention of the reader, by the novelty^ 
depth, or importance o^f the knowledge displayed in. them, 
always delight by elegance . of diction. His compositions^ 
areoiever dry, tedious, nor disgusting ; and literature and 
science come from his hands, adorned with all their grace 
and beaaty. No writer, perhaps, ever displayed so much 
learning,, with so little affectation of it" With regard t9 
hi3 law publications, it is said that his ^^ Essay on^BaiU 
ments" was sanctioned by the approbation of lord Mans « 
Vol. XIX. . K 

i^ J'O NEf'S.'- 

r ' ' r . • 

field ; and all His \Vrirings in thi^ d^krtii^eht shdiv that hi: 
bad thoroughly studifed the prihcipfles of taw as a science- 
As to his opinion of the British cbnstitutioti, it jlpf)e2Lrt 
from repeated declarations that occur jn his letters^' ^ittd 
particularly in his lOth discourse, delivered to the Asiatic 
society in 1793, that be considered it as the nfoblest atid 
most perfect that ever was forrtied. With regard to'his 
political principles, he was an enlrghtened aftd tfecidfed 
friend to civil and religions liberty. Like m-any, ethfers of 
the same principles, he entertained a favoliraWe opiniort bf 
the French revolution at its coniiiienc^Vifent, ^fitrid* wisheiA 
96ccess to the exertions of that nation for the establishment 
of a free constitution; but subsequent events must havi^ 
^iven him new views, not so much of the principles^ orf 
which the revolution was founded, as of the measures which: 
have be 3n adopted by some of its zealous partizans. To 
liberty, indexed, his attachment was enthusiastic, and he 
never speaks of tyranny or oppression but in the lan- 
guage of detestation. He dreaded, and Wished to restrtiin; 
every encroachment dn liberty; and though he nevef 
Unlisted under the banners of any party, he always con- 
curred in judgment and exertion with those who wished to 
render pureatid permanent the constitution of his country. 

As a judge in India, his conduct was strictly conformable 
to the professions which be itiade in his first chstrge to the 
grand jury at Calcutta. On the bench he was' laborious, 
patieti't, and discriminating ; his charges to the grand jiiry, 
which do not exceed six, exhibit a veneration for the fcrwi 
of hi? country ; a just and spirited encomium on the tribal 
by jury, as the greatest and most invaluable right derived 
from them to the subject; a detestation of crimes, coin- 
bined with mercy to thfe offender; occasional elucitJa- 
tions of the law ; and the strongest feelings of huniaLnity 
and benevolence. His knowledge of the Sanscrit tiud Ara- 
bic eminently qualified him for the administration of justice 
in the supreme court, by enabling him to detect misrepre- 
sentatioiis of the Hindu or Mohammedan laws, and to-cor- 
rect impositions in thte form of feidministering oaths'W the 
followers of Brihma and Mohammed. The inflexIbFe inte- 
grity with which he discharged the solemn duty of tBis 
station will long bie remembered in Calcutta, both by 
Europeans and natives. ^ 

*It ml^ht naturally be inquired by what arts or method 
he was enabled to attain lihat extraoi'dinary degree of knovr^ 

JONES. in 

ledge fof which be was distinguished. « His • faculties wece 
naturally vigorous and strengthened by exercise ; fai^ me* 
•Qipry, ^^ we have before observed, was, from early life, 
singularly retentive ; his ejaculation was ardent and un- 
.]^^T|c}4^; and hjs .perseyerancQ invincible. In India his 
stud^ begs^n v(rit||i j^b^t^davvn i. ^d, with the interraissioa 
of ,pr<^essional dutiies,. \yere cpntinA^iejd throughout ihe day. 
j^^noth^ circumstance, ^hi(;h h^s bfjei) exemplified |n soma 
.other instances that might he meptioni^d^ and whicji: gava 
hiia peculiar advantage in the^ exercise of his talents, w4s 
'Vthei regular allotment of his, time to particular occupa- 
tions^ iGinifi ,a scrupulous adherence to the distribution which 
Jie.h'wJ'fi^ds" so? that " all hi^ studies were pursued with- 
out interruption or cpufusion.". With sir^WilliamfJones it 
was a favourite opinion, ^' that all men are born with an 
equal capacity for infiprovement.y ... 

It is needless to add any thing in commeodation of hia 
.private ap4 social virtues. , The independence of his intei- 
grity^ bis probity and humanity, and also his universal 
.philanthropy and beiievolence, are acknowledged by all 
who /knew. bipp. In every domestic relatiouy ^asasgp, a 
;braiihei:^ .and ^hi|isbaiid, he was attentive to every dici;ate 
joflpve^ find ^oeV^ry obligation of duty. In his intercour^^ 
WiUh ,tbeludiap, natives, he. was condescending aod conci'* 
liatory ;; lib^re^Uy rewarding those who assisted him, and 
treating. his dependents as friends! His biographer r^^ 
icords the following anecdote of a circumstance that oor 
curred after his demise : " The pundits who were in the 
habit of.attendiug bioi, when I saw them at a public durbar 
a few d^y^ after that melancholy event, could neither r^r 
strain their tears for his loss, nor find terms to expre9s 
their admiration at the wopd^i'ful progress which be hsi4 
made in fhe sciences which they professed." Uppn 4he 
whole^ we may join with Dr. Parr, who knew bis taleotg 
aad character, in appljring to sir William Jones his ,own 
i«ords, " It is happy for us that this man was horw,"» 

H^vipg attained, by the assid uous exertion of his abiliiies^ 
im4;ip a cour^ pf .useful service to bis <?o,ijutry and naan- 
kind, a high degree of reputation, a^d by eco»oiuy.tfaAt 
did^ro^ch .ppon his beneficence,.. a liberal compe- 
tence, he was prepared, one would have thought, at the 
age of forty-^seven years, to enjoy dignity with indepen- 
deute» 49 is plans, and the objects of his pursiUt, in the 
prospect of future life, were various and extensive ^ and he 

K 2 • 

132 JONES. 

would naturally indulge many pleasing ideas in the vi€?wr of 
returning, at a fixed period, to his native country, and ip 
' beloved friends, • wh^o would anxiously wish for his^ arrival* 
Few persons seemed to be more capable of improving and 
enjoying prolonged life than sir William Jones ; and few 
persons seemed to be better prepared for a more exalted 
state of progressive improvement^ and of permanent feli- 
city; than that to which the most distinguished and pros- 
perous can attain within the regions of mortality.— Since 
his death lady Jones has presented to the royal society a 
collection of MSS. Sanscrit and Arabic, which he reckoned^ 
inestimable, and also another large collection of Eastern' 
MSS. of which a catalogue, compiled by Mr. Wilkins, is 
inserted in^the l3th volume of sir William Jones's Works, 
8vo edition. * 

JONES (William), a late venerable and pious divine of 
the church of England, was born at Lowick iti Northum- 
berland, July 30, 1726. His father was Morgan J'dhes, a 
Welsh gentleman, a descendant of Colonel Jone« (but of 
very different principles) who married a sister of Oliver Crom- 
well. His mother was Sarah, the daughter of the Rev. Mr. 
Lettin, of Lowick. He was remarkable from his childhood 
for unwearied industry and ingenium versatile. As soon as 
he was of the proper age, he was admitted, on the nomi- 
nation of the duke of Dorset, a scholar at the Charter- 
house, where he made a rapid progress in Greek and Latin, 
and laid the foundation of that knowledge which has since 
p;tven him a distinguished name in the Christian world'. 
His turn for philosophical studies soon began to shew itself;, 
for meeting, when at the Charter- house, with Zachary 
Williadfis, author of a magnetical theory, which is now lost^ 
he copied some of his tablea and calculations, was shewn 
the internal construction of his instriiment for finding the 
Variation of the compass in all parts of the world ; and saw 
all the diagrams by which his whole theory was demon- 
strated and explained.. At this school, too, be commenced 
an acquaintance with the late earl of Liverpool, which was 
farther cultivated at the university, where they were of the 
same college, and continued to the last, notwithstanding 
the great difference in their future destination, to entertain 
a respect for each other. 

I Life by lord Tefsnmouth.--<*J^BSOii fttt^ Cbalmer^V PoeU, ,Ai^JO.r:»ReM^ 

Cyelepsedia.— Nichols's Bowyer. , . . , 

J O N E Si 133 

When aboat eighteen years of age, be left the school, 
and went to University-college, Oxford, on a' Charter- 
house exhibition. Among the several companions of hi» 
studies whom he loved and respected, there was no one 
> dearer to him than Mr. George Home, afterwards bishop 
of Norwich. Between them *' there was a sacred friend- 
ship ; a friendship made up of religious principles, which 
increased daily, by a sinulitude of inclinations, to the same 
recreations and studies.'* Having taken the degree of B.A. 
in 1749, he was ordained a deacon by Dr. Thomas, bishop 
of Peterborough; and in 1751 was ordained a priest by 
another Dr. Thomas, bishop of Lincoln, at Bugden. On 
leaving the university, his first situation was that of curate 
of Finedon in Northamptonshire. There he wrote ^^ A full 
Answer to bishop Clayton^s Essay on Spirit,'' published in 
1753. In this tract, many curious and interacting ques- 
tions are discussed^ and several articles in the religion and 
learning of heathen antiquity explained, particularly the 
Hermetic, Pythagorean, and Platonic Trinities. In 1754 
be married Elizabeth, daughter of the Rev. Brook Bridges, 
and went to reside at Wadenhoe in Northamptonshire, as 
curate to his brother-in-law, the Rev. Brook Bridges, a 
gentleman of sound learning, singular piety, and amiable 
manners. . 

While rejsiding here he drew up "The Catholic Doc- 
trine of the Trii^ty," which he had been revolving in bis 
mind for some.years. When this valuable work came to a 
third edition in 1767, he added to it " A Letter to the 
common people, in answer to some popular arguments 
agfunstthe Trinity," which the Society for promoting 
Christian knowledge have since printed separately, and 
admitted into their list of books. Here likewise he en- 
gaged in a favourite work, for whiih he was eminently 
qualified, as the event proved, and for which some of his 
firiends subscribed aniong them 300/. for three years, to 
enable him to supply himself with an apparatus sufficient 
^or the purpose of making the experiments necessary to his 
coiuposing a treatise on philosophy. Accordingly, in 1762, 
lie published ^^ An Essay on the first principles of Natural 
Philosophy," 4to, the design of which was to demonstrate 
the use of natural means, or second causes, in the economy 
of the material world, from reason, experiments, and the 
^^tipiony. of antiquity ; and in 1781 he published a larger 
work in 4to, ander the title of ^^ Physiological Disqmsl* 

ja4 ro^ES\ 

iiotis, or l5id€<^rses Oft theTNatoral 'Phil5«ophy of the 
Eleraenti.'* As «it w«i$ ever bis «twdfy to make philosophy 
the handmaid of reli^on^ he tias xw- thi& work embraced 
every opportunity of employing naiuttil knowledgfe in tfeig 
illustration of divine truth and the advancement of virfue. 
When the first volume was publi^ed^thd late earl of Bute, 
the patron of learning and learned men; was so satisBed 
with it, that he desired the author not t.o be intimidated 
through fear of expence from pursuing his philosophical 
studies, and likewise commissioned him to direbc Mr. 
Adams, the mathematical instrument maker, to supply him 
with such instruments as he might want for makitig e3epe«* 
riments, and put them to his account. His lordship also 
bandsoniely offered him the use of any books he might 
have occasion for. 

Mr. Jones*s work on the Trinity having procured him 
much reputation, archbishop Seeker presented hini, first tor 
the vicarage of Bethersden in Kent in 1764, and soon 
after to the more valuable rectory of Pluckley in the sathe 
coqnty, as some reward for his Able defence of that im- 
portant doctrine. The income he derived from his vicarage- 
not being equal to what he expected, it was thought ex-» 
^pedient by his friends, that he should eke out his slender 
pittance by taking a few pupils ; and having undertaken 
the tuition of two young gentlemen, he continued the 
practice for many years after he removed to Pluckley. In 
1766 he preached the '•Visitation Sermon" before arch*- 
bishop Seeker at Ashford, greatly to the satisfaction of hh 
grace and the whole audience. Owing to some delicacy; 
it was not printed at the tinie, though much wished ; btit 
in 1769 the substance of it was published in the form of a 
*^ Letter to a young gentleman at Oxford intended for holy 
orders, containing some seasonable cautions against errora 
in doctrine." On the publication of " The ConfessionaV* 
the archbishop considered Mr. Jones as a proper person to; 
write an answer to it ; and accordingly he drew up some 
remarks, but had then neither health nor leisure to fit tfaent 
for the press. But a new edition being called for of the 
^* Answer to an Essay on Spirit,'* Mr. Jones thought it 
advisable to add, by way of sequel, the remarks he bad 
originally drawn up on the principles and spirit of the 
^' Confessional^i^' which were published in 1770. • 

It is mentioned in bishop Porteus's Life of archbishfopr 
Seeker, that all the tracts^ written by Dr. Sharp* in th^ 

J .0 N C S. '13^ 

4IatQhinsoniaB coa^roversy, were gubmkted to his gmctfs 
iospeclion previous to theJar poUfteatJon, who corrected 
«Dd impfoved tbem tbrougbout ^ bom whence we are to 
.C9»<:lude he approved, tbeoi. But whatever his prf^judice8 
were originally agaiast what is called Hutcbinsonianism^ 
and they w<»re supposed at one time to be pretty strong, 
ihay must have been greatly done away before he became 
the patron of Mr. Jones. When the *f Essay on the first 
principled of Natural Philosophy^' was publiahed, his grace 
observed to a gentleman who saw it lying on his table, 
" this work of Mr. Jx)iies's is not to be treated with neglect; 
it is sensibly and candidly rwiitten, and if it is not an- 
tawered, we little folks shall conclude it is, because it can- 
.not ho answered :'' and lie told Mr. Jones himself hy way 
.of c<^n6iQkuon (knowing probably how difficult it was to 
^et rid of old prejudices) that be must be contested to be 
accounted, fear a time, an heretic in philosophy. In 1773 
Mr. Jones collected together into a volume, Plsqnisitions 
j^n some select subjects of Scripture, which had been before 
printed in separate tracts; and, in 1776, in the character 
of a " Presbyter of the church of England,'* be published, 
in a Letter to a friend at Oxford, ^^ Reflections on the 
growth of Heathenism among modern Christians.'* 

When he was itiduced to remove from Pluckley, and 
accept the perpetual curacy of Nayland in Suffolk, he 
went thither to reside with bis family* Soon after, he 
effected an^exchange of Pluckiey for Paston in Nortbamp* 
ipiisbire, which he visited aanqadly, but he determined to 
settle at Nayland for the remainder of his days, nor was he 
.(as his biographer notices with some regret for neglected 
fii^rit) ever tempted to quit tbat post by any offer of bigbei* 
preferment. ' The ^^ Physiological Disquisitions*' hefor^ 
idlwied to, havii^g rec^ved tlieir last revise, vvere published 
in 1771, and the impression \i'as soou sold off. A notion, 
says hifl biographer, as entertained by some persons, that 
Ahe elementary philosophy .naturally leads to Atheism, and 
sir Isaac Newton himself is charged with giving counte* 
nance to materialism by hissBther; but nothing can be 
farther ftx^m the truth. '^ It is,'* adds Mr. Stevens, *^ the 
aim and study of the elementary, called the Hutcbin* 
jsonian, philosophy, not to confound God and nature, but 
to distinguish between the Crefitor and the creature; 
not with the heathens to set up the heavens for God> 
hut to. believe and confess, with all trup worshippers, 


^ tlmt it is Jehovah who made the heavens."- And -t9 

inamtaiD that the operations iik nature are carried on bf 

the agency of the elements, which, experiment demoiVi' 

strates, is no more excluding God from being the Creator 

. of the world, than to maintain that motion once given to a 

. watch will continue without the immediate applicatitm of 

' the artist's hand every moment to it, is asserting that the 

. watch made itself.* Let any one read the Pbysiologioal 

1 Disquisitions, and he will soon be convinced that North and 

South are not more opposite than Hutchinsonianism and 

. materialism. 

The figurative language of the Holy Scripture having 

been always his favourite study, after revolving the subject 

in his mind for many years, Mr. Jones drew up a course of 

riectures, which were delivered in the parish church of 

'Nayland, in Suffolk, in the year 1786. Music was a 

:favourite relaxation with him, and he understood both 

theory and practice. His treatise on the ^^ Art of Music*' 

is reckoned to display a profound knowledge of the sub» 

ject, and his compositions (a morning and evening cathe- 

,dral service, ten church pieces for the organ, with four 

•anthems in score for the use of the church of Nayiand) are 

greatly admired, as of the old school, in the true classical 

stiie. By the advice of his learned and judicious friend, 

'bishop Home, then become his diocesan, to whose opinion 

•he always pdid the greatest deference, he put forth, in 

>1790,' two volumes of '^Sermons" on moral and relU 

•gious subjects, in which were included some capital dis« 

coilrses on Natural History, delivered on Mr. Fairchild's 

foundation (the Royal Society appointing the preacher) at 

-the church of St. Leonard, Shoreditcb, several successive 

years, 6h Tuesday in Whitsun week. At the prsaohing <>f 

these sermonsj the audience was not large, but it increased 

' annually, as the fiiroe of the preacher was noised abroad, 

whose manner-was no less animated and engaging, than the 

subject Was profound and important, and at the last sermon 

the church was full. 

When deinocratical principles were spreading with much 
rapidity in 1792, Mr. Jbnes wrote the letter of **Tbd- 
mas Bull to his brother John,*^ which was disseminated 
throughout the kingdom, was admirably calculated to 
bpen the. eyes of the populace, and produced a consider- 
able effect. 
: In 1792 he published a valuable collection of dtsftefta*; 


•4ions, extract9| &c. in defence of the church of England, 

iinder the title of '* The Scholar armed against the Errors 

^f the Time/' 2 toU. 8vo ; and on the death of bishop 

.Home in 1792, Mr. Jones, out ^of affectionate regard to 

the memory of the venerable prelate, his dear friend anid 

patron, undertook the task of recording his life, which was 

published in T795, and the second edition in 1799, with a 

new preface, containing a concise but luminous exposition 

- of the leading opiniona entertained by Mr. Hutchinson on 

icertain interesting points on theology and philosophy. 

In the autumn of 1798 he was presented by the arcb* 
-Uahop'of Canterbury to the sinecure rectory of Holling- 
bourn in Kent, benevolently intended as a convenient 
addition to his income, after the discontinuance of pupils; 
but iu the following year he lost his wife, which was soon 
•followed by another affliction, probably occasioned by the 
^hock her death gave him, a paralytic attack which deprived 
' him of the use of one side. In this infirm state of body, 
. but with full exeicise of his faculties, he lived several 
months. At length, he suddenly quitted his study, and 
retired to his chamber, from whence he came out no more, 
4ireaking off in the middle of a. letter to a friend, which, 
after abrupt transition from the original subject, he left 
^unfinished, with these remarkable words, the last of which 
are written particularly strong and steady. ** I begin to 
fed as well as understand, that there was no possible way 
. of taking my poor broken heart from the iatal subject of 
. the grief that was daily preying upon it to its destruction, 
-but that which Provid<ence bath been pleased to take, of 
turning my thoughts from my mind, to most alarming 
'•y«q>toms of approaching death.'* Like many other good 
and pious men before him, he had long very much dreaded 
: the pains of death ; but, to his own great comfort, this 
<lread be completely overcame. The sacrament had been 
frequently administered to him during his confinement; 
and be received it, for the last lime, about a week prior to 
his death. A little while previous to his dissolution, as 
his curate was standing by his bed-side, he requested him 
to read the 7 1st psalm, which was no sooner done than be 
took him by the hand, and said with great mildness and 
composure, *^ If this be dying, Mr. Sims, I had no idea 
what dying was before ;" and then added, in a somewhat 
stronger tone of voice, ** tbank God, thank God, that it is no 
lvo.r$e«*' . He continued sensible after this just long enough 


tot&ke/eave of ,bi& children (a son and daughter) , vv^, 
being both settled at no great distance, bad been veiy 
ini^ch with.faitn, and bad done every thing in their pQwer 
to alleviate his, sorrows; and, on the morning of Feb. €, 
ISOOy he expired without a groan or a sigh, 

jBesid^ the work^ already mentioned, Mr. Jones was the 
authgr of A Preservative against the publications of mo* 
dern Socinians* A Letter to a CTentleman at Oxford, 
Against Errors in Doctrine. The Grand Analogy ; or, the 
Testimony of Nature and Heathen Antiquity to the Truth 
of a Trinity in Unity. A Detection of the Principljes and 
Spirit of a book entitled The Confessional. On tlie Mo^ 
fiaic Distinction of Animals into clean and unclean. The 
Sacrifice of Isaac reconciled with the Divine Laws ; and 
the meaning is shewn, so far as it is opened in the Scrip- 
ture. An Enquiry into the Circumstances and Moral In- 
tention of the Temptation of Jesus Christ. A Survey of 
Life and D«ath ; with $om,e Observations on the Interme- 
diate State. Considerations on the Life, Death, and Bu^ 
rial of the Patriarchs. On the metaphori<?al Applicatioo 
of Sleep, as aq Image of Death in the Scripture^. An 
Essay on Con fi relation. Lectures on the figurative Lan- 
guage of the Scripture;s ; with a supplemental Lecture oa 
^e Use and Intention of some remarkable Passages of the 
Scriptures^ not coipimonly understood. Sermods, in two 
volumes, Syo ; besides several single Sermons preached on 
various ocoasionfi. The Book of Nature, or the Sense of 
Things ; in two Parts. Letters from a Tutor to his Pupils. 
The Churchman!s Catechism. The Constitution of the 
Church of Christ demonstrated. Six Letters on Electricity. 
A Treatise on the Art of Music, with Plates of Examples^ 
A Morning and Evening Service. Observations in a Jour^ 
ney to Paris^ by way of Flanders, in the year 1776. Con*- 
^ideratipns on the Religious Worship of the H-eath^tis, 30 
bearing uoaQswerable Testimony to th^ Principles oi 
Christianity. A Letter to the Church of England, by aa 
old Friend and S^ervant of the Church. A Letter to three 
fonrv^ted Jews,' lately baptized and confirmed in tho 
Church of England. A Letter to the Honourable L. K. 
on. the Use of the Hebrew Language. Short whole* 
length of Dr. Priestley. Collection of smaller Pieces 5 
;unong which are the Learning of the Beasts, and Two 
Letters to a Predestinarian, printed in the Anti-Jacobki 
Review and Ma)gaztne for January and February, ISOO, 


Acii &c. &c. All them bare been reprinted in an e^itibti 
of tus Works, 1801, in 12 vols. 8vo, and' afford prooft of 
talenjts, zeal, piety, and learning, which are highly credi* 
table to him. Mr. Jones of strong attachments^ 
and of strong aversions. In the pprsuit of ivfaat he cdn« 
sideted to be truth, he knew no middle paths, and would 
listen to no coinproniises. Such ard^eot zeal frequently 
brought on him the charge of bi^try, which perhaps he 
was the better enabled to bear, as he had to contend with 
men whose bigotry, in their own way, cannot easily be 
exceeded. It must be confessed at the same time that bis 
judgment was by no means equal to his ardour in promul- 
gating or vindicating his opinions ; and that all the useful 
purposes of his writings might have been promoted with 
more moderation in bis style and sentiments. With this 
. exception, however, which is greatly overbalanced by the 
general excelleticje of bis character as a man and an author, 
be deserves to be ranked among the most able defenders 
of the dootrines and discipline of the church'of England.^ 

JONSIUS, or JONSENIUS (John), a learned philo- 
logical writer, was born Oct. 20, 1624, at FlensbUrg in the 
diicby of Sleswick. He was first educated at the school 
of Flensburg, and that of Kiel, and v^ry early discovered 
such a talent for music, that when he went to Hamburgh^ 
and afterwards to Cffempen, be was enabled to support 
himself by bis mtnieal skill. In the autumn of 1645, be 
went to Rostock,^ where be studied the languages and phi- 
losophy, and probably theology, ^s he became a preacher 
in 1647. In the same year he was admitted doctor in phi- 
losophy. Leaving Rostock in 1649, he returned to Flens- 
burg to be co-rector of the schools, an office which he 
filled with great credit for a year, and had for one of his 
scbolars the celebrated Marquard Gudius. The smallness 
of his salanf obliging him to give up his situation, he went 
m 1650 to Konigsberg, where he taught philosophy, and 
iti 1652 aiecepted the place of rector of the schools at 
Flensburg. In 1656 he was pi^esented to the rectorate of 
the school belonging to the cathedral ; but partly owitig td 
the bad air of the pfeace, and partly to some discourage-r 
ments and domestic^ troubles, l>e determined to leave ht^ 
native country for Leipsic ; and whVIe there, the senate of 
Francfort offered him the place of sub^rector, which he 

I Jiife by Wip. Stevens, esq, first printed in the Anti-Jacobin Review. 

140 J O N S I U S. 

accepted^ but did not enjoy long, as he died of a violent 
bsoiorrhage in April 1659. He was the author of varioua 
philological dissertations, which indicated great learning 
and critical acumen; but his principal work is bis'^De 
Scriptoribu^. histcms philosophies, Ubri IV.'' Fraucfort^ 
1,659, 4 to. This soon became very scarce, which deter- 
mined Dornius to publish a new edition in 17 16, continned 
to that timp, with learped. notes. Both editions are highly 
praised, as.y^uable works, by Grievius, Baillet, atid Brueken 
Jonsius had announced other useful treatises, the comple-* 
tion of which was his untimely death.^ 

JONSON (Bekjamin), or JOHNSON, for so he, as 
well as some of his friends, wrote his name, was born m 
Hartshprn-liane near Charing^cross, Westminster, June 11, 
1574, about. a month after the death of his father: Dr« 
^athurst, whose life was written by Mr. Warton, informed 
iiubrey that Jonson was born in Warwickshire, but aU 
pther accounts fix his birth in Westminster. Fuller says, 
that *^ with all his industry he could not fiiui him in bi» 
cradle, but that he could fetch him from his long coats : 
when a little child, he lived in . Hactshor^ie^lane near 
Charing^cross." Mr. Malone examined the register, of 
St. Margaret^s Westminster, and St. Martinis in the Fields, 
hut without being able to discover the time of his baptism. 
His family was. originally of Anntodale in Scotland, whence 
his grandfather removed to Carlisle in the time of Henry 
Vni. under whom he held some office* But his son being 
deprived both of his estate and liberty in the reigu of 
queen .Mary, went afterward^ in holy orders,, and, leaving 
Carlisle, settled in Westminster. 

Our poet was first sent to a private school in the church 
of St. Martinis in the Fields, and was afterwards removed 
to Westminster-school. Here he had for his preceptor the 
illustrious Camden, for whom he ever preserved the highest 
respect, and, besides dedicating one- of his. best plays to. 
him, commemorates him in one of his epigrams, as^ the 
person to whom he owed pdl he knew. He Was mfdung 
very extraordinary progress at this school, when his mother^ 
who, sfoon after her husband's death, had married a. brick* . 
laiyer, took him home to. learn his step-father*s business.- 
How long he continued in this, degrading occupation risc^ 
uncertain : ;Eu;cording to Fuller he soon left it, and went to., 

* Chaufepte.— -Saxii OoomMticon. 

i O N S O N; 141 

Cambridge, btrt necessity obliged him to retuhi tp his 
Aitlier, wboy among other works, employed him on the nevr 
bmiding at Lincoln Vinn, and here he was to be seen witb 
a trowel in one hand and a book in the other. This, Mr. 
Malone thinks, most hare been either in 1588 or 1593, 
in each of which years, Dugdale informs us, tome new 
buildings were erected by the society. Wood varies the 
story, by stating that he was taken from the trowel to attemi 
Sir Waiter Raleigfa^s son abroad, and afterwards went to 
Cambridge; but young Raleigh was not bom till 1534^ 
nor ever went abVoad, except with his father in 1617 to 
Guiana, where he lost^iis life. So many of Jonson's con- 
temporaries, however, have mentioned his connection with 
the Raleigh family, that it is probable he was in some 
shape befriended by them, although not while he worked 
at his father^s business, for from that be ran away, enlisted 
as a common soldier, and served in the English army thetk 
engaged agai nst the Spaniards in the Netherlands. ** Here,** 
says the author of his life in the Biographia Britannicap 
'* he acquired a degree of military glory which rarely falls 
to the lot of a common man in that profession. In an 
encountar with a single man of the enemy, he slevf his. 
opponent, and stripping him,* carried off the spoils in the 
vi^v of both armies.'* As our author*s fsme does not rest 
on his military ex jploits, it can be 'no detraction to hint, 
that one man killing and stripping another is a degree of 
military prowess of no very extraordinary kind. His bio« 
grapber, however, - is unwilling to quit the subject until he 
has informed us, that ** the glory of this action receives a 
particular heightening from the reflection, that he thereby 
stands singularly distinguished abov^ the rest of his bre* 
tbren of the poetical race, very few of whom have ever 
acquired any reputation in arms.*' , 

On his return he is said to have resumed hb studies^ 
^6d to have gone to St. Joha*s college, Cambridge. This 
fact rests chiefly upon a tradition in that college, sup* 
ported by the gift of several books now in the library with 
his hame in them. As to the question why bis name does 
not appear in any of the lists, it is answered that he was 
only a sizar, who made a short stay, and his name could 
not appear* among the admissions, where' no notice was 
u«diMy taken of any young men that had not scholarships ; 
and «s to matriculation, there was at that time no register* 
If be w«nt to St. John's, it seems probable enough that 

14& J O N S O N. 

^|e #hortn^s» of his stay was occasioned, by his necessities; 
and tbi» wouldi be the ease whether be weat to Canirbiidge 
jrn: 15^^^ as' Mr- Malone conjectureis^ or after his return 
ffsolai, tb^' army^.M perhaps in 1594. . In either case. be was 
ppor^ and^^Foqeim^d no encoul-agement ifropa bi3 family fa 
bi^redaaaticui. His persevering love of .literatune, bow*- 
«Ter^* j^md$t).so many difficulties^ ougbi ito be. mentioned 
i;Q bis boC^ourv * » .: . 

Pi Haying Iftuledin these more creditable, attempts to gain 
p. subsiitenoe^ ke began his theati'ioal career^ at first among 
^e:strolUngcompames> and wa» afterwards admitted into 
2U[i.ob^cure^;tbeatre. called the Gre^TCurtaliH., in the neigb- 
]>ourbood of Sboreditohy from which ;the present Curtain- 
road seems to derive its name. He had not been there 
long, before be attempted to write for the stage, bi^ was 
not tt .first very successful either as an author or actor. 
Meres leniametates him among the writers of tragedy; but no 
tragedyof bis writing exists, prior to 1598, when bis co-* 
medy of '^<£very Man in bis Humour^^ procured him a name* 
DeKter^ in bis ** Satyromastix,'' censures hb acting as awk- 
ward^ and mean, and bis lemper^as rough and untractabie.' 
. Dufieg his early engagements on the stage, he bad the 
imsfi^tune to kill one of the players in a duel, for which 
fae/was thrown inito prison, ^^ brought near the gallows,^* 
but afterwards pardoned. While iu confinement, a poi3ish 
priest prevailed on him to embraoe. the Roman catbolic 
faith, in which be continued about twelve years. As soon 
as be was released, which appears to. have been about 
1595, he married, to use "hisown expression, ^< a wife 
who was a shrew, yet honest to him," and endeavoured '^ 
provide for his family by bis pen. Having produced a 
play which was acoidetitally seen by Shakspeare, he re*- 
solved to bring it on the stage, of which he was a manager, 
and acted a part in it btmself. What play tbis was, we 
ave not told, but its success encounaged him 'to produce 
his excellent comedy of ^^ £veiy Man in his Bmnonr,^ 
which was performed on the same stage in 16&8. Oidys, 
in his manuscript notes on Langbaine, says tliat- Jonson 
was bimself the master of a play-house in Barbican, wbtch 
was at a distant period converted into a dissenting meeting- 
house. He adds that Ben li^ed .in Bartholomew-dose, in 
the bouse which was inhabited, in Oldys's itinie^ by MP, 
James, a letter-founder. Mentioii is made in his. writings^ 
of bis theatre, of the Sun and Moon tatern^ in Aldersgate- 

J O N S O N. Uft 



Street, and of the MernoAid. > But tbewAtit of ^tes ren- 
ders much of ihid information tiselestf.' 
'■ Ii% the following year he produced the c<!»uii«erti«tt of Ms 
former comedy; entitled " Erery Man (mt of his Hmnour,'* 
and continued to furnish a- new play eveiy year* until he 
was called to assist in the maiaks amd * Entertainments m^^h 
in honour of the acoession of king JAraes to'(9ie throng -of 
England, and afterwards ob occasions idf particular festivity 
at the courts of James and Cbai^leii I. But from "these 
barbarous productions, be occasibnally retired to the cul- 
tivation of his comio genius, and ^n one occasion gave an 
extraordinary proof of natural and prompt exceUence in 
his ^' Volpone," which was finished within the space of 
five weeks. ■ . 

His next production in()icated somewhat of thait rough 
and independent spirit which neither the smiles nor terrors 
of a court could repress. It was, indeed, a foolish ebnl* 
lition for a man in his circumstances to ridicule the Scotch 
nation in the court of a Scotch king, yet this he attempted 
in a comedy entitled " Eastward-Hoe," which he wrote in 
conjunction with Chapman and Marston, although, as Mr. 
Warton has remarl^ed, he was in general ** too proud to 
assist or be assisted.'* The affront, however, was too gross 
to be overlooked, and the three authors were sent to pri- 
son, and not released without mu^ interest. Ganideil 
and Selden are supposed to have supplicated the throne 
in favour of Jonson on this occasion. At an entertainment 
which he gave to these and other friends on his release, 
. his mother, ^ more like an antique Roman than a Briton, 
drank to him, and showed him a paper of poison, which 
she intended to have given him in bis Uquor, after having 
taken a portion of it herself, if sentence upon him (of pil- 
lory, &c.) had been carried into exiecutton.'' The history 
of the times shews the probable inducement Jonson had to 
ridicule the Scotch. The court was fi^lled with them, and 
it became the humour of the English to be jealous of their 
encroachments. Jonson, however, having obtained a par- 
don, endeavoured to conciliate his offended sovereign by 
taxing bis genius to prodtice a double portion of that adu* 
lation in which James delighted. 

His connexion with Shakspeare, noticed above, hdk 
kitely become the subject of a controversy. Pope, in the 
preface to his edition of Shakspeare, says, " I cannot help 
thinking that these two poets were good friends, and lived 

144 J O N S O N. 

im amicable tennBy and in offices of society with eacb 
other. It is an acknowledged fact that Ben Jonson was 
introduced upon the stage, and his first works encouraged 
hy Shakspeare. And after his death, that author writes 
f To the Memory of his beloved Mr. William Shakspeare,' 
which shows as if the friendship had continued through 
life/* Mr. Malone, the accuracy of whose researches are 
entitled to the biff best respect, ha? produced many proofs 
of their mutual dislike, amounting, as he thinks -on the 
.part of Jonaon, to malignity. Mr. Steevens and Mr. George 
.Chalmers are inclined likewise to blame Jonson ; but Dr. 
Farmer considered the reports of Jonson's pride and ma- 
lignity as absolutely groundless. Mr. O. Gilchrist, in a 
pamphlet lately published, has vindicated Jonson with 
much acuteness, although without whblly effacing the im- 
pression which Mr. Malone's proofs and extracts are cal- 
culated to make. That Jonson was at times the antagonist 
of Shakspeare, and that they engaged in what Fuller calls 
J** Wit-combats," may be allowed, for such occurrences 
are not uncommon among contemporary poets ; but it is 
inconsistent with all we know of human passions and tem- 
pers that a man capable of writing, the high encomiastic 
lines alluded to by Pope, could have at any time harboured 
vialignityin bis heart against Shakspeare. Malignity rarely 
dies with its object, and more rarely turns to esteem and 

Jonson's next play, " Epicsene, or the Silent Woman," 
did not appear until 1609, and amply atoned for bis 
seeming neglect of the dramatic muse. It is perhaps tfaQ 
first regular comedy in the language, and did not losi^ 
much of this superiority by the appearance of his ** Al- 
chemist," in 1610. His tragedy, however, of <^ Cata- 
line," in 1611, as well as his '^ Seganus," of both which 
he entertained a high opinion, serve only to confirm th^ 
maxim that few authors know where their excellence lies^ 
The *^ Cataline," says Dr. Hurd, is a specimen of all the 
errors of tragedy. 

In 1613 be went to Paris, where he was admitted to an' 
interview with cardinal Perron, and with his usual frank-! 
ness told the cardinal that his translation of Virgil wa$ 
^^ nought." About this time he commenced a quarrel with 
Xnigo Jones, and made him the subject of his ridicule in a 
comedy called '< Bartholomew- Fair," acted in 1614.. Jones 
was architect or machinist to the masques and entertain* 

J O N S O N. 145 

inents for which Johson furnished the poetry^ but the par<* 
ticular cause of their quarrel does not appear. '^ Who- 
ever," says lord Orford, ** was the aggressor, the turbu- 
lent temper of Jonson took care to be most in the wrong. 
Nothing exceeds the grossness of the language that he 
.poured out, except the badness of the verses that were the 
vehicle. There he fully exerted all that brutal abuse 
which his contemj^oraries were willing to think wit, be- 
cause they were afraid of it ; and Which only serves to 
show the arrogance of the man who presumed to satirize 
Jones and rival Shakspeafe. With the latter, indeed, be 
had not the smallest pretensions to be compareid, except 
in having sometimes written absolute nonsense. Jonson 
translated the ancients, Shakspeare transfused their very 
soul into his writings." If Jonson was the rivsLl of Shak«» 
speare, he deserves all this ; but with no other claims thaifi 
bis ^* Cataline,'* and ^^ Sejanus," how could he for a mo- 
nent fancy himself the rival of Shakspeare ? 

•* BartbcJomew Fair" was succeeded by the " Dfevil's art 
Ass," in 1616, and by ati edition of his Works in folio, iH 
which his '^ Epigrams" were first printed, although they 
appear to have been written at i^arious times, and some long 
before this period. He was now in the 2enith of his fame 
^d prosperity. Among other marks of respect, be was 
l^resented with the honorary degree of M. A. by the uni«* 
versity of Oxford. He had been invited to this place by 
Dr. Corbet, senior student, and afterwards dean of Christ** 
church and bishop of Norwich. • According to the account 
he- gave of himself to Druramond^ he was M. A. of both 

Wood informs us that he succeeded Daniel as poet-lau- 
reat, in Oct. 1619, as Daniel did Spenser. Mr. Malone, 
however, has very clearly proved that neither Spenser nor 
Daniel enjoyed ihe office now known by that name. King 
James, by letters patent dated February 3,1615-16, granted 
Jonson an annuity or yearly pension of one hundred marks^ 
during his life, ^^ hi consideration of the good and accept- 
able service heretofore done, and hereafter to be done, by 
the said B.J." On the2Sd of April, 1630, king Charieii 
by letters patent, reciting the former grant, and that it 
Had been surrendered, was pleased ^^ in consideration (says 
the patent) of the good and acceptable service done unto 
us and our father by the said B. J. and especially to en« 
courage him to proceed in those services of his wit and 

VouXIX. L 

146 J O N S O N. 

pen, which we have enjoined unto him, and which we es* 
pect from him,*' to augment his annuity of one hundred 
marks to one hundred pounds per annum during his life^ 
payable from Christmas 1629. Charles at the same time 
granted him a tierce of Canary Spanish wine yearly during 
bis life, out of his majesty's cellars at Whitehall ; of which 
there is no mention in the former grant Soon after this 
pension was settled on him, he went to Scotland to visit 
his intimate friend and correspondent, Drummond of Haw^ 
thomden, to whom he imparted many particulars of his 
life and his opinions on the poets of his age. After his 
return from this visit, which appears to have afforded him 
much pleasure, he wrote a poem on the subject; but this^ 
with several more of his productions, Was destroyed by aa 
accidental fire, and he commemorated his loss in a poem 
entitled " An Execration upon Vulcan." 

Although it is not our purpose to notice all his dramatic 
pieces, it is necessary to mention, that in 1629 be pro- 
duced a comedy called the '^ New Inn, or the light teatt,'* 
which was so roughly handled by the audience, that he wasr 
provoked to write an ^^ Ode to Himself,'', in which he 
threatened to abandon the stage. Threats of this kind are 
generally impotent, and Jonsoa gained nothing but the 
character of a man who was so far spoiled by public favour 
a^ to overrate his talents. Feltham and Suckling reflected 
on him with some asperity on this occasion, while Randolph 
endeavoured to reconcile him to his profession* His tern* 
per, usually rough, might perhaps at this time have been 
exasperated by disease, for we find that his health was de-« 
clining from 1625 to 1629 *, when his play was condemned^' 
He was also suffering about this time the usual vexations 
which attend a want of ceconomy ; in one case of pecuniary 
eP)barrassment, king Ciiarles relieved him by tbehaad^ 
some present of an hundred pounds. This contradicts a 
^tory related by Cibber and Smollett, that when ihe king 
beard of his illness, he sent him ten pounds, and that Jon- 
jBon said to the messenger, '^ His Majesty has sentmetei^ 
pounds, because I am old and poor, atid live in an alley; 
gb and tell him that his sohl lives in an alley." Jonson^s^ 

'^ The fire above-mentioned Oldys was assisted by Sir George Carew, Sir 

jj^es \n this year, and says, that it de- Robert Cotton, and the celebrated Set'* 

jitroyed a History of Henry V^ of which, den. Oldys^s MS No(et U JLan^Mne 

Jonson bad gone through eight of hia. ia Brit* Mus. 
liitie yearsi'and in which it is saidh^ 

J O N S O N, 


t^unt manners and ready wit make the reply sufficiently 
Credible, bad the former part of the story been true, but 
the lines of gratitude which he addressed to his majesty 
are a satisfactory refutation. Jonson, however, continued 
tb be thoughtlessly lavish and poor, although in addition 
to the royal bounty he is said to have enjoyed a pensioa 
from the city, and received occasional assistance from his 
friends. The pension from the city appears to have been 
withdrawn in 1631, if it be to it he alludes in the post«- 
script of a letter in the British Museum, dated that year, 
** Yesterday the barbarous court of aldermen have with- 
drawn their chandler-Iy pension for veijuice and mustard 
33/. es. Sd:' * Sutton, the founder of the Charter-house, 
is said to have been one of his benefactors, which renders 
it improbable that Jonson could have intended to ridicule 

* Tbif letter, which is addressed to 
the £ari of Newcastle, shows so much 
of his temper and spirit at this time, 
that a longer extract may be excused. 

'* 1 myself being no aubttance, am 
faioe to trouble you with shaddowes, or 
what is less, an apologue, or fable, iu a 
dream. I being stricken with the palsy 
in i62S, had, by Sir Thomas Badger, 
some few months synce, a fbxe sent 
mee, for a present, which creature, by 
likndllag, I endeayoured to make tame, 
as well for the abating of my disease as 
the delight I took iu speculation of his 
naHire. It happened this present year 
1631, an(l this verie weeke being the 
weeke usheriug Christmas, and this 
Tuesday morning in a drearae (and 
morning dreames are truest), to have 
one of my servants come to my bed- 
aide, and tell mee, Master, master, the 
fo» speaks 1 Whereat mee thought I 
started and trembled, went down into 
the yard to witnes^the wonder. There 
Irfbund my Rcynanjl in hit tenement, 
the tnbb I had hired for him, cynically 
expressing his own lott, to be condemn'd 
to the house of a poet, where nothing 
was to be seen but the bare waifs, and 
not any thing heard bat the noise of a 
ajtwe dividing biUates all the weeke 
,|dng, more Id keepe the family in exer- 
cise, than to comfort any person lh«re 
with fire, save llie ' paralytic master;, 
and went on in this way, at the Fox 
t e aased thia batlev fabler of the two. I, 
his master, began to give him good 
words, and stroake him s butRtynard^ 
%ivkiH(g,;iald mc« tkii wonid net dot. 

I must give him meate. I, angry, calPd 
him stinking vermtne. Hee reply'd» 
looke into your cellar, which is your 
larder too, youle find a worse vermin 
there. When presently, calling for a 
light, mee thought I went down, and 
found all the floor turu'd up, as if a 
colony, of moles had been there, or an 
army of salt«petre vermin. Where- 
upon I sent presently into Tuttle-street 
for the king's most excellent mole- 
catcher, to release mee, and hunt 
them : but hee, when he came and 
viewd the place, and had well marked 
the earth turned up, took a bandfoll, 
smelt to it, and said, Master, it is not 
in my power to destroy this vertpin ; 
the K. or some good man of a noble 
natnre most heipe yon i this kind of 
mole is callM a wabc^ which will de« 
stroy you and your fami^, if you pre* 
vent not the worsting of it in tyme. 
And, therefore, God keepe you, and 
send you health. 

" The interpretation botii of 
ble and dream is, that I, waking, dot 
find want the worst and most working 
▼ermin in a house ^ and tbertfom, mtf 
noble lord, and next the ]ting my be^ 
patron, I am necessitated to tell it yon. 
I ^o not to impudent to borrow any 
tnm of your Iprdship,. for I havn no ft* 
xulty to pay; but my needt are ine^, 
mid so nrghig» as I do beg what your 
bounty can give met, in the name of 
good lettertf and the bond of an ever- 
gratefbil and acknowltdgiog Nrvant |n 
your hononr.*' 

L % 

I4d J O N S O N. 

so excellent a character on the stage : yet, according td 
Mr. Oldys, *^ Volpone** was intended for him* But aU 
though it is supposed that Jonson sometimes laid the rich 
under contributions by the dread of his satire, it is not 
very likely that he would attack such a man as Sutton. 

The " Tale of a Tub," and the " Magnetic I^ady," we.y^ 
his last dramatic pieces, and bear very few marks of his 
original powers. He penned another masque in 1634, 
and we have a " New Year's Ode" dated in 1635, but the 
remainder of his life appears to have been wasted in sick- 
ness of the paralytic kind, which at length carried him off, 
Aug. 16, 1637, in the sixty-third year, of his age. Three 
days afterwards he was interred in Westminster-abbey, at 
the north-west end near the belfrey, with a common paver 
ment stone laid over his grave, with a short and irreverend 
inscription of " O rare Ben Jonson," cut at the expence 
of sir John Young of Great Miltoti in Oxfordshire. ' Hii 
death was lamented as a public loss to the poetical world. 
About six months after this event, his contemporaries 
joined in a collection of elegies and encomiastic poems, 
which was published under the title of ^^ Jonsonius Virbius ; 
or the Memory of Ben Jonson revived by the friends of the 
Muses.** Dr. Duppa, bishop of Chichester, was the edi- 
tor of this volume, which contained verses by lords Falk- 
land and Buckhurst, sir John Beaumont, sir Francis Wort^ 
ley, sir Thomas Hawkins, Messrs. Henry King, Henry 
Coventry, Thomas May, Dudley Diggs, George Fortescue, 
William Habington, Edmund Waller, J. Vernon, J. CI, 
(probably Cleveland) Jasper Mayne, Will. Cartwright, 
John Rutter, Owen Feltham, George Donne, Shakerfey 
Marmion, John Ford, R. Brideoak, Rich. West, R. Meade^ 
H. Ramsay, T. Terrent, Rob. Wasing, Will: Bew, and 
Sam. Evans. A subscription also was entered huo for a 
Dionumbnt in the Abbey, but prevented by the rebellion. 
, The second earl of Oxford contributed the hurt in bas- 
relieyo which is now in Poet's-corner. Jonson had several 
children, but survived them all. One of them was a poet, 
and, as Mr. Malone has discovered, the author of a Drama 
-written in conjunction with Brome. It should seem that 
he was not on good terms with his father. Fuller says tUat 
*^ Ben was not happy in his children.? 

As many points of his character are obscure or disputed^ 
it may not be imnecessary in this placj^ to exhibit the evi- 
dence of bis contemporaries, or of those <who lived at ' n^ 

J O N S Q N* U» 

great distance of time. The following particulars Au- 
brey collected from Dr. Bathurst, sir Bennet Hoskyns, 
Lacy the player^ and others*. 

^^ I remember when I was a scholar at Trin. Coll. Oxoir. 
1646, I heard Mr. Ralph Bathurst (now dean of Welles) 
aay, that Ben: Johnson was a Warwyckshire man. 'Tis 
agreed that his father was a minister; and by his epistle 
D. D. of Every Man — to Mr. W. Camden, that he was 
Ik Westminster scholar, and that Mr. W. Camden was his 
schoolmaster. His mother, after his father's death, mar-r 
ried a bricklayer, and *tis generally f said that he wrought 
for some time with bis fatber-in-lawe, and particularly on 
the garden wall of Lincoln^s inne next to Chancery lane ; 
and that a knight, a bencher, walking thro", and bearing 
him repeat some Greeke verses out of Homer, discoursing 
with him and finding him to have a witt extraordinary^ 
gave him some exhibition to maintain him at Trinity 
college in Cambridge, where he was — : then he went 
itito the Lowe Countryes, and spent some time, not very 
long, in the armie ; not to the disgrace of [it] , as you 
may find in his Epigrames. Then he came into England, 
and acted and wrote at the Greene Curtaine, but both ill ; 
a kind of nursery or obscure playhouse somewhere in the 
suburbs (I think towards Shoreditch or Clerkenwell). Then 
he undertook again to write a play, and did hitt it admira- 
bly well, viz. Evtry Man — which was his first good one. 
Sergeant Jo. Hoskins of Herefordshire was his Father, I 
remember bis sonhe (sir Bennet Hoskins, baronet, who 
was something poetical in his youth) told me^ that when 
be desired to be adopted his sonne, No, sayd he, 'tis 
honour enough for me to be your brother : I am your father's 
Sonne: 'twas he that polished me: I do acknowledge it. 
He was (or rather had been) of a clear and faire skin. His 
habit v^as very plain. I have heard Mr. Lacy the player 
say, that he was wont to weare a coate like a coachman's 
coate, with slitts under the arm-pitts. He wolild many 
times exceede in drinke: Canarie was his beloved liquour: 
then he would tumble home to bed ; and when he had 
thoroughly perspired, then to* studie. I have seen his 
studyeiog chaire, which was of strawe, ^such as old womj&n 

* For the transcription of this article It is perhaps unnecessary to add, ^hat 
the Reader is indebted to Mr. Malone's Anbrey's MSS. .are in the Asbmoleai^ 
Historical Account of the English Stage. Museum, Oxford. 

j- A JPpw cuptractions in the manuscript are not retained in tl^is popy^ 

150 J O N S O N. 

used : and as Aulus Gellius is drawn in. When I was in 
Oxon: Bishop Skinner (Bp. of Oxford) who lay at our 
college was wont to say, that be understood an author as 
well as any man in England. He mentions in his Epi- 
grames, a son that he had, and his epitaph. Long since 
in king James time, I have beard my uncle Dav^rs (Dani^ 
vers) say, who knew him, that he lived without Temple 
Barre atacombe-maker^s shop about the Elephant^s castle. 
In his later time he lived in Westminster, in the house 
under which you passe as you go out of the church-yard 
into the old palace ; where he dyed. He lyes buried in 
the north-aisle, the path square of stones, the rest is lo« 
zenge, opposite to the scutcheon of Robert de Ros, with 
this inscription only on him, in a pavement square of blue: 
marble, 14 inches square, O rare Ben: Jonsom: which 
was done at the charge of Jack Young, afterwards knighted^- 
who walking there when the grave was covering, gave the 
fellow eighteen pence to cutt it." 

Mr. Zouch, in bis Life of Walton, has furnished the 
following information from a MS. of Walton^s in the A$h«< 
molean Museum. 

*^ I only knew Ben Jonson : But my Lord of Winton 
(Dr. Morley, bishop of Winchester) knew him very well $ 
and says, he was in the 6\ that is, the upermost ffbrme in 
Westminster scole, at which time his father dyed, and hia 
mother married a brickelayer, who made him (much against 
bis will) help him in his trade ; but in a short time, his 
' tcblemaister, Mr. Camden, got him a better employment^ 
which was to atend or acompany a son of sir Walter Bau# 
ley's in his travills. Within a short time after their return^ 
they parted (I think not in cole bloud) and with a loue 
sutable to what they bad in their travilles (not to be oo« 
mended). And then Ben began to set up for himselfe in 
the trade by which he got his subsistance and fame, of 
which I need not give any account. He got in time to 
have 100/. a yeare from the king, also a pension from the 
cittie, and the like from many of the nobilitie and some of 
the gentry, which was well payM, for love or fere of his 
railing in verse, or prose, or boeth. My lord told me, he 
told hiofi he was (in his long retyrement and sickness, when 
he saw him, which was often) much afilickted, that bee 
bad profained the scripture in. his playes, and lamented it 
with horror : yet that, at that time of his long retyrement^ 
his pension (so much as came in) was^ giuen to a womaa 

JON son: 151 

tfiat gbuernM him (with whome he liuM & dyed nere the 
Abie in Westminster ;) and that nether he nor she tooke 
much care for next weike : and wood be sure not to want 
wine ; of which he usually took too much before he went 
to bed, if not oftener and soner. My lord tells me, he 
knowes not, but thinks he was born in Westminster. The 
question may be put to Mr. Wood very easily upon what 

f grounds he is positive as to his being born their; he is a 
riendly man, and will resolve it. So much for brave Ben. 

' Nov. 22 (16) 80." 

Fuller, in addition to what has been already quoted, 
says that ** he was statutably admitted into Saint John's- 
college in Cambridge, where he continued but few weeks 
for want of further maintenance, being fain^ to return to 
the trade of his father-in-law. And let not them blush 
that have, but those that have not a lawful calling. He 
helped in the building of the new structure of Lincoln's- 
Inn, when having a trowell in his hand, he had a book in 
his pocket. Some gentlemen pitying that his parts should 
be buried under the rubbish of so mean a calling, did by 
their bounty manumise him freely to follow his own inge- 
nuous inclinations. Indeed his parts were not so ready to 
tun of themselves as able to answer the spur, so that it 
may be truly said of him, that he had an elaborate wit 
wrought out by his own industry. He would sit silent in 
learned company, and suck in (besides wine) their several 
humours into his observation. What was ore in others, he 
was able to refine to himself. He was paramount in the 
dramatique part of poetry, and taught the stage an exact 
conformity to the laws of comedians. His comedies were 
above the Volge (which are only tickled with downright 
obscenity), and took not so well at the first stroke as at the 
rebound, when beheld the second time; yea, they will 
endure reading, and that with due comoYendation, so lon^ 
as either ingenuity or learning are fashionable in our na.- 
tion. If his lajter he not so spriteful and vigorous as his 
first pieces, all that are old will, and all that desire to be 
old should, excuse him therein." To his article of Shak- 
speare, Fuller subjoins, ♦* Many were the wit-combates be- 
twixt (Shakspeare) and Ben Johnson, which two I behold 
like a Spanish great gallion, and an English man of war ; 
master Johnson (like the former) was built far higher in 
learning ; solid, but slow in his performances. Shakspeare, 
with the English man of war, lesser in bulk^ but lighter in 

1S9 J O N S O N» 

wling, oould torn with all tides, tack about and take ad<« 
vantage of all windsi by the quickness of his wit and in-i 

The following particulars are transcribed from . Oldys* 
]VIS additions to Langbaine. Oldys, like Spence, picked 
up the traditions of his day, and left them to b^ examined 
and authenticated by his readers. Such contributions .to 
biography are, no doubt, useful, but not to be received with 
implicit credit. 

*^ Mr. Camden recommended (Jonson) to sir Walter 
llaleigh, who trusted him with the care and instruction of 
liis eldest son Walter, a gay spark, who could not brook 
Ben's rigorous treatment, but, perceiving one foible in bis 
disposition, inadiBUsepf that to throw o$ the yoke of his 
government. And this was an unlucky bs^bit 3en had con«* 
tracted, through his love of jovial company, of being overr 
taken with liquor, which sir Walter did of all vices most 
abominate, and hath mo^t exclaimed against. One day, 
when Ben had taken a plentiful dose, and was fallen intp a 
apund sleep, yoqng. Raleigh got a great basket, and a 
couple of men, who laid Ben in it, and then with a pole 
carried him between their shoulders to sir Walter, telling 
him their young master had sent home bis tutor, This I 
had from a MS memorandum-book written in the time of 
the civil Wars by Mr. Oldisworth, who was secretary^ I 
think, to Philip earl of Pembroke. Yet in 1614, when 
sir Walter published his History of the World, there was a 
good understanding between him and Ben Jon^on ; for the 
verses, which explain the grave frontispiece before that 
histpry, were written by Jonspn, and are reprinted in his 
^ Unde^wppds,' where the poem is caUed ^/ The Mind 
pf \he frontispiece to a bopk;'' but b^ napaes not this 

>^ About the yei|.r )622 soipe lewd, perjured^ woman 
deceived and jilted him; and he writes a sharp poem ou 
the occasion. And in another poem, called his picture, 
left in Scotland, he seems to^think she slighted him for his 
mountain belly and his rocky face.'' We have alrei^dy 
seen by bishop Morley's account J;hat he lived with a wo- 
loan in his latter days, who assisted him in speQding bis 
-money. ^ . , . 

" Bep Jpnson/* says Qldys, ^' was charged in h^ ^* Ppe- 
f^ster," 1601, with having libelled or ridiculed t;he lawyerSj^ 
lOldiers, and players jj so be afterwards jqined an apoJio*! 

J O N S Q N. iss 

^tical dmlogue at the end :of it, wherein he says he had 
been provoked for three years on every stage by slanderers, 
as to his self-conceit, arrogance, insolehce, railing, and 
plagiarism by translations. As to law, he says he only 
brought in Ovid chid by his father for preferring poetry to 
it As to the soldiers, he swears by his Mtise they are 
friends ; he loved the profession, and once proved or ex* 
ercised it, as I take it, and did not shame it more then 
with his actions, than he dare now with his writings. And 
as to the players, he had taxed some sparingly, but they 
thought each man's vice belonged to the whole tribe. That 
lie was not moved with what they had done against him, 
but was sorry for some better natures, who were drawn in 
by the rest to concur in the exposure or derision of him* 
And concludes, that since his comic muse had been so 
ominous to him, he will try if tragedy has a kinder aspect. 
** A full show of those he has exposed in this play is 
not BOW easily discernible. Besides Decker, and some 
.touches on some play that has a Moor in it (perhaps Titus 
Androniculs ; I should hope he did not dare to mean 
Othello) some speeches of such a character being recited 
.in Act III. Scene IV. though not reflected on, he makes 
Tucca call Histrio the player, ^ a lousy slave, proud ras* 
cal, you grow rich, do you ? and purchase your twopenny 
tear-mouth; and copper-laced scoundrels,' &c. which 
language should not come very natural from him, if be 
ever had been a player himself; and such it seems he was 
before or after." — 

Howel in one of his letters delineates what the late Mr. 
Seward considered as the leading feature of Jonson's cha- 

*^ I was invited yesterday to a solemn supper by B. J. 
where you were deeply remembered. There was good 
company, excellent cheer, choice wines, and jovial weU 
come. One thing intervened which almost spoiled the 
relish of the rest, that B. began to engross all the discourse; 
to vapour extremely of himself; and by vilifying others to 
magnify his own muse. T. Ca. buzzed me in the ear, that 
though Ben had barrelled up a great deal of knowledge, 
yet it seems he had not read the ethics, which, amongst 
other precepts of morality, forbid self-commendation, de- 
claring it to be an ill-favoured solecism in good manners.'' 
The account Jonson gave of himself to Drummond is 
not uniQt^resting, It was first published in th^ folio ^edi-r 

154 J O N S O N, 

tion of Drummortd's Works, 1711. **He," Ben Jbnson^ 
*^ said that bis grandfather came from Carlisle, to which 
he had come from Annandale in Scotland ; that he served 
king Henry VIII. and was a gentleman. His father lost 
his estate under queen Mary, having been cast in prison 
and forfeited; and at Fast he turned minister. He was 
posthumoQSy being born a month after his father'? deaths 
and was put to school by a friend. His master was Cam* 
den. Afterwards he was taken from it, and put to another 
craft, viz. to be a bricklayer, which he could not endure^ 
but went into the Low Countries, and returning home be 
again betook himself to his wonted studies. In his service 
in the Low Countries, he had, in the view of both the 
armies, killed an enemy, and taken the opima spolia from 
him; and since coming to England, being appealed to in 
a duel, be had killed his adversary, who had hurt him in 
the arm^ and whose sword was ten inches longer than his. 
for this crime he was imprisoned, and almost at the gal- 
lows. 7'hen he took his religion on trust of a priest, who 
^sited him in prison. He was twelve years a papist ; but 
after this he was reconciled to4;he church of England, and 
left off to be a recusant. At his first communion, in token 
of his true reconciliation, he drank out the full cup of wine. 
H^ was master of arts in both universities. In the time of 
his cbse imprisonment under queen Eiis&abeih, there were 
spies to catch him, but he was advertised of them by the 
keeper. He had an epigram on the spies. He married a 
wife, who was a shrew, yet honest to him. When the 
king came to England, about the time that the plague was 
in London, he (Ben Jonson) being in the country at sir 
Robert Cotton's house, with old Camden, saw in a vision 
.his eldest son, then a young child, and at London, appear 
unto him with the mark of a bloody cross on his forehead, 
as if it had been cut with a sword ; at which, amazed, he 
prayed unto God, and in the morning he came to Mr«. 
Camden's chamber to tell him, who persuaded him it was 
but an apprehension, at which he should not be dejected. 
Jn the mean time came letters from his wife, of the death 
of that boy in the plague. He appeared to him, he said, 
of a manly shape, and of that growth he thinks be shall be 
at the resurrection. 

" He was accused by sir James Murray to the king, for 
writing something against the Scots in a play called ** East- 
ward Hoe," and voluntarily imprisoned himself with Chap- 


nan and Marstop, who had written it amongst then, and 

it was reported should have their ears and noses cut After 
their delivery, he entertained all bis friends; there were 
present Camden, Seldeo, and others. In the middle of 
the feast, bis old mother drank to bim, and showed: him a 
paper which she designed (if the sentence had past) to hav^ 
mixed among his drink, and it was strong and lusty poison | 
and to show that she was no churl, she told that she de- 
signed first to have drank of it herself. 

'' H^ said be bad spent a whole night in lying looking to 
)iis great toe, about which he had seen Tartars and Turks^ 
Romans and Carthaginians, fight, in his imagination, 

*' He wrote all his verses first in prose, as his mastef 
Camden taught him ; and said that verses stood by seosei 
without either colours or accent. 

^^ He used to say, that many epigrams were ill because 
they expressed in the end what should have been under-^ 
stood by what was said before, as that of sir John Davies; 
that he bad a pastoral entitled ' The May-lord ;^ his awn 
name is Alkin; Ethra, the countess of Bedford^ Mogbel 
Overberry, the old countess of Suffolk; an enchantress} 
other names are given to Somerset, his lady, Pembroke^ 
the countess of Rutland, lady Worth. In his first scene 
Alkiu comes in mending his broken pipe. He bringetb in^ 
says our author, clowns making mirth and foolish, sportf^ 
contrary to all other pastorals. He had also a design to 
write a fisher or pastoral play, and nuike the stage in 
the Lomond Lake ; and also to write bis foot- pilgrimage 
thither, and to call it a discovery. In a poem he calleth 

' The heart of Scotland^ Britain^s other eye.* 

S* That be had an intention to have made a play lik^ 
Plautus's Amphitryo, but left it off; for that be could 
pever find two so like one to the other, that he could per?*^ 
suade the spectators that they were one. 

*^ That he had a design to write an epic poem, and wa^ 
to call it Chorologia, of the worthies of his country raided 
by Fame, and was to dedicate it to his country. |t is all 
in couplets, for be detested all other rhimes. He 9ai4 
he bad written a discourse of poetry both against Campion 
and Daniel, especially the last, where he proves coupletji 
to be the best sort of verses, especially when they are 
broke like he^^amieters^ and that cross rhimes an4 stanza^ 

W6 J O N S O N. 

because the purpose would lead beyotid eiglit lines, vrerU 
all forced." 

Ben Jonson, continues Drummond, ** was a great lov^r 
land praiser of himself, a contemner and scorner of others,, 
given rather to lose a friend than a jest ; jealous of every 
word and action of those about him, especially after driuk^ 
which is one of the elements in which he lived ; a dissem*^ 
bier of the parts which reign in him ; k bragger of scmie 
good that he wanted, thinkins nothing well done, but whai^ 
either be himself or some of his friends have said or done; 
lie is passionately kind and angry, careless either to gain 
or keep ; vindictive, but if he be well answered at himself, 
interprets best sayings and deeds often to the worst. He 
was for any religion, as being versed in both; oppressed 
with fancy, which hath over- mastered his reason, a ^ene? 
ral disease in many poets. His inventions are smooth and 
easy, but above all be excelleth in a translation. When 
his play of the Silent Woman was first acted, there wene 
found verses after on the stage against him, concluding^ 
that that play was well named the Silent Woman, because 
^here was never one man to say plaudiie to it.'* Drummond 
adds, '^ In short, be was in his personal character the very 
reverse of Shakspeare> as surly, ill-natured, proud, and 
disagreeable, as Shakspeare with ten times his merit was 
gentle, good*-natured, easy, and amiable." 

Lord Clarendon's character of our author is more favour- 
able, and from so accurate a judge of human nature, per- 
• haps more valuable. ^^ His name," lerd Clarendon says^ 
*^ can never be forgotten, having by his very good learn ^ 
ing, and the severity of bis nature and manners, very much 
reformed the stage; and indeed the English poetry itself^ 
His natural advantages were, judgment to order and govern 
faqcy, rather than excess of fancy, his productions being 
slow^and upon deliberation, yet then abounding with gi:eat 
wit and fancy, and will live accordingly ; and surely as he 
did exceedingly exalt the English language in eloquence, 
propriety, and masculine expressions, so he was the best 
judge of, and fittest to prescribe rules to poetry and pqets^ 
of any man who had lived with, or before him, or since: 
if Mr. Cowley bad not made a flight beyond all men> with 
that modesty yet, as to ascribe much of (bis to the example 
and learning of Ben Jonson. His conversation was very 
good, and with the men of most note; and be had for 
ma^y years an ijeivtraoi'diiiary kindness for Mr. Hyde (lord 

J O N S O N. 1ST 

Clarendon), till he found he betook himself Co business^ 
which he believed ought never to be preferred before his 
company. He lived to be very old, and till the palsy made 
a deep impression upon his body and his mind.*^ 

From these accounts it may surely l>e inferred that Jon-» 
son in his life-time occupied a high station in the literary 
world. So many memorials of character, and so many 
culogiums on his. talents, have not fallen to the lot of matiy 
writers of that age. His failings, however, appear lo have 
been so conspicuous as to obscure his virtues. Addicted to 
intemperance, with the unequal temper which habitual 
intemperance creates, and disappointed in the hopes of 
wealth and independence, vyhich his high opinion of his 
talents led him to form, degenerating even to the resources 
of a libeller who extorts from fear what is denied to genius, 
he became arrogant, and careless of pleasing even those 
with whom he associated. Of the coarseness of his manners 
Aere can be no doubt, but it appears at the same time that 
his talents were such as made his temper be tolerated for 
the sake of his conversation. As to his high opinion of 
himself, he did not probably differ from his contempp-^ 
raries, who hailed him as the reformer of the stage, and 
as the most learned of critics ; and it is no great diminu;* 
tion of his merit, that an age of more refinement cannot 
find enougti to justify the superior light in which he was 
contemplated. It is sufScient that he did 'what had not 
been done before, that he displayed a jddgment to which 
the stage had been a stranger, and furnished it with ex- 
amples of regular comedy which have not been surpassed. 
His memory was uncommonly tenacious, and his learning 
certainly superior; to that of oiost of his contemporaries. 
Pope giyes hiili the praise of having *^ brooght critical 
learning into togue,'' and having instructed both the actora 
and spectators iu what was the proper province of the dra-» 
Inatic muse. His " English Grammar,'' and his ^^ Disco* 
veries," both written in his advanced years, display an at- 
tachment td the interests of literature, and a habit of re^ 
flection, which place his character as a scholar in a very 
favourable point of view. The editor of a recent edition 
of his Discoveries, justly attributes to them *^a closeness 
and precision of style, weight df sentiment, and accuracy 
of classical learning.'' * 

Yet whatever may be thought of his learning, it i^ 
greatly over*rated, when opposed or prf furred ta th^ 


genids oT hk contemporary Shakspeare. Jonson^s learning 
contributed very little to his reputation as a dramatic poetl 
Where he seetns to have employed it most, as in his ** Ca- 
taline/' it only enables hiiii to encumber the tragedy with 
senj^il^ versifications of Sallust, when he should have been 
studying nature and the passions. Dryden, whose opinions 
are ofteti inconsistenty considers Jonson as the greatest 
man of Us age, and observes, that ** if we look upon hint 
when he was himself (for his last plays were but his dotages^ 
he was the most learned and judicious Writer any theatre 
ever had.'' In Another place (preface to the " Mock As* 
trologpr*') j he says " that almost all Jonson's pieces were but 
crambekis coda, the same humour a little "varied iand 
written worse.'* 

It is certain that his high character as a dramatic writer 
has not descended to us undiminished. Of his fifty dramasr, 
there are not above three which preserve his name on the 
iKage, Ibut these indeed are excellent* It was bis misfor"- 
tune to be obKged to dissipate on court masks and pageants 
those talt^nts which concentrated might have furnished, 
dramas eqiial to his ** Volpone," " Alchc;mist^'* and the 
•* Silent Woman." Contrasted with the boundless and 
commanding genius of Shakspeare, Dr. Johnson has hit 
his character with success in his celebrated prologue. 

** Then Jonson came, instructed from the school^ 
To please by method, and invent by rule. 
•His studious patience, and laborious art, 
Witibiregular approach assay*d the heart: ^ 
Cold approbation gave the Hng'ring bays, 
Fo]r they who durst not oensure> aenrce .could praise,** 

Among \m poems there are few which can be specified 
as oK^dels ol excellence. The " Hymn'* from ** Cynthia^s ^ 
Bevels," the " Ode to the Memory of sir Lucius Gary," 
and^^l^r H, Morison/' one of the first examples of the 
Piodarie> or irregular ode, and some of his songs, and 
*^ Underwoods," are brightened by occasional rays of ge- 
nius, and dignified simplicity, but in general he was Ted 
into glittering and fanciful thoughts, and is so frequentljr 
captivated with these as to neglect his versification. Al- 
though be had long atudied poetry, it does not appear that 
lie could pursue a train of poetical sentiment or imagery 
so far as to produce any great work. His best efforts were 
such i^s he could execute almost in the moment of concep- 
tion, fjind fcequently with, an epigrammatic^ turn which i^ 

J O N S O N. 150 

very striking. He ooce meditated anepfc poem^ but his 
habitual irregularities and love of company denied the ne- 
cessary perseverance. 

His works were printed thrice in folio in the seventeenth 
ceatury^ and thrice in the eighteenth. . The last edition, 
in seven volumes, Svo, with notes and additions by Mr. 
Whalley, appeared in 1756, and is esteemed the most 
valuable, but Will probably be superseded by an edition 
which is said to be preparing by the acute editor of Mas* 
singer's works.^ 

JORDAENS (Jacob), a painter of history and portraits, 
possessed of very superior abilities in his art, was born at 
Antwerp iti 1594. He first studied with Adam Van Oort, 
whose daughter he married at an early period of his life ; 
but it was to Rubens he stood indebted for the principal 
part of his knowledge; though it is dubious whether he 
ever was admitted into the school of that master. Certain 
it is, however, that he more forcibly carried into effect his 
principles than any of his disciples, except Vaiidyke. It 
is said by Sandrart, that Rubeus was jealous of him, but 
this assertion is generally thought to be unfounded; yet 
if so great a man were capable of that mean passion, cer- 
tainly the talents of Jordaens might well excite it< He 
plain ted with almost incredible force and brilliancy. Nei- 
ther Rubens nor Tintoretto, in that respect, excel him ; his 
compositions are full of bustle, and designed with great 
truth, even grandeur of form. His defect (and it must be 
allowed that it is a great one, in an art whose principal 
end is to adorn; to improve, to please mankind) is gross- 
xiess of subject and of form ; not indecent, but vulgar, low 
common life. His power to give rotundity and relief to 
his figures^ is amazing ; and his execution is of the most 
tnasterly kind. . The French have possessed themselves of 
many of his principal works ; two are particularly notice- 
able in the gallery of the Louvre, the Flemish celebration* 
of Twelfth night, known by the appellation of ^^ Le Roi 
boit,'' and Christ driving the money-changers from the 
temple. He was remarkable for the rapdity of his execu- 
tion, and appears to have studied his figures and effects by 
candle-iight, or in bright sun-dbine. Having ^obtained 
great renown and success,, he died ia 1678.' 

^ B'logf Brit.-^ohnson and Chalmers's English Poets, for which Uie ah^ve 
.^tfkch wstA vfltitaa. 

• Pilkington.— AfgcnTille, vol 11).— Sir Joshua Reyoolds'a Work!;; see ld« 
dez.— iUes*s CjrcIopflBdia. 

1^0 J o It d; A ic. 

JORDAN (Charles Stephen), a penson diitkfgoisbl^ 
more by his connections than by bis vorks, was botn ik 
Berlin in 1702/ and discovered early a taste for letters. 
He was brought up to the church, but becoming ac- 
quainted with Frederic, then prince, and afterwards kin^ 
of Prussia, a friendship commenced between them of Ao 
common sincerity ; and when Frederic came to the throne, 
be prevailed on Jordan to abandon the cburdb and come t<^ 
cQurt. Here he became the confidential friend of Frede^ 
ric, and had the courage to ^ive him on ail occasions the 
best advice, and to oppose to bis face such measures as 
be thought hurtful. Notwithstanding this freedom he was 
advanced to several posts of profit and honour, atid became 
at length vice-president of the academy of sciences at 
Berlin y where he died in 1745. The king of Prussia erect- 
ed a mausoleum over him, and also honoured him with the 
following eloge : " Jordan," says he, " was bom with parts', 
lively, penetrating, yet capable of application ; his memory 
vast and retentive ; his judgment sure, his imagination 
brilliant; always governed by reason,' yet without stiffnesi^ 
in his morals ; open in conversation, full of politeness and 
benevolence; cherishing truth, and disguising it; humane, 
generous, ready to serve ; a good citizen ; faithful to h\k 
frietids, his master, and his country." His merits as an 
author do not^give us so high an idea of him as the above 
eloge, or as the more interesting account given by Thi* 
bault. U'li only writings were, " L'Histoire d'un voyage 
literaire," in France, England, and Holland. ** Un Re* 
cueil de Litterature, de Philosophie, & de Histoire." A 
Life of M. de la Croze, in French, &c.' 


JORDEN (Edward), an English physician, and con« 
siderable writer on chemistry and mineralogy, was bora ih 
1569, at High Halden in Kent,' and probably educated at 
Hart-hall, Oxford. He visited foreign universities, and 
took his degree of doctor in that of Padua. After his re- 
ti^rn, he practised in London, where he became a member 
of the college of physicians, and was in high reputation for 
learning and abilities. He ii^ured his fortune by engage 
ing in a project to manufacture alum. We are ignorant 
where his'works were situated ; but it is certain, be ob- 
tained a grant from James I. of the profits of them, which' 

1 Diet HisU--«Thibaiilt'g Anecdotes of Frederic 11. king of Prassm, vol. iL 

JO R D £ K 161 

lim ^revoked at the idoportomty of a courtier ; aD4 tliough 
he made ^plioation fpr redress, be never obtained it, not* 
wilbstanding the king appeared particularly sensible of tbe 
bardshi|> of his case. He spent tbe latter part of his life 
at Bath, and died there, of the gout and stone, in January 

JORTIN (Dr. John), a learned English diving was 
born in tbe parish of St. Giles's, Middlesex, Oct. 23, 1^98. 
His father, Benatus, was a native of Bretagne in France ; 
f^ame over. to England about 1685, when protestantism 
was no longer -tolerated in that country ; was made a gen^ 
tleman of tbe privy -chamber in 1691 ; became afterwards 
secretary to lord Orford, sir George Rooke, and sir 
Cloude&iy Sbovd ; and was cast away with the last, when 
bis ship struck upon tbe rocks of Scilly, Oct. 22, 1707. 
His mother was Martha Rogers, of an ancient and respect-* 
able family in Bucks, which bad produced some clergy- 
men, distiDgdisbed by their abilities and learning. He was 
educated at tbe Charter^bouse, where he made a good 
proficiency in Greek and Latin : French be learned at home, 
and he iiqderstood and spoke that language well. 
. In May 1715, he was admitted of Jesus-college,. Cam-* 
bridge ; and, about two years after, recommended by his 
tutor Or. Styan Tbirlby, who was very fond of him, and 
always retained a friendship for him, to make extracts from 
Eustatbius, for the use of Pope's *^ Homer." He was not 
employed directly by Pope, nor did it ever happen to him 
to see the face of that poet : for, being of a shy modest 
nature,, he felt no impulse. to force his way to him; noir* 
did tbe other make inquiry about him, thoqgh perfectly' 
satisfied with what he bad done for him. He took the de- 
gree of B. A. in 1718-11^, and M. A. in 1722 : he bad been 
chosen fellow of bis college soon after the taking of his 
first degree. This year he distinguished himself by the 
publication of a few Latin poems, entitled, ^^ Lusus Poe-. 
tici ;" . which. were well received, and were twice reprinted^ 
with additions. In Sept, 1723, he entered into deacon'^ 
orders, and into piiest*s the Jupe following^ In Jan. 1726-7, 
he was. presented by his college to Swavese^f, near Cam- 
bridge; but^ marrying in 172?^, he resigned that living, 
and so<;^n ^after. settled himself in London, where he was, 
engaged £^ a reader and preacher at a chapel in Newv 

street, near Russell-street, Bloomsbury. 

• » ' ' ' ', ■ , -,•.'-■.'•* 

* Aih, Ok. vol. I.— Aikio's Biof. Meottoirs of Aleqicinc '. . - 

Vol, XIX. M 

t62 JORTIN. 

la this town be spent the next twenty «five years of is» 
life: for though, in 1737, the earl pf Wincbelsea gave hiiii 
the living of Eastwell in Kent, where he resided a little 
tiioe, yet lie very sooii quitted it, and returned to London* . 
Here for many years he had employmeiit as a preacher^ 
in the abovementioned and other chapels ; with the emolu* 
mentiLof which occasional services, and a competency of 
fats own, he supported himself and family in a decent 
though private manner, dividing his leisure hours between 
his books and his friends/ especially those of the literati, 
with whom he always kept up a close and intimate connec*^ 
tion. In 1730, he published ^^Four Sermons upon th^ 
Truth of the Christian Religion :^* the substance of^ 
which was afterwards incorporated in a work, entitled/ 
** Discourses concerning the Truth of the Christian Re-» 
ligion, 1746/' Svo. 

In 1731, he pablished ^^ Miscellaueous Observations 
upon Authors, ancient and modem/' in it vols. 8vo. This 
is a collection of critical remarks, of which, however, he 
was not the sole, though the principal, author : Pearce, 
Massoi^, Dr. Taylor, Wasse, Theobald, Dr. Robinson, 
Uptot^ Thirlby, and others, were contributors to it. This 
work was highly approved by the learned here, and was 
translated into Latin at Amsterdam, and continued on the 
same plan by D'Orville and Burman. In 17{il, archbishop 
Herring, unsolicited, gave him the living of St Dunstan 
in the East, London. This prelate had long entertained 
a high and aiFectionate regard for him ; had endeavoured 
to serve him in many instances with others; and after** 
wards, in 1755, conferred upon him the degree of D. D« 
This same year, 1751, came out his first volume of <'Re- 
marks upon Ecclesiastical History,** 8vo. This work was 
Inscribed to the earl of Burlington ; by whom, as trustee 
for the Boylean Lecture, he had, through the application 
of bishop Herring amd bishop SherU>ck, been appointed, 
in 1749, to preach that lecture. There is a preface to this 
volume of more than forty pages, which, with much learn- 
ipg and ingenuity, displays a spirit of liberty and candour. 
These ^^ RemarKs upon Ecclesiastical History*' were coil* 
tinued, in four succeeding volumes, down to the year 1517, 
when Luther began the work of reformation; two, pub* 
lished by himself, in 1752 and 1754; and two, after his 
death, in 1773. 

lO ft T I Ni 16S 

In ll^i be pufblHhed <« She DissertatioU upon difFerenk 
StibjectSyV Sfo. Thef sixth dissertation is^ ^' On the state 
of the dead, as described by Homer and Virgil f aud the 
irefharks in this, tetiding to establish the great antiquitj of 
the doictrine of a future state, interfered with Warburton 
in his " Divine Legation of Moses/* and drew upon htm 
from that quarter a very severe attack. He made no re-* 
f»iy ; but in hi« ^' Adversaria*' was die following memoran-* 
dttfn, wbiiih shews that he did not oppose the notions of 
other met), from atiy spirit of envy or codtradiotiofi, but 
ff6iii a full persotsion that the real niatter of fact was aia 
he had represented it. ** I have examined,** says he, ^<th^ 
slate of the doad, as described by Homer and Virgil ; and 
upon that dissertation I am wilting to stake all the little 
eredft that I have as a critic and philosopher. I have there 
observed) that Homer was not the inventor of the fabuloui 
history of the gods : he had those stories, and also the 
doctrine of a fucufe state, from old traditions. Many no« 
tioHS of the Pagans, which came from tradition, are con- 
sidered by Barrow, Serm. viti. vok II. in which sermon the 
existence of God is proved from universal consent*** 

In 1758, appeared his '^ Life of Erasmus,*' tn one vol. 
4to; and in 1760, another vol. 4to, containing <' Remalits 
upon the Works of Erasmus,** and an ^< Appendix of Ex^ 
tracts from Erasmus and other Writers.** In the prefiice 
to the former Tolume, he says, that ^' Le Clere, Yfh^ 
publishing the Works of Erasmus at Leyden, drew up hi# 
Life in French, collected principally from his letters, land 
inserted it in the * Bibliotheque Cboisie ;* that;, as this Life 
was favourably received by the public, he had taken it as a 
groundwork to build upon, and bad translated it, not super- 
sttfcioosly'and closely, but with much freedom, and with more 
attention to things than to words ; but that he had made 
continual additions, not only with relation to the history of 
those days, but to the life of Erasmus, especially where Le 
Clerc grew more remiss, either wearied with the task, or 
called off from these to other labours.^* After mentioning a 
few other matters to his readerSj he turns his discourse to his 
friends ; " recommending himself to their fovour, whilst 
he is with them, and his name, when he is gone hence \ 
and intreating them to join with him in, a wish, that he 
may pass the evening of a studious and unambitious life in 
an bumble but not a slothful obscurity, and never fqrfeit 
the kind continuance of their accustomed approbation.** 

M 2 

164. J O R T I N. 

The pliain of this work, however, is tigbly objectionable, 
viinless as a book to be consulted. It contains, in that re« 
qpect, a vast mass of facts and opinions tespecting Eras- 
mus and his contemporaries, put together in chronological 
order, and of great importance in ecclesiastical or biogra- 
phical researches. 
. But whatever DnJortin'swishesmightbe as to retirement, 

4iewastoIivehereafterneithe^so studiously nor so obscurely 
jas hut imagination bad figured out to him : more public scenes 
jthan any he had yet been engaged in still awaited him. For, 
Hay ter, bishop of London, with whom he had been upon in- 
timate terms, dying in 176f , and Osbaldiston, who was alsb 
his friend, succeeding to that se^, he was made domestic 
chaplain to this bishop in Marchf admitted into a prebend 
of St. PauPs the same month, and in October presented 
to the living of Kensington, whither he went to reside soon 
After, and there performed the office of a good parish-» 
priest as long as he lived. In 1764, he was appointed 
archdeacon of London, and soon after had the offer of 
the rectory of St. James, Westminster ; which, however^ 
he refused, from thinking his situation at Kensington more 
.to his honour, as well as better adapted to his now ad« 
vanced age. Here he lived occupied (when his clerical 
functions permitted) amongSt his books, and enjoying 
himself with bis usual serenity, till Aug. 27, 1770: when, 
being seized with' a disorder in the breast and lungs, h^ 
grew continually worse in. spite of all assistance ; and^ 
without undergoing much pain in the course of his illnesi^ 
died Sept. 5, in his 7 2d year. He preserved his under*- 
iltanding to the last ; and, in lainswer to a female attendant 
who offered him something, ^^ No," said he, with much 
pomposure^ ^* I have had enough of every, thing.-' He wa^ 
buried in the new church-yard at Kensington, as he bad 
directed; and had a flat stone laid over him, with this in- 
scription, dictated by himself : 

Joannes Jortin 

'Mortalis esse desiit> 

Amio Salutis 1770« 


He left a widow and two children, Rogers^Jortin*, of Liki*' 

colnVinn, in the profession of the law ; and Martha, mar»- 


• This 9on died in Jaljr 1795. He had considerable practice in the court of v 
Evcfhequer. His vfi^^ who survived him, was one of the daoghters of Or^ Maty^ 

J O R T I N. 165 

ried to the rev. Samuel Darbyy fellow of Jesus^college, ia 
Cambridge, and afterwards rector of Whatfield, in Suffolk. 

Besides his principal works, which have already been 
mentioned, there are some other things of a smaller nature ; 
as, '^ Remarks upon Spenser^s Poems,*' 1734, 8vo, at the 
end of which are some ** Remarks upon Milton ;'' ** Remarks 
,on Seneca," printed in the ** Present State of the Republic 
pf Letters," for Aug. 1734; >' A Sermon preached at the 
Consecration of Pearce bishop of Bangor," 1747 ; a few 
.^ Reoiarks on Ttllotson's Sermons," given to his friend 
Dr. Birch, and printed in the appendix to Birch's Life of 
that prelate, 175S ; '^ Letter to Mr. Avison, concerning 
tbe Music of the Ancients," subjoined to a second edition 
of Avison's ^' Essay on Musical Expression," 1753, and a 
few ^* Remarks on Phillips's Life of Cardinal Pole,'* 
painted in an appendix to '^ Neve's Animadversions^' upon 
that History, 1766. In 1771, the year after his death, 
4 volumes of his '' Sermons," in 8vo, were inscribed by 
his aon Rogers Jortiri, esq. to his parishioners of St. Dun* 
Stan's, at whose request they were published; and these, 
being well received by the public, were reprinted in 1772,* 
with the addition of 3 volumes more. At the end of the 
Ttb vol. aae ^ Four Charges, delivered to the Clergy of the 
Archdeaconry of London." His whole Works have lately 
been .reprinted, inclnding his Life of Erasmus, by Messrs* 
White and Cochrane, in an uniform edition. 

Besides greait integrity, great humanity, and other qua^ 
which make men amiable as well as useful^ this 
learned person was of a very pleasant and facetious turn ; 
as bis writings abundantly shew. H6 had, nevertheless, 
great sensibility, and could express himself with warmth, 
and even with some degree of indignation, when he thought 
the occasion warranted liim: to do sa . For instance, he 
had a great respect and. fondness for critical learning, 
which he so much cultivated ; and though he knew and al- 
lowed it to have been the manners of pmud, 
fastidious, and insolent critics, yet he thought the re- 
storation of letters, and the civilization of Europe, so. 
much indebted to it, that he could ill bear to see it con* 
temptoomly treated. Hence alittle tartness sometimes in. 
hsa writings, when this topic falls in bis way. 

For the motto of his << Life of Erasmus," he chose the 
Ipllowing words of Erasmus himself: ^* iUud certe prse-^ 

166 J O R T I N. 

B^ffOf de meis Ittcubrattionibas, quatetconqiie sotit, caih- 
4i4iu^J^^^^^^^^^°^ PosteritateiD : tanetsi oec de meo se- 
culo queri poMum.*' Yet it is certain tbat be had very 
0tigbt DOtioM of postbomoqs fame or glory, and of any 
teal good wbich could arise from it ; a» appears frofm what 
he bas collected and written about it, in a note upon 
Milton, at tbe end of bis *^ Remarks upon' Spenter*'' He 
would sometimes complain, and doubtless witb good reason, 
of tbe low estimation into wfaicb learning was fitllen ; and 
tbougbt it discountenanced and -discouraged, indirectly at 
least, when ignorant and wortbless persons were adTanoad 
|0 high Atations and great preferments, while men of merit 
and abilities were oveiloolced and neglected. Yet be laid 
BO undue stress upon such stations and preferments^ 
but entertained just notions concerning what must ever 
oonstitttte the chief good and 'happiness of jBao, and if 
himself believed to have made tbe most of them. Dr. Parr 
bas drawn his character witb his usual elegance and diaori^ 
minatioB. ^^ Jortin,*' says he, '< whether I look .back to 
Ijii verse, to his pnose, to his critioal, or to his theological 
w<^ks, there are few authors to whom I am ao jantch in;* 
debted for rational entertainment, or for solid instruction; 
Learned «he was, without pedantry. He was iogemoos 
without the lactation of singularity. He was a loser ottnub^ 
without hovering over the gloomy abyss of scc^ioism, and 
a friend tq free inquiry, without roving ioaa the dreary and 
pathless wilds of latkudioarianism. He had a -heart which 
never disgraced the powers of his onderstanding. Witb a 
lively imagination, an el^;ant taste, and a judgment aoost 
masculine, and most correct, he united the artless and 
amiable negligence of a schooUboy. Wit without ilb-na-^ 
tnre, and sense without ^Ebrt,<be could at will scatter upon 
eveiy subject; and in every book the writer pseseols us 
with a near and distinct view of tliereal man.'*^ . 

JOSEPH, or JOSIPPON (Ben GoRi(W,or GoRioif iDEa)^ 
L>e. the son of Gorion, a Jewish historian, is. sometimes 
ccnfounded by the rabbins with die more celebrated histo- 
rian Jose|Aus. He lived about the end of tbe ninth, or 
beginning of the tenth century, and left a History^of the 
Jews, in Hebrew, which Gagnier translated into Latin^ 
Oxford, 1706, 4to« /There is also an edition iniiebrew 
and Latin, Gotha, 1707, 4to. Itisobvioas ^om internal 

1 NicboVs Life of Bowyer. — Disney's life efJortif^, 

JO S E P It 167 

evidence, that thm work coold not hare beeo written eer«' 
Her than tbe ninth century ; and that the author was, ac* 
cording to all appearance, a Jew of Languedoc' 

JOSEPH, a cdebrated capuchin, better known by the 
name of Father Joseph, was bom November 4, 1577, at 
Paris, where his father^ John de Clerc, had an office in 
the palace. After pursuing his studies with success, be 
Yisited Italy and Germany, entered into the army, and 
gave his fiunily the most flattering expectation^ of his. fu'* 
ture fortune, when he suddenly renounced the world, and 
took the capuchins' habit in 1 599. He afterwards preached> 
and discharged tbe office of a missionary with reputation^ 
was entrusted with the most important commissions by the 
cenrt, and contributed much to the reformation of Fon*^ 
tOYfauld. He sent capuchin misMonaries into England, 
Canada, and Turkey, and was the intimate confidant of 
cardinal Richelieu, to whom he was servilely devoted* 
Father Joseph founded the new order of Benedictine nuns 
of Calvary, for whom he procured estabiisbmenta at An* 

Eers. Louis XIII. had nominated him to the cardinalate, 
nt he died at Reuel, before he had received that dignity, 
December 18, 163S. Tbe parliament attended his funeral 
in a body. The abb^ Richard has published two lives of 
diis capuchin, in one of which, in 2 vols. l2mo, he repre* 
seats him as a saint ; and in the other, entitled ^' Le v6* 
riftable Pere Joseph,*^ as an artful politician, and courtier. 
This last is most esteemed, and probably most to be cre- 

JOSEPH pf Exeter, or Josefhus Iscanus, a writer of 
considerable taste and elegance, in an age generally re- 
puted barbarous, was a native of Devonshire^ and flou-^ 
risbed in the close of the twelfth, and the commencement 
of the thirteenth centuries. He was an ecclesiastic, and 
patronized by Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury. Some 
sa^ that he was a priest of the cathedral of Exeter, fronl 
which he took his name. According to Camden, he ac- 
companied Richard L of England into the Holy Land, and 
was a great favourite with that prince. By archbishop 
Baldwin's interest be was made archbishop of Bourdeaux, 
where he is supposed to have died in tbe reign of Henry IIL 
and to have been buried in the cathedral of that city. He 

1 Moreri in art. B«^ii Gorioo.— Lardner*i Works.— Diet Hist.—- S»xii Oaom. 
« * Moreri.-<d>ict, Hist. 

168 JOSEPH. 

was fttttbor of two epic poems in Latia heroics. Tbe fiffst^ 

in six books, is on the Trojan war ; the other is entitied 

^* Antiocbesis/' tbewar of Antioch, or the Crasade; of 

this last only a fragment remains, in which tbe* heroes of 

Britain are celebrated. His style is not only for the moi^ 

part pure) but rich and ornamented, and his versification 

approaches the best models of antiquity. His diction is 

compounded chiefly of Ovid, Statins, and Claudian, the 

favourite poets of the age, and wants only Vir^lian chas^ 

tity. . *^ Italy ,^ says Warton in his History of £nglish 

Poetry, ^^ had at that time produced no poet comparable 

tQ him.'* He was also author of love verses, epigrams^ 

and miscellaneous poems. His " De Belio Trojano, lib* V.'^ 

was published at Basil, 1541,. 8vo; Lond. I675y Svo^ 

Francfort, 1620, 4to, and ibid. 1623; Amst. 1702, 4to. 

All that remains of his '^ Antiochesis*' js printed in .Warton^s 

<V History of rEnglisb Poetry.*' His love*verses, &c. are- 



JOSEPHUS (Flavius), the celebrated historian of tiui 

Jews, was born at Jerussdem, of parents who belonged to 

the illustrious Asmonean family^ about the year 37. He 

soon discovered great acuteness and penetration, and made 

so quick a progress in the learning of the Jews, that- he 

ifas occasiouaiiy consulted by the chief priests, and role«s 

pf the city, even at the age of sixteen. For' tbe^ purpose 

of studying the history and tenets of the several Jewish. 

sects, he became for three years a pupil of Banun, a her- 

niit, who bad acquired great fane for wisdom ; and with 

him lived a recluse and abstemious life. After thts he he^ 

o»m%vf the. sect of the Pharisees, of which he was & very 

great ornament In the year 63, he went to Rome, where 

^ Jew comediani .who happened to be in favour with Nero^ 

served hijos mnch a.t court, by making him known to Pop^ 

psea, ythQ^e protection was very useful to him, and enabled 

him tp procure liberty for soibe.of his countryinen. Upon 

his returu to his country, where he found all things in con*^ 

fusion/ he had tbe command of some troops, and distiti^ 

guished himself at tbe siege of Jotapat^, which he defended 

seven weeks against Vespasian and Titus, but was taken 

pHsoaer. A short time after, Vespa»an granted him his life^ 

y LoKind.r*-BaIe«)—Pits.-^Pnace'8 Worthies of Deveii. — Warton*s HnU of 



at tbe intercession of Titus, who had conceived a great 
esteem* for faitn« He now visited Egypt, and took up his 
residence at Alexandria, where he doubtless studied the 
.Grecian and Egyptian philosophy. His patron, Titus, 
carried ,bini with him to the siege of Jerusalem, after the 
taking of which, he attended Titus to Rome, where Ves^ 
pasian gave him the freedom of the eity, and settled a pen- 
sion upon him. At Rome he cultivated the Greek Ian* 
guage, and began to write his History. He continued to 
experience favour under Titus and Domitian, and lived 
beyond the 1 3th year of Domitian, when be was fifty-six ; 
for his books of *^ Antiquities" end there; and aftet that 
period he composed his books against Apion. In what year 
be died is uncertain. 

His *^ HistcNy of the Jewish War and the Destruction 
of Jerusalem,*' in seven books, was composed at the com- 
mand of Vespasian ; first in the Hebrew language, for the 
use of his own countrymen, and afterwards in the Greek* 
It is singularly interesting and, affecting, as the historian 
was an eye-witness of all he relate^. With the very strdng 
ocriottring of an animated style and noble expression, he 
paints to the imagination, and. affects the heart National 
vanity atid partiality, however, led him to imagine that all 
kttovdedge and wisdom had originated in Judea, and had 
flowed thence through all the nations of the earth ; a notion 
wfaid)^ says Brucker,. gave rise to many errors and misre- 
presentations in his writings. The authenticity of the ce- 
lebffated passage in Josepbus, respecting our Saviour, is 
ably vindicated by our learned countryman^ Jacob Bryantj 
in his '< Vindicis Flavians^.'' 

Josephus's ^^ Jewish Antiquities,*' in 20 books, written in 
Greek, is also a very noble work ; thei r history is deduced from 
the origin' of the world to the i2tfa ytor of Neio, wben the 
' Jews began to rebel against the Romans. At the conclu- 
sion' of the ^' Antiquities," he subjoined the *^ History of 
his own Li£e," although in the editions of his Works it bss 
usually, been considered as a distinct produption. He 
wrote also two books against Apion, a grammarian of 
Alexandria, and a great adversary of the Jews. These 
contain many curiouR fragments of ancient historians. We 
have also a discourse of his '* upon the Martyrdom of the 
Maccabees," which is a master-piece of eloquence ; but 
its authenticity has been doubted, and Wbiston would hot 
admit it in his translation. 

,170 JOSEPHU6. 

Tbe works of Josepbus, with Latin versions, hu^e hem 
pftexi piiblisbed : but the best editions are those of Iiiid«> 
«0D, Oj(ford| 1720, 2 vols, fol.; and of Havercamp, at 
J!UQsterda|B» 1727, in 2 vols, folio. They have, also been 
tran§bited in^ modern languages ; into English by L'Es^ 
Ijr^pge, and again by Whistoo, in 2 vols, fol.* 
. JO VINIAN, a supposed heretic of the fourth ceatnry, was 
W Italian monk, and observed all the austerities of amonasi- 
tJ(C life for a time, and taught some points of doctrine di«- 
FeQtIy .opposite to the growing superstitions; for thislie waa 
€|ipeUed Rome^ and fled to Milan, with an intent to engage 
Ambrose, bishop of that place, and the emperor Tfaeodosuis, 
who was then in that city, in his favour ; but Syriciua, 
dien bishop of Rome, dispatched three presbyters to Mi» 
)ftn, Crescentiiis, Leopardus, and Alexander, with letters 
Ip that church, which are stiU extant in Ambi ose'a works^ 
^pq^ainting them with the proceedings of himself and hit 
followers, in consequence of which he was rejected hf 
Ambrose, and driven out of the town by the empero«. 
Fi^om I^iiUOf Jovinian retsmed to the neighbourhood of 
Iftpipe, wbeare bis followers continued to assemble under bis 
direction, till ihe year 396, when the emperor Hoomiuf 
c<^mmanded him and his accomplices to be whipped and 
ti,ani4ied into different islands. Jovinian himself was cob» 
^ned to Boas, a small island on the coast of Dalmatian 
where be died about the year 406. Jovinian wrote several 
b^oks, which were aoswered by Jerome in the year 392, 
but in such a manner as to render it difficult to.know what 
y^fite Jovinian's errors, or what his general character, ex<» 
cept that he was no friend to cidibacy or £ssting.* 
. JOVIUS (Paul), or Paullo Giovio, an Italian bifto«- 
ijan^ was a native of Como, and was born in 1483. Being 
^arly deprived of bis father, he was educated nnd» the 
c^jre of bis elder brother Benedict, who was also a historical 
writer. Aiter having studied at Padua, Milan, and Bavia, 
be took the degree of M. D. and practised for some 4ume ; 
but an early propensity led him to the study and compo* 
sition of history. Having completed a volume, be pre* 
sented it to Leo X. at Rome, in 1516, who expressed a 
very high opinion of him, and gave him a pension and tbe 
rank of knighthood. Jovius now became intimate 


> Life in Worki.— Lardner'^ Works.— <:iave» vol. I.— ^lazii Oaomast.-^ 
• M«'eri. — Milner'f Cliareh Hist to). IL p. 876.— Moshtin. 


i V I«». ^i 

ite lils0fi|i of Eome, aod wrota s^iwi^I Lutio {K>^p8| (wluob 
afkpeared in the ^< Coryciaoa/' ^qd otb^r cplliQoiioiM. 
:,/)dfter tbe death of l.eo> Adrian VI. presemed hbn to a 
4:aiionry in jtl^ c{itbedral of Como, and Clemanjt VII. «pr 
pointed Uo) on^ of bis attendant cwrtiers, provided bim 
with a bandspgie e»^b|isbment in tbe Yatican» gl^re bim 
iJie preoentori^bip of Como» and Ua>iiy the biifopric of 
Noc^ra* Daring the 9ack]|ig of the city of Rome, in 19^% 
JoFitts was robbed of a ^onsideriible mm of nioney and cf 
Ilia mantuoripls^ bu| reoav^f^ the latter* Under the 
fMfttiiicaAe cf Paol UI> be wished to exchange bis b^thop^- 
ric of Nocera for that of Como, and even carried Ua 
Hflifailiao to the place of oardinalf but iiva« duiappointod in 
both* .His lavourite re^idenice was at a hewtiful yiUa on 
^ bf nks of tbi» bike of Como, where be puraned his 
ftndies, and. in bisinfisenni made a ooUection of porttaits 
of eminent characteffi, to each of which be affiled an in» 
•cription, or brief memoir, some highly fairouiaUei eftben 
sarcastimUy severe^r These memoirs have b^eea f neqnendy 
printed under the tide ^^ Elogia dootornip Vimrumy" and 
tbe portraits^ engraved in wood, have heen published 
noder tbe title of ^^ Musssi Joviani imagieues/* Basilf 157?« 
About two years before . bis death, he qeitled bis retice^ 
ment, and took up his residence in Flomnoe, where be 
died in 15529 aad*was buried in the aburch of St Lnu- 
l^ence^ in that city» . "^ y 

. His historical worics^ wfai^h are all iq 4be \jb^x\ tongue, 
wvkaten with >great facility, wes^ first printed at Flonance, 
]550-^-p*529 in 2 toIs. fbl. and agaiti at Strasbinrgh, in lfi56. 
They are to be read with great caiition, as he ¥ras not nn-* 
justly aecused of flattery and malignity, and of having sa« 
eiificed his talents to senrile and interested purposes. He 
indeed openly acknowledges the venality of bis ivriting% 
and is said to have asserted that he had t pro pens, the one 
of iron, and the other of gi^, which he made use of aU 
teraately, as occasioB required. Bnt bis* greatest blemisil 
is tbe defective or perverted morality with which bis worka 
abound; yet with all tfais, says bis late Uographer^ the 
writings of Jovtus cannot be wholly rejected witbont .the 
loss of much important information, copiously narrated and 
elegantly eapressed^ 

His other writings are a small tract, '^ De Piscibus Rg- 
raanisr,**' jpublished in 1524, -fol. and reprinted in ISii^, 
8vo \ tbe live^ of the twelve Visconti lords and dukes of 

IW J O V I u s. 

Milan ; a des<?riptipn of the island of Gi^at Britain^ ^ 
Muscovy, of the lake of Como; and the ealo^es of mcii 
who have distinguished themselves in arms. Three of the 
last books of the history of Paul, with some works of his 
brother Benedict, have lately been discovered among the 
domestic MSS. of a descendant of the family. His bf04» 
ther Benedict appears to htive been equally conversant 
with science and literature. Among- bis writings are^ the 
history of Gc^mo^ his native plaee ; a treatise on^ the trans^ 
actions and mauiiers of the Swiss ; a c<dlectioii (tf 100 
letters; several translations from the Greek, and sonsa 
specimens of Latin poetry.' 

• ^ JOUBERT (Francis)i a learned priest of MontpeUier^ 
whose father was syndic of the states of Languedoc, which 
bflSce he himself held before he became an ecclesiastic^ 
was bom in 1689. He wrote an explanation of the histtfty 
of Joseph, 12mo; *^ Caractcare esseotiel aux Rrophdtes,^ 
]2ma;.^< Lettves sur Tlnterpretation des Saintes £cri«> 
taires,'' 12mo; and Explanations of the propheicies of Je* 
remiab, Ezekid, Datiiel, 5 vols. 12mo; of the Mioor^ 
Prophets, 6 vols. 12mo ; of the Revelations, 2 vols* 12mo. 
His attachment to the Jansenists occasioned his being con-* 
fined six weeks in the Bastille on false suspicions. He died 
1763, aged seventy-four.' 

: JOUBERT (Laurent), a learned physician^ and royal 
professor at Montpellier, was born at Valence, in the pm- 
vioce of Dauphine, in France, on the 16th of Decenolier, 
1529, of a good family. After he had. finished his* school 
education, he went to Montpellier, where he was matrico^ 
lated in the faculty of medicine on the 1st of March, 155€^ 
and took bis degree of bachelor the following year. He 
afterwards studied at Padua,* where he attended the lec^ 
ture^of the celebrated FaUopins, and at some other places ; 
but, returning to Montpellier,. he finished his exercises, 
and received the degree of doctor in 1558. The manner 
iu which he had' performed his acts procured for him so 
much of the; confidence and esteem of Honor6 Castellan, 
that this professor, being soramoned to court in the fol-* 
lowing year, to hold the office of first physician of Catha- 
rine de Mecticis, queen of Henry IL be nominated Jou« 
bert to give the lectures in the schools during has absence.; . 

1 Tirabotchf.-^NioeroDi rol. XXV.«*RQiooe> LeO't-^sui Onooaactieon. 
s Diet. Hist. 

JOUBEE.t, lit 

rnkdlovhert ftequilted bbnsalf in &o distiogutAhed » man-^ 
tter, that OQ the death of pfofessor Rptidelet in 1566^ he 
iras immediately xmraed bin jiHeceswir in the chair. ' He 
was likewise the secood suoceasor of Rondele^ in the dig* 
Bity of chancellory faaTing foHowed Saporta in 1574« He 
waa called to Parts by Bcniy III. io 1579,: who entertained 
hopes that Joubert would be able to cure the barrenness 
of Loii^isa de Lorraine, bis queen. But his attempts proved 
unsuccessful; and he returned to Montpellier with the 
title of physician in ordinary to the king, and continued 
to practise there to bis death, October 21,11583. 

His Latin works, written with correctness and elegance, 
have been frequently reprinted under the tii;le of ** Operum 
Latinorum Tomus primus et secundjus." The first edition 
is that of Lyons, in 1&82, folio; the subsequent ones ap-- 
peared at Francfort, in 1599, 1645, apd 1668, 'also in fo). 
He published also. some medical treatises in French, par* 
ticolariy a treatise on ^VLaugbter, its causes and effects,'* 
lir79, 8yo ; but of all his works, that in which he ventured 
to raise bis voice against popular medical errors, was the 
most distinguished ; ^' Erreurs populaires toucbant la Mi^ 
d^cine," Bourdeaux, 1579. This, was printed ten sue--- 
cesstve times dn the course of six months ; a degree of fa- 
vour, however, which it appears to. have acquired by its 
levity of manner, and the indelicacy of some of the sub- 
jects.' * 
.JOUVENCI, or rather JOUVANCEY (Jo&EP)a dr), 
a celebrated Jesuit, was born September 14, 1643, at 
Paris. He taught rhetoric with uncommon reputation at 
Caen, la Fleche, and Paris. At length he was invited to 
Rome, in 1669, that, he might continue ^^The History .of 
the Jesuits,'.' with more freedoin than he could have done 
in France, and died in that city May 29, 1719. . His prin* 
cipal works are, two volumes' of Latin Speeches,. 12mo; 
a small tract entitled ^^ De ratione discendi et docendi," 
much esteemed; Notes, in Latin, on Persius^ Juveual^ ' 
Terebce, Horace, Martial, Ovid's Metamorphoses,) ^. ' 
The fifth part of the '^ History of the Je^aits," in Latin, 
from 1591 to .1616, fol. ; .as a supplement to Fathers Or^ 
l^andino,^ Sacchini, and Poussines. All ^ouvenci's works 
are.w/itten in pure Latin, and^in this. consists their prin«c^ 

■ Geo* I)k;t«i^Nicei«tt^ vol. XXXV.-^4le«^\Crfilop«iim,Vfj^^ aii^ 


1T4 J O U V E N C L 

eipal exe^eoce. Bm Hbtory of the Jesuit^ in whiSb b« 
ondettabet to justify hi* brf^her, Pere Guignard, who wn 
hatiged by setitence of pariiameiit on account of Cbatel't 
inlimoiis iittenipt, and to represent bhn as a martjr, bi»»g 
printed at Rome, 1710, foL made much noise, and was 
eoffd^omed by t^o decrees of the parliament of Paris; 
one Feb. 22, 1713 ; the other, March 24th the same yter« 
This last sentence suppresses die work, and contains tbo 
declaration which had been demanded from the Jesmts^ 
8ef«ral pieces appeared on this occasion agafaiM P. Jotr-^ 
venci's history, 1713, 19mo.^ 

#OUVENET (Joim), an historical painter, born at 
Roiaeo, in Normandy, in 1644, received his first instruc* 
tions from his father ; but his principal teacher 'i^as Pons* 
sm, and his most useful studies the works of that master. 
He had a ready invention, and was therefore employed to 
adorn the apartments of Versailles and the Trianon. Iti 
Ihe hospital of the invalids at Paris, he painted the twelve 
apostles i each figure 14 feet high. It must be acknow- 
ledged, however, that he failed in true taste. His style 
partakes too much of French fiippaiicy ; the substitution 
of something striking for what is solid and good -, and his 
coloaring is heavy. In the latti^ end of his life, be was^ 
struck with a palsy on his right side, and after having fried 
to no purpose the virtue of mineral waters, despaired of 
being able to paint any longer ; but in one of his lectures 
bappe^ning to take the pencil into his left hand, and trying 
to retouch a piece before him, the attempt succeeded so 
well, that it encouraged him to make others ; till at length 
he deteffpined to finish with his left band ai lai^e cieltng, 
which he had begun in the ^nd hall of the parliament at 
Rouen, and a large piece of the Annunciation, in the choir 
of the church of Paris. These last itorkl^ are no ways in«- 
ferior to any of his best. He died at JParis in 1717.* 

JOY, JOYE, or GEE (John), one of iJm& early promoters 
of the reformation, was a naftive of the codnty of Bedford, 
and educated at Peterhouse, In Cambridge, where he took 
the degree of B. A. in 1513, and that of M. A. in 1.5 it, 
and the same year was admitted a fellow. In 15^7, being 
a strenuous advocate for the doctrines of the refoirmation^ 
and ^n intimate friend of the celebrated Tindale, he was 

y Moreri.«*eidt. deLTATOcit — Saxit OaoiMst, 

« Ari^enviUe, vol, IV. — ^Pilkmgton. * 

accttied of heresy, vvhtdi obliged kriki to retfigft bis fell6«r^ 
ship ; a¥id finditig himself in danger frdafi the «:otitinual 
p^sectttions of Woldey^ sir Thomas Morie, and Fisher, 
ht t^tined to Gertinanyi wbe^re he Continued ti^uy years, 
Hh had a concern in the stiperinteadance of Tindale^a 
Bihte^ printed at Antwerp ih 1533, and is ranked by Alkiett 
as a printer hitaiself ; but, not content with corrections of 
tb^ pre^s, he took liberties with the translation, of which 
lltndale c6iliplained with justice, and Joy published an 
apology. Of these the Header will find ample informatioti 
in Lewis. When Joy returned to Englaml is not known, 
but it is toid that be died in 1553, and was bot-ied in bis 
nativis country. Besides his tlranslatk>ns of sotne parts of " 
the Bible, he published, 1. *' On the unity and schism of 
the ancient church," Wesal, 1534, 8vo. 2. " The sub-, 
version of More's false foundation,*' Embden, 1534, 12mo. 
9. '< Epistle to the prior of Newenhatn/* Strasburgh, 1527, 
3vo. 4. ^ Coaiinentary on Daniel, from Melancthon," 
&c. (jeneva,. 1545, Lond. 1550, 8vo. 5. ** A present 
consoliition for the sufferance of persecution Tor righteous^- 
ness^*' 1544^ 12aio: and other works, enumerated by 
Tanner. ' • 

JOYNER (William), alias Lyde, seeond son of William 
Joyner, alias Lyde*, of Horspath, near Oxford, by Anne 
his wife, daughter and coheir of Ekiward Leyworth, M. D. 
of Oxford, was born in St. Gileses parish there, April 
1622, educated partly in Thame, but more in Coventry 
free-school, elected demy of Magdalen-college, 1626, and 
afterwards fellow. But, ^* upon a foresight of the utter 
ruin of the church of England by the presbyterians in the 
time of the rebellion,*' he changed bis religion for that of 
Rome, renounced his fellowship, 1644, and being taken 
into the service of the earl of Glamorgan, went with him 
into Irelabd, and continued there till the royal cause de- 
clined in that country. He then accompanied that earl in 
his travels abroad ; and some time after being recommended 
to the siervice of the hon. Walter Montague, abbot of St. 
Martin, near Pontoise, he continued several years inliis 
family as his steward, esteemed for his learning, sincere 

'l^ In the Oent. Mag. for 1781, p. 38, dalen^ Oxford, on Bdward Joyner» 
is « cvrioas Lalia epiuph, taken front alias Lyde, who was proba&ly the eU 
tke parish cfaarch of St. Mary Mag- der brother of Williaoi. 

^ Tannen-^Ba)e.««^wit*s History of the TransUtiona of the Bible. — Ames's 
and Herbert's Typographicftl Atttiqnitiei* 

XU J O Y N E R. 

^iety> and great fidelity. At his return he lived very re*^ 
tired in London ; till, on the breaking out of the popish 
plot in 1678, be retired to Horspath, where 30iue time 
Hfter he was seized for a Jesuit, or priest, and bound to 
appear at the quarter-sessions at Oxford. Being found to 
be a, mere lay-papist, and discharged, he went to Ickfordy 
an objseure village in Buckinghamshire, near Thame, and 
there spent many years in devout retirement In 1687 he 
was restored to his fellowship by James II. but expelled 
from it after a yearns enjoyment, and retired to his former 
recess, where, says Wood, his apparel, which was for* 
merly gay, was then very rustical, little better than that of 
a day-labourer, and his diet and lodging suitable. In one 
of his letters to Wood, April 12, 1692, he told him that 
** the present place of his residence is a poor thatcht-house, 
where the roof is of the same stuff in the chamber where 
be lodged, which he assured me was never guilty of pay*** 
ing cbininey-tax. However, he hoped that all this woi^ld 
HOC make a person neglected and despicable who had for- 
merly slept in the royal palaces of France, under a roof 
fretted and embossed with gold ; whereas, this is doubly 
and trebly interweaved only with venerable cobwebs, which 
can plead nothing of rarity besides the antiquity." This 
person&ge has written, 1. *^ The Roman Empress,'' a co« 
medy, Lond. 1670, 4to. 2. ^ Some Observations on the 
Life of Cardinal Pole," 1686, 8vo. 3. Various Latin and 
English poems, scattered in several books, especially a 
large English copy in ** Horti Carolini Rosa altera," 1640. . 
He died at Ickford, Sept. 14, 1706. He was great uncle^ 
to Thomas Philips, canon of Tongres, who wrote the. 
" Life of Cardinal Pole," published in 1766.* 

JUAN (Doer George), a learned Spanish matbemati-^ 
clan, knight of Malta, and commander of the band of gen- 
tlemen marine guards, was chosen, with Ulloa, to attend 
the French academicians, who went to Peru, for the pur* 
pose of measuring a degree on the meridian, in order to 
determine the earth's figure. They embarked May 26, 
1735. Ulloa undertook the historical part of the voyage, 
which appeared translated into French, Amsterdam, 1752, 
2 vols. 4to; and D. George Juan the astronomical part, who 
accordingly published a large work on the earth's figure, 
printed in Spanish. On his return he went to Paris, 1745» 

• Ath. Ox. vol. JI. — Biog. Dram. 

JUAN. 177 

^ere the academy of sciences. admililed biai a member. 
He died at Madrid, 1773, leaving several works in Spanish 
on naval affairs, a tratislation of which would be useful.' 

JUDA, or JEHUDA, HAKKADOSH, or the Saint, a 
rabbi celebrated for his learning and riches, according to 
the Jewish historians, lived in the time of the emperor 
Marcus Antoninus, whom he made a proselyte to Judaism,' 
and it was by his order that Jehuda compiled the Mishna^ 
the history of which is briefly this : The sect of the Pha- 
risees, after the destruction' of' Jerusalem, prevailing over 
the rest, the study of traditions became the chief object of 
attention in all the Jewish schools. The U'umber of these 
traditions had,' in a long course- of time, so greatly in-' 
creased,' that the doctors, whose principal employment 
it was to illustrate them by new explanations, and to con« 
firm their authority, found it necessary to assist their re-, 
collection by committing them, under distinct heads, to 
writing. At the same time, their disciples took minutes of 
the explanations of their preceptors, many of which were 
preserved, and grew up into voluminous commentaries.' 
The confusion which arose from these causes was now be-^ 
come so troublesome, that, notwithstanding what Hillel 
bad before done in arranging the traditions, Jehuda found 
it necessary to attempt a new digest of the oral law, and of 
the commentaries of their most famous doctors., This ar- 
duous undertaking is said to have employed him forty 
years. It was completed, according to the unanimous 
testimony of the Jews, which in this case there is no suffi- 
cient reason to dispute, about the close of the second 
century. This Mishna, or first Talmud, comprehends all 
the laws, institutions, and rules oflife, which, beside the aii-^ 
cient Hebrew scriptures, the Jews supposed themselves bound 
to observe. Notwithstanding the obscurities, inconsisten- 
cies, and absurdities with which this coilectioa abounds, it 
soon obtained credit among the Jews as a sacred book. But 
as the Mishna did not completely provide for many cases* 
which arose in the practice of ecclesiastical law, and many 
of its prescriptions and decisions were found to require fur- 
ther comments and illustrations, the task of supplying these 
defects was undertaken by the rabbis Chiiam and Oschaiam, 
and others, disciples of Jehudah ; who not only wrote ex- 
planations of the Mishna, but made material additions to 

1 Diet. Hist.— Cyclopaedia, art t)egree. 

Vol. XIX. N 


17$ J U D A. 

tbi^ voluminoua compftlMon. These > commeiitaries mid 
afldilioiM were coHected by the rabbi Jochanan ben £Ue«> - 
ser^ probably io the fifth century, under the name of the' 
^\ Gemara/' because it completed the Mithna* This col- 
l^ptioa was afterwards called the Jerusalem Gemara, to di9* 
tingukb it fromt another of the same kiiul made in Babylon, 
a); the beginning of the sixth century.' 

. JUDAH (Ljso), one of the reformersy son of John Ju« . 
dah» a Gerotat^ priest, was born in 1482, in Alsace. Some 
authors have reported that be was a converted Jew, but 
f^er Simoh has proved that he neither was a Jew, nor of 
Jewish eytractioo, but the son of the above John Judah, or, 
de Jada» who, according to the custom of those times, kept, 
a concubine, by whom be had this Leo. He was edu- 
cated at Slestadt, and thence in 1502, was sent to Basil to ' 
pursue hi^ acadeoHcal studies. Here l>e had for a fellow-* 
student) the afterwards much celebrated Zuinglius; and 
from him, who bad at a very eairly age been shocked at 
the superstitious practices of the church of Rome, he re* 
ceived such impressions^ as disposed him to embrace the 
reformed religion. Having obtained his degree of M. A. 
in ijil2, he was appointed minister of a Swiss church, to 
the duties of whiclyi he applied himself with indefatigable 
2eal, pr^ching boldly in defence of the protestant reli- 
gion. At length he was appointed by the magistrates and 
ecclesiastical assembly of Zurich, pastor of the church of 
St. Peter in that city, and became very celebrated as an 
advocajbe, as well from the press as the pulpit, of the re* 
formed religion, for about* eighteen years. At the desire 
of his brethren, he undertook a translation, from the He* . 
hrew imto Latin^ of the whole Old Testament ; >)ut the mag«^ 
nitude of the work, and the closeness with which he ap- 
plied to it, impaired his health; and before he had com«> 
pleted it,, he fell a sacrifice to his labours, June 9, 1542, 
when be was about sixty years of age. The translation was 
finished by other hands, and was printed at Zurich in 1543^ 
and two years afterwards it was reprinted at Paris by Robert 
Stephens, accoBOfianying the Vulgate versibn, in adjoining 
columns, but without the name of the author of the new 
veirsion. Judah was likewise the author of ^^ Annotations 
upoD Genesis and Exodus,*' in which he was assisted by 
ZttiB^iusy and uponrthe four gospels, and the greater part,^ 

* Brasker^-— Saxii Onomast* 

j U D A H. *7d 



of the epistles. He also composed a larger |Li)d smaller 
catechbm, and translated some of ZuingliusV works tiito 
Latin. The Spanish divines, notwithstaiKling. the severity 
of the Inquisition, did not hesitate to reprint tlie Latin 
Bible of Leo Judah, with the notes ascribed to Yatabius^ 
thotigh some of them werq from the pen of .Galvin« Some 
parttcqlars of Judah and of this translation^ not generally 
known, may be found in a book written by a dii^ne of 
Zurich, and printed in that cky in 1616, entitled ^' Visi'^ 
dicis pro Bibliorum translatione Tigurina."' 

JUDEX (Matthew), one of the principal writcfrs of 
the Centuries of Magdeburg, was born Sept 21, 1528^ at 
Tippolswald, in Misni^. His inclination to literature! in^ 
duced bis father to send him to study at Dresden : but the 
.college of Wittenberg being more to his mind^ he remoriefd 
thither, and afterwards was driven, Wy necessity^ to Mag*- 
deburg. Here he supported himself by^li^ng tutor in the 
family of a lawyer, who sent hiai with his s«m tx} WitDeii!^ 
berg, in 1546. This gave him an opportum^ of com- 
pleting his own studies ; and he obtained the 4ilgrae of 
M. A. in this university, 1 548. He then returned t^ Mag:*- 
deburg, and taught the second form there for some yMT^i 
and in 1554, was chosen minister of St. Ulric's chureb. 

In 1559, he quitted his church at Magdeburg, hekB^f 
promoted to the divinity professor's chair. at Jena in 1539; 
but did not keep possession of it above eighteen months, 
being deprived by order of John Frederic duke of SaxonyL 
He remained, however, six months longer at Jena, and 
thence returning to Magdeburg, was obliged, in six months 
more, to retire to Wismar. He suffered many persecu^ 
tions and venations, which appear to have shortened kib 
days, as he died in 1564, in the very prime of life. He 
was a man of good morals, laborious, zealous, learned ; and 
wrote a great many books on religious controversies ; and 
one, very rare, ^*De Typographic inventione,"Copenhageny 
1566, 8vo. He understood music very, well, and had some 
knowledge of mathematics. . He could write versies both in 
Laitin and Greek, and had designed to write an ecdesias^ 
tkal history of his own time* Besides the share he had in 
the first two Centuries of Magdeburg, he was concerned 
in the German translation of the first three Centuries. 
These Centuries form an ecclesiastical history, carried 

. 1 Melchior ▲d9Bi.-«SiiiiOA'» Bibl. Critique.— 9«xU Ooonast. 

N 2 



down to 1293, and were cooipiled by various protestant 
divines of Magdeburg. The title is ** Historia ecclesiastics 
congesta per Magdeburgenses, et alios/' Basil, 1562, 13 
vols, folio, which is the best edition.* 

JUENNIN (Gaspard), at learned divine of the congre- 

fation of the oratory, was born in 1650, at Varembon \h 
kQsse, in the diocese of Lyons. He taught theology in 
several houses of the Oratory, and in the seminary de St. 
Magloire, at Paris, where he died Deceniber 16, 1713. 
His principal works are, a " Treatise on the Sacraments,^' 
2 vols, folio, in Latin ; " Theological Institutions,'' 7 vols. 
J 2mo, also in Latin. This last was condemned at Rome, 
and by M. Godet, bishop of Chartres, and cardinal de 
Bissy, as reviving the errors of Jansenius. Cardinal de 
Noailies also prohibited it in his diocese^ but was afterwards, 
satisfied with the ^^planation given him by the author. 
Juennin wrote against the mandates of M. Godet and car- 
dinal de Bissy ; which two apologetical defences were pub- 
lished in .12mo, without any name. He also left an 
" Abridged System of Divinity," by question and answer, 
for th^use of persons going to be examined for holy orders; 
'* Ija Th^orie practique des Sacremens," 3 vofe. 12mo, 
without the author's name ; " Th^ologie Morale," 6 vols. 
12mo; '^ Cas de Conscience sur la vertu de Justice et 
d'Equit^," 4 vols. 12mo.* 

JUGLARIS (Aloysius), an Italian Jesuit, and a cele- 
brated writer of panegyrics, was born at Nice, and admitted 
into the society in 1622. He taught rhetoric for the space 
of ten years. Being afterwards called to the court of Sa- 
voy, to be entrusted with the education of prince Charles 
Emanuel, he began to publish his first works at Turin; 
He died at Messina, Nov. 15, 1 653. All his works were 
printed together at Lucca, in 1710. This .collection con- 
tains, 1. A hundred panegyrics upon Jesus Christ; printed 
the first time at Genoa in 1641. 2. Forty p^begyrics 
written in honour of Lewis XIII. printed at Lyons in 1644. 

3. Many inscriptions, epitaphs, aud encomiums, upon se- 
veral subjects ; printed likewise at* Lyons in the same ^ear. 

4. Panegyrics upon the greatest bishops that have been in 
the church ; printed also at Lyons in the same year, and 
reprinted at Genoa in 1653, with this title, *^ Pars Secunda 
Elogiorum humana comptectens." ' ' 

"^ Qen. Dict,-«Morerk 

* Moreri.— Diet. His^ 

* »iif& 

JULIAN. lil 


JULIAN, a Roman emperor, commonly, although per- 
haps not very justly, styled the Apostate, was the younger 
son of Constantius, brother of Constantine the Great. He 
was the first fruit of a second marriage of his father with 
Basilina, after the birth of Gallus, whom be had by Galla 
bis first consort. He was born Nov. 6, in the yeat 331, at 
Constantinople ; and, according to the medals of him, 
Jiamed Flavius Claudius Julianus. During the life of Con- 
stantine, he received the first rudiments of his education 
at the court of Constantinople ; but, upon the death of 
this emperor, ail his relations being suspected of criminal ' 
actions, Julian's father was obliged to seek his safety by 
flight; and his son Julian's escape was entirely owing to 
Marc, bishop of Arethusa, without whose care he had 
inevitably perished in the persecution of bis family. As 
soon as the storm was over, and Constantius, the son of 
Constantine, quietly seated on the imperial 'throne, he 
sent young Julian to Eusebius, bishop of Niconoedia, who 
was related to him by his mother's side, and who educated 
him in the Christian faith ; but at the same time empildyed 
an eunuch called Mardonius, who was a pagan, to teach 
him grammar, while Eulolius, a Christian of doubtful cha- 
racter, was his master in rhetoric Julian made a very 
quick progress in learning; and, being sent afterwards to 
Athens to complete his education, he became the darling 
of that nursery of polite literature, and particularly com- 
menced an acquaintance with St. Basil and Gregory of 
Nazianzen. This last, however, observed something in 
him which rendered bis sincerity in the Christian faith stis- 
pected : and it is certain, that, notwithstanding all the 
* care of his preceptor Eusebius, this young prince was en- 
tirely perverted by Maximus, an Ephesian philoscrphei^ 
and magician. His cousin Qonstantius the emperor was 
advertised of his conduct ; and Julian, to prevent the ^ef- 
fects, and save his life, professed himself a monk, and 
took the habit, but, under this character in public, he 
secretly embraced paganism. Some time before, his bro- 
ther Gallus and he had taken orders, and executed the 
office of reader in the church ; but the religious sentiments 
of the two brothers were widely different. 

As. soon as Julian had attained the age of manhood, ac- 
cording to the Roman law, Constantius, at the solicitation 
of his consort, the empress Eosebia, raised him to the dig- 
p^ty of Cssar, on i^'is birtb-dayy Nov. 6, in the yei^r 3if3 f . 

19» , J U L I A N» 

aod ^ the sarn^ tiaie the emperor gave htm his sister Re* 
Una in marriage, and made him general of the army ill 
Gaul. Julian filled his command with surprizing abilities^ 
^d shewed himself every viray equal to the trust ; whifik 
was the more extraordinary, as he had never any instruct 
ttons in the military art. The principal officers under him^ 
from whom he was to expect assistance, were very back* 
ward in performing this service ; restrained apparently by 
the danger of seeming too much attached to him, and 
thereby incurring. the emperor's displeasure, whose jea« 
lousy on this head was no secret. Under all these disad* 
i^antag^ our young warrior performed wonders ; he was 
not afraid to undertake the enterprize of driving the bar*» 
)>arian$ out of Gaul ; and he completed the design io a 
yery little time, having obtained one of the most signal 
yicjtories of that age, near Strasbourg. In this battle he 
ISQgaged no less dian seven German kings, one of whom 
vm the famous Chrodomairus ; who had always beaten 
the Romans till this time, but was now Julian's prisoner. 
The defeat of the Salii and Chamavi, French people, fol-* 
IpiH^d al the heels of this victory ; and the Germans, being 
fcpoquered again, were constrained to beg a peace* Our 
hero was crowned with these glorious laurels, when Con» 
•tantius, who was hard pressed by the Persians, sent for a 
detachment of troops frpm the army in Gaul to augment 
tift forces. This order was ill relished by the Gauls, who 
were reluctant to fight out of their own country. Julian 
took advantage of this ill humour, and got himself declared 
emperor by the army ; but, not being able to prevail with 
Con^tantius to acknowledge him in that character, be went 
W;itb th^se troops to lUyria, where he continued till the 
deftth ef Constantins, which happened Nov. 2, 361.. 

Julian no sooner saw himself master of the world, than 
he threw off all the .disguise of his religion, for it merely 
was a disguise. There appears very little reason to think 
ibat Julias had ever cordially embn^ced, or ever studied 
with attention, the principles of Christianity. )Iad this 
kieen the case, be might have seen that those principles led 
|o a conduct very opposite to that which be beheld in the 
conduct of Constantius, . whose cruelty to his relations 
perhaps 'first excited his hatred against Christianity. From 
his youth be had practised dissimulation with consummate^ 
artifice, aqd it was rather hypocrisy than Christianity which 
i|e bald now to. sha^ oft .Accordingly he qow expressly. 

JU La A ^fr tti 

pmf«ss«d hiifidetf a' t>^gan, ord«rM theiir temt>1es to ht ^ 
open, and re-established tb^^ir Worship : be also assstim^ 
the character ai%d station of the ^rereign pontiff, and wa$ 
wrested with the whole pagan ceremonial, resolving to 
oflPace the mark of his baptism by the blood of the heathen; 
sacrifices. In short, he resblved to efiect the nttef ruin of 
Cbristianitj, and in this attempt united solid judgment 
with indefatigable assiduity • Neither address nor deitt^- 
ritj was wanting, nor all that the wit or prudence of man 
coaid do. We find, indeed, in this emperof all the gfi^at 
qualities which a projector could conceive, or an adversary 
woald require, to secure success. H^ was eloquent and' 
liberal, artful^ insinuating, and iodefatfgable ; which, join- 
ed to a severe temperance, a love of justice, and a coti-' 
rage superior to aU trials, first gained him the affections,' 
and soon after the peaceable possession, of the whole em* 
ptre. He bad been, as we have just remarked, compelled 
to profess^ the Christian religion to the time when he as- 
samedtbt^ purple; but his aversion to his uncle Constan* 
tinw and bis cousin Constantius, on account of the cruelties 
dxecenied'on his family, had prejudiced him against the 
Christian reilgton ; and his attachment to some Platonic 
sephttt, who had been employed in his education, gave 
him aa Violent a bias towards paganism. 4ie was ambitious ;; 
and paganism, in some of its theurgic rltes,^'had fiatterecl 
and end^ui^ged his views of the diadem. He was vain/ 
which a[iade him aspire to the glory of re-establishing ther 
ancient riteff. He was very learned, and fond ofGrecis^ti 
literatarO) the very soul of which, in his opinion, was the 
old ibeplogy : but, above all, notwithstanding a consider- 
able mixture of enthusiasm, his superstition was exceSsivej^ 
and what nothing but the blood of hecatombs codld ap* 

With these dispositions he came to the empire, and con- 
sequently with a determined purpose of subverting th^* 
Christian and restoring the pagan worship. His predeces- 
sors bad left hkn' the repeated experience of the inefflcacjy 
of downright force. The virtne or the past times then feii*' 
leered this effort fruitless, ^be numbers of the present WouW 
have made it n^w dangerous : he found it necessary^ tl)ere-" 
feite, to change his ground*. His knovrtedge of human na-^ 
tibre f arrttsiied htm WHh arti^s; and his knowledge o^ th€ 
ftatb be had abandoned, enabled him to direct those arms 
t& most adMa^ntaf^. lie began wMv't^^eMablishnig i^aiiV 

r84 JULIA N. 

ism by law, and granting a foil liberty of conscience' to 
the Cbristians. On this principle, he restored those to 
their civil rights who had been banished on account of their 
religion, and even affected to reconcile to a mutlial for-, 
bearance the various .sects of Christianity* Yet he put 
on this mask of moderation for no other porpose than to 
inflame the dissensions in the church, He then fined and 
banished such of the more popular clergy as had abused 
their poWer, either in exciting the people to burn and de- 
stroy pagan temples, or to commit violence on an opposite 
sect : and it cannot be denied, but that in the turbulent 
^nd insolent manners of some of tiiem, he found a plausi<# 
ble pretext for this severity. He proceeded to revoke and 
take away those immunities, honours, and revenues, which 
his uncle and cousin had granted to the clergy. Neither 
was his pretence for this altogether unreasonable. He 
judged the grants to be exorbitant ; and, besides, as they 
were attendant on a national religion, when the estabUsb- 
ment came to be transferred frbm Christianity to paganism^ 
he concluded they must follow the religion of the st«teu 
But there was one immunity he took away, which no good 
policy, even under an .establishment, should have granted 
them ; and this was an exemption from the civil tribunals. 
He went still farther : he disqualified the Christian laity for 
bearing offices in the state ; and even this the security of 
the established religion may often require.. But; his most 
illiberal treatment of the Christians, was bis forbidding the 
professors of that religion to teach polite letters, and the 
sciences, in the public schools; and Amm. Marcellinus 
censures this part of his conduct as a breach in his general 
character of humanity, (lib. xx. c. 10.) His more imme-* 
diate design, in this, was to hinder the youth from taking 
impressions to the disadvantage of paganism ; his remoter 
view, to deprive Christianity of the support of human lite- 
rature.. Not content with this, he endeavoured even to 
destroy what was already written in defence of Christianity. 
With this view he wrote to the governor and ' treasurer- 
general of Egypt, to send him the library of Qeorge,hishop 
of Alexandria, who, for his cruelty and tyranny, hs^d been 
torn in pieces by the p^ple : nay, to such a length did his 
aversion to. the name of Christ carry him, as to. decree, by 
a public edict^ th§t his fplipwejcs shoi^ld be no longer called 
Christians, hut Chileans; well knowing the eScaay of 
a nick-naa(ie to render a professiqn ridiculous. In the 

JULIAN. 185 

mean time, the animosities between the different sects of 
Christianity, furnished him with the means of carrying oa 
these projects. Being, for exaoiple, well assured that the 
Arian church of Edessa was very rteb, he took advaotage 
of their oppressing and perseculing the Valmitinians to 
seize every thing belonging^ to that church, and divided 
the plunder among his soldiers ; scornfully telUng the 
Edes^ans, he did this to ease them of their burthens, that 
they migfat proceed mote lightly, and with less 'iihpedi«* 
mexit, in their journey to bea?6it. He seent farther, still,* 
if we may believe .the historian Socrates, andy in order to 
raise money to defray the extraondiQary expense of his 
Persian expedition, he imposed a tax or tribute on, all who 
would not. sacrifice to the pagan idols. The tax, it is 
true, was proportioned to eveiy man's circumstances, but 
was as truly an infringement upon his act of toleration. 
And though be forbore persecuting to death by law,, which 
would have been a direct contradiction tor that act, yet be 
connived at the fury of the people, and the brutality of the 
governors of provinces, who, during his short reign, brought 
many martyrs to the stake. He put such into governments, 
whose inhumanity and blind zeal for their country super- 
Itttions were most distinguished. And when the suffering 
churches presented their complaints to him, he dismissed 
them with cruel scofli^, telling them, their religion directed 
ttiem to suffer without murmurioig. 

Such were Julian's e£Ports to subvert Christianity; and 
it cannot be denied, that the behaviour of many of the 
Christians at that time furnished pretence enough for most 
of the proceedings against them in the view of state- policy. 
Besides that they branded the state religion, and made a 
merit of affronting the public worship, it>is well known 
that they were continually guilty of seditions ; and did »ot 
scruple to assert, that nothing hindered them from engag- 
ing in open rebdlion, but the improbability of succeeding 
in it for want of numbers. During these measures, his 
projects to support and reform paganism went hand in hand 
with his attempts to destroy Christianity. He wrote, and 
he preached, in defence of the Gentile superstition, and 
has himself acquainted us with the ill-snccess of his mini-. 
- stry at Bercea. Of his controversial writings, his answever, 
Cyril, hath given us a large ^^cimen, by which we see 
he was- equally intent to recommend pi^anism, and to dis- 
credit revelation. In his reformation oCthe Gentile super- 

ifti J XJ L 1 A K- 

stitiony he endeavoured to hide the abiurdity of its tradi^ 
tiofis by moral and philosophical allegorieB. These he 
fbond provided for him prtneipally by philosophers of bis 
own sect^ the Piatonists* For they^not without the assists 
ance of the other se^ts^ bad, ever svnce the appearance of 
Ohrisdanity) been refining the theology of paganism^ to 
oppose it to that of revelation ; under pretence, that tbett 
new-invented allegories were the ancient ^irit of the leti 
ter, which the first poetical divines bald tfaos conveyed to 
posterity. He then attempted to correct the morals of the 
pagan priesthood, and regolate them on the practice of 
the first Ohrijs^tians. In his epistle toAr^acius, the chief 
priest of Galacia, he not only requires of them a personal 
behaviour void of offence, but that theiy reform their house-^' 
hold an the same principle : be directs, that they who at* 
tend at the altar should abstain from the theatre, the tavern^ 
and the exercise of all ignoble professions; that in^ their 
private obaraeter they be meeh and humble; but that, in 
tiie act^ and offices of religion, they assume a character 
cotiformable to the majesty of the immortal gods, whosQ 
minitievs they are. And, above all, he recommends to 
tbeqi the virtues of charity and benevolence. With re- 
glird to discipline and reiigioujt policy, he establishetl 
readers in divinity ; planned an establUbment for the order 
and parts of the divine offices; designed a regular and 
formal service, with days and hoars of worship. He'bad^ 
^Iso decreed to fbund hospitals for the poor, monasteries 
fev the devout, and to prescribe and enjoin inrtiatory and; 
expiatory sacrifices ; with instrecttons for converts, and i 
course of penance for offenders; and, in all things, to 
ienitate the ohiiVeb discipline ^t that time. In this way he 
endeavoured to destroy Christian principles, and at the 
same time to establish Christianr practice. 

But as the indifferenee and corruptions of Pa^anismj, 
joined to the inflexibility arind perseverance of the Christi- 
afis, prevented his project fVom advancing with the speed 
lie desired, be grew chagrined, and even threatened, aftet 
hh return from the Persian expedition^ effectually to ruin 
the- Christian religion. He bad before, in pursuance of 
hb geMral sefaeme of opposing revelation to itself, by 
selling ene sect against another, written to the body or 
eommunity of tlie Jews ; aasur^pg them of his protection, 
kia ce^eern ft»r tbein former ilk esag^, and bis 'fixed pur- * 
pes^ lo scriBeo them from fpltii^e oppren^ofty that th^ 


might he III liliMlyi and ib a disposUioQ to redpuble their 
W»i for the prosperity of his reign ; and concluded with a 
promise, that, if he came back victorious from the Persian 
war, be would rebuild Jerusalem, restore them to their 
possessions, Jive with them in the hplycity^ and join with 
them in their worship of the great God of tbe uuiveme; 
The rebuilding of the temple at Jarusaleqi was thought a 
sure means of destroying Christianity, since the final de^ 
structicm of that temple had been foretold both by Christ 
and his apbstles ; if therefore the lye could be given to 
their predictions, their religion would be no more. This 
scheme, therefore, he set about immediately. The com* 
plating of su^h an edifice would be a work of time, and h^ 
pleased himself with the glory of atchieving so bold nn en<* 
terprize. Accordingly, the attempt was made, and what 
was the consequence will be seen by the following aecoaut 
of it from Ammianus Marcellinus. ^' Julian, baring beeit 
already thrice consul, faking Sallust prsefect of tbe several 
Gauls for his colleague, entered a fourth time on ih)s high 
magistracy. It appeared strange to see a private man asso* 
ciated with Augustus ; a thing of which, since the consu^ . 
late of Dioclesian and Aristobulus, history afforded no ex-* 
ample* And although bis sensibility of the maqy and great 
events, which this year was likely to produce, made him 
very anxious for the future, yet he pushed on the various 
and complicated preparations for this expedition with the 
utmost application : and, having an eye in every quarter, 
and being desirous to eternize bis reign by the greatness of 
his achievements, be projected to rebuild, at an immense 
expence, tbe proud and magnificent temple of Jerusalem^ 
which, after many combats, attended with nduch bloodshed 
on both sides, during the si^ge by Vespasian, was, with 
great diiBculty, taken and destroyed by Titus. He edm« 
mitted the conduct of this affair to Alypius of Antio^b, who 
formerly had been lieutenant in Britain. When, tbere^ 
fore, this Alypius bad set himself to tbe vigorous execution 
of his charge, in which he had all tbe assistance that tb6 
governor of the province could affoed him, horrible bal)s of 
fire breaking out near tbe foundations, with frequent and 
reiterated attacks, rendered the place from time to time in-* 
accessible to the scorched and blasted workmen; and the 
vicjtprious element continuing in. this manner, obstinately- 
and resolutely bent, as it were, to drive them, to a distance^ 
Alypius thought best to give over the eoterprispe. ^ Irf the 

188 JULIAN. 

mean licney though Julian was still at Antiocb when this 
happened, yet he was so wholly taken up by the Persian 
expedition, that he had not leisure to attend to it. He set 
•out soon after upon that expedition, in which he succeeded 
yery well at first ; and, taking several places from the Per* 
sians, he advanced as £ar as Ctesipho without meeting with 
any body to oppose him. However, there passed several 
engagements in this, place, in which it is said the Romans 
;)iad almost always the advantage ; but the distressed con* 
dition of their army, for want of necessaries, obliged them 
to come to a decisive battle. This was begun June 26, 
in the year 363, and victory appeared to declare itself an 
their side ; ^faen Julian, who was engaged personally in 
the fight without jiis helmet, received a mortal wound upon 
jiis head, which put a period to his life the following night.'* 
TUs fact of the interruption given to the rebuilding of the 
temi^le of Jerusalem has been denied by some oMKlern in«* 
fidek, but nothing of the kind seems better attested; and 
although it may be supposed that the eruption was not 
without natural causes, and that the seeds of it lay in the 
bowels of the earth, yet, as Dr. Jortin observes, . the fire's 
bjreaking out at the very instant when the Jews and Pagans 
were attempting to rebuild the temple, its being renewed 
iipon their, renewed attempt to go on, and ceasing when 
they gave over, are circumstances which plainly shew a 
providential interposition. 

. We have, in the course of his memoir, had occasion to 
exhibit soipe qualities to the disadvantage of Julian ; yet 
we must in justice add, that he was sober and vigilant, free 
from the debaucheries of women ; and, to spm up all, re« 
markabiy mild, merciful, good-natured, and, in general, 
most amiable ; except in bis passions which arose from his 
aversion to Christianity. He not only encouraged leuers 
by his patronage, but was himself a learned writer. As a 
philosopher, he strictly adhered to the Alexandrian or 
Eclectic school. He professes himself a warm admirer of 
Pythagoras and Plato, and recommends an union of their 
tenets with those of Aristotle. The later Platonists, of his 
pwn period, he loads with encomiums, particularly Jam* 
blicbus, whom he calls <^ The Light of the World," and 
<< The Physician of the Mind.'' Amidst the numerous 
traces of an enthusiastic and bigoted attachment to Pagan 
theology and philosophy, and of an inveterate enmity to 
Christianity, which are to be found in bis writings, the 

JULIAN. 189 

candid reader will discern many marks of genius and eru- 
dition. Concerning the manners of Julian, Libanius writes, 
that no philosopher, in the lowest state of poverty, was 
ever more temperate, or more ready to practise rigorous 
abstinence from food, as the means of preparing his mind 
for conversing with ^ the gods. Like Plotinus, Porphyry, 
Jamblicbus, and others of this fanatical sect, he dealt in 
visions and extastes, and pretended to a supernatural in- 
tercourse with divinities. Suidas relates, probably from 
some writings of the credulous Eunapius now lost, an ora- 
cular prediction concerning his death. Besides bis answer 
to St. Cyril, and " Misopogon," he wrote some other dis- 
courses, epistles, &c. in which are many proofs of genius 
and erudition, conveyed in an elegant style. And his re- 
scripts in the Theodosian code shew, that he made more 
good laws, in the short time of his reign, than any erope* 
ror either before or after him. His works were published 
in Greek and Latin by Spanheim in 1696, 2 vols.fol. ; and 
a selection from them in England by Mr. Duncombe, 1784, 
2 vols.' 8vo, translated principally from La Bleterie, who 
wrote an excellent life of Julian.* 

JULIEN (Peter), an eminent French sculptor, profes- 
sor of the schools of sculpture and painting, a member of 
the French Institute and of the legion of honour, was bom 
at Paulien, in the department of the Haute-Loire, in 1731. 
He was the pupil first of Samuel, a sculptor in Puy en 
Velay, with whom he remained two years, after which he 
was placed at Lyons under Rtache, another artist, where 
be made great progress in sculpture, and after gaining a 
prii^e at the academy of Lyons, came to Paris. Here lie 
entered the school of William Coustou, statuary to the 
king, in 1765, and gained the prize of sculpture for a 
beautiful bas-^relief, representing Sabinus offering his cha- 
riot to the vestals, when the Gauls were about to invade 
Rome. There was a simplicity in the style, taste, and 
character of this piece which struck the connoisseurs as 
something different from what they had been accustomed 
to $ee in the modern school. The artist, according to the 
custom of the times, enjoyed the usual pension for three 
years at Paris, and did not go to Rome until 1768, where, 
kiff fame having preceded him, he was employed by the 

^ CaYe.— >La Bleterie'f Life.— Mosheim and Milner.«~GibWon's History.-^ 
Saxii Onomast. 

^90 J U L I E N. 

president Bdenger to execute a inausoleuni in itiarble 
for bis wife ahd daughter. Besides the other Iab6ur8 en- 
joined to the. pensionary artists^ Julien oiade copies, in 
•marble, for the president Ocardi, of the Apollo Belvidere, 
the Flora in the Farnese palace, and the Gladiator in the 
Borghese palace, all which are now in the collection zt Ver- 
sailles. He was afterwards recalled to Paris to assist CoU- 
stou in the mausoleum for the dauphin sod ckuipfaiiiess^ 
Of this he executed the 6gure of ioifaortality, and had tbe 
charge of removing tbe whole to the cathedral of Sens, 
where it now is. 

His fame being fifliy established, be was, although other- 
wise a man of great modesty, ambitious of a seat in the 
academy of painting and sculpture, and with 'that view 
preteDted them with a Ganymede, but notwithstanding its. 
sM^knowledged merit, he did not at this time succeed. In 
1779, however, he made a second effort, and bis *^ Dying 
Gladiator" procured him immediate admission into the 
academy. He tv'as then employed by the king to make 
the statue of La Fontaine, which is reckoned bis master- 
piece in that style.' He also executed various bas-relievos 
fori^e castle of Rambouillet, and a woman bathing, wUch 
is now in tbe hall of the Senate at Paris, and allowed to^be 
one of the finest specimens of modern art. His last work 
w^ the statue of Nicolas Poussin, for tbe ball of tbe In- 
stitute. This excellent artist died, after a long illness, at 
Paris in January 1804.^ 

: JULIEN (Simon), another able French artist, and a 
member of the ancient academy of paioting, was born in 
i736, of poor parents at the village of Carigliano near 
Locarno in Swisserland, and was first a pupil of Bardon 
at Marseilles ; and afterwards of Carlo Vanloo' at Paris, 
where having gained tbe prize of the academy, he was sent 
to tbe French school at Rome under Natoire. The sight 
6f the ancient and ihodern works of that city determined 
him to abandon tbe manfner taught in France, and adopt 
that of the great masters of Italy. This procured him^ 
andong the wits, the name of Julien the apostate, to distin<» 
gush bim from others of the same name, and of the same 
$obool. His successes at Rome prolonged his stay there 
for ten years, after which be returned to Paris^ and distii]?< 
guigbed himself by various works of great merit. He 

1 Diet Hist. 

J U L I R N* \n 

painted for the hotel of the princ€fs» Kinski a St. lOominic^. 
and several decorations for ceilings, mentioned in the ^^ Re-^ 
cueil des curiosites de Paris," which attracted tbei atten- 
tion of connoisseurs and strangers. Among the .work^ 
which be exhibited to the academy, when uomiqaled a 
member, was the ^* Triumph of Aurelian," ejiecuied for 
the duke de Rochefoacault. In the saloon of St. Louis, he 
exhibited in 1788, his fine picture, ^^ Study spreading her 
flowers oyer Time,'' a work, of admirable composition.. 
This was sent into England, and engraved. Amotig other 
capital performances from his hand may be mentioned his 
Jupiter and Juno, and Aurora and Titan. His last impor-- 
tant work was an altar-piece for the ebapel of the arch* 
bishop of Paris at Conflans, representing St. Anthony in a 
trance. Notwithstanding his merit, we have to add tbait' 
this artist died poor, in 1799.^ 


JUNCKER, or JUNKER (Christian), was born Oct. 
16, 1663^ at Dresden. He acquired greaC knowledge of 
the belles lettres and medals, and was successively teacher 
at Schleusingen, Eysenacb, and Altenburg, where be died 
June 19, 1714. He had been admitted a member of the 
royal society at Berlin in 171 i» He left a great number of. 
German translations from ancient authors, and several edi- 
tions of classic authors, with notes, in the style of those 
published by Minellius; also, ^^ Schediasma de Diariis 
eruditorum i*^ *^ Centuria feminaruoi eruditione et scriptis 
illMstrium ;'' ^^ Theatruni Latinitatis uuiversse Reghero-* 
Junkerianum,'' <^ Lineae eruditionis universe et Hisfeoriae 
PhilosophicsBj'* <* Vita Lutberi ex nummis," "Vita Lun 
dolpbi,*' &c. He was historiographer to the Ernestine, 
branch of the house of Saxony. Poverty obliged him to 
write rather in haste, which may be discovered in bis; 

JUNCKER (GoTTLOB JoH>])» a learned physician, was: 
born on the 3d of June, 1680, at LondorfF, near Giessen,t 
in Hesse. He pursued his medical studies at Marpurg and'. 
Erfurt, and afterwards toolt the degree of M. D. at Halle, 
in 1718. He became subsequently a distinguished pro- 
fessor in this university, and attained a high reputation as 
Il^ysici^a to th^ public hospital. He <^ied at Haile,. Oot.^ 
25]^ 1759. His works, which are chiefly compilations, have 

» Diet. Hist. • Ibid.— Morsri.««<^xi4 Onofinst. 

192 J U N C K E R. 


been much esteemed, and are still occasionally referred to, 
especially as they contain the best .and most compendiou9 
view of the doctrines of Stahl, which he espoused and 
taught. Tliey are as follows: l. ^^ Conspectus MedicinsB' 
Tbeoretico-practicoe, Tabulis 137 primarios morbos, me- 
thodo Stahliana tractandos, exbibens/' Halle, 1718, 4to; 
2. ** Conspectus CViirurgiae,'* &c. ibid, 1721, 4to; 3, 
** Conspectus Formularum Medicarum^" &c. ibid. 1793^ 
4to; 4. ^* Conspectus Therapeiae generalis, &c. Tabulis. 
20 metbodp Stahlian^ conscriptus/' ibid. 1725, 4to; 5, 
" Conspectus Chemiae Theoretico-practicae in forma Tabu- 
larum reprsesentatus, &c. Tomus prior,'^ ibid. 1730, 4to. 
This is an elementary work on chemistry, according to the 
principles of Becher and Stahi. 6. " Conspectus Physio*- 
logiac," ibid. 1735, 4to; and 7. " Conspectus Pathologiee/* 
ibid. 1736, 4to. Juncker likewise published many acade^ 
mical theses on medical, chirurgical, and philosophical 
subjects. * 

JUNCTIN (Francis), in Italian Giuntino, a celebrated 
mathemlatician and astrologer of the sixteenth century, was 
born 1523, at Florence. He published Commentaries, in 
Latin, on the Spbsera of Holywood or Sacro Bosco, 1577 
and 1578, 2 vols. 8vo ; "Speculum Astrologi©,'' Lugd. 
1581, 2 vols. foL and other works relating to astronomy.^ 
There is also a treatise written by him in French on the 
comet which appeared in 1577, 8vo; and another an there^ 
formation of the calendar by Gregory XIII. 8 vo, in Latin. 
He had quitted the Carmelite order, and became a pro* 
iestant, but returned afterwards to the Catholic church, 
and spent the chief of his life at Lyons, where his conduct 
was very irregular. He died 1590.* 

JUNGEJIMAN (Godfrey), a native of Leipsic^ was the 
first ii»bo published an ancient Greek translation of '^ Csb* 
Bar's Commentaries,'^ Francfort, 1606, 2 vols. 4to, a work 
much in request ; and gave a Latin version of ^he " Pasto- 
rals" of Longus, with notes, Han. 1605, 8vq. Some of his 
letters are also printed. He died August 16, .1610, at 
Hanau. Lewis Jungerman, his brother, born also at 
JLeipsic, was an excellent botanist, and to him are attril^ 
bated, *^ Hortus Eystettensis,'' *^ Catalogus piantamm 
qu8^ circa Altorfin urn uascuntur/' Altorf^ 1646, 8n>^ anil 

1 Rees's Cyclopaedia from Eloy and Haller. 

*■ Moreru--^ibl. Franc, de La Croix cUi Maiae, voL T. 

■ r 

J U N G E R M A N. 19S 

*' CornUcopis Florie Giessensis,*' Giessse, 1623, 4to. He 
died June 7, 1653, at Altorf. Gaspard Jungerman, another 
brother^ was alsd a man oMearning. * 
' JUNGIUS (Joachim), an eminent mathematician, phy'* 
sician, and botanist, the son of a schoolmaster at Lubec, 
in Germany, was bom October 21, 1587. His mother 
was daughter to a clergyman of the cathedral church at 
Lubec. Jungius, having linfortunately been deprived of 
his father very early in life (for he was stabbed one evening 
upon bis return home from a convivial party), was obliged 
to depend almost entirely upoii bis T>wn exertions for know* 
ledge ; yet in his youth, he became a very subtle logician, 
and ingenious disputant, and thus prepared his mind for 
that clearness of investigation and accuracy of judgment^ 
iifrbtch were so eminently conspicuous in the works which 
he published at a more advanced period of his life. Se- 
lecting the study of medicine as a profession^ he travelled 
over a great part of Italy and Germany, in order to culti* 
vate the acquaintance of the most distinguished physicians 
of that time. He had previously graduated with distin^ 
guished honour at the university of Giessen A.D. 1607, 
and reknained there a few years as mathematical tutor. Ii| 
1625 beMvas cfhosen professor of physic at Helmstadt, but, 
on account of the Danish war, he was obliged, soon after 
his appointment, to iiy to Brunswick, whence he soon re- 
turned to Helmstadt, and in 1629 was appointed rector of 
the school at Hamburgh. 

Jungius seems to have eminently distinguished himself 
in the several studies of theology, medicine, mathematics^ 
flfietaphysics, and botany, upon all which pursuits his opi- 
nions and observations are handed down to us in his writings, 
though the most fadaous part of his work, entitled '* Doxo-* 
scopias Physicte Minores,'' is upon the last mentioned sub- 
ject, botany. This book was first printed at Hambuf^h, in 
4to, A.D. 1662, and again, in 1679, under the care of 
Martin Fogel, with this additional title, ^' PrsBcipuarum 
opinionum physicarum." A copy of the former edition of 
this work is in the Linnasan library, having been presented 
to I^innsus by his pupil, professor P. D. Gis^ke, of Ham- 
burgh. The botanical piart of it, included in the third 
section of the second part, occupies about 100' pages, and- 
jn^tfu/is many judicious and acute rules for making distitfi^t 

> QeD. Diet.— Moreri.— Saxii OnomMt—Haller Bib). Bot, 

Vol. XIX. O 

194 ' J U N G I U S. 

sspecies of plants, as tvell as some curious remarbs upotr 
genera. He was a great critic in botanical nomenclature ; 
and constructed a variety of terms which agree with thos^ 
of Linnacu^ and his remarks upon botanical discriitiination 
have been of considerable advantage to succeeding bo- 
tanists, and many of his definitions are repeatedly made 
use of by our immortal countryman, Ray. He was the first 
who projected and raised a literary society in Germany, 
though this institution did not share a better fate than the one 
which had just before been founded in this country (and 
which appears to have served for its model) by Hugh La- 
timer, Thomas Linacre, and others, for the purpose of 
discussing and illustrating Aristotle's philosophy. They 
both flourished but for a short period, though the Heunetic 
or Ereunetic society, as it was called, established by pro- 
fessor Jungius, was on a far mot^e comprehensive plan than 
the other, and may indeed be considered aft having, in 
some measure, dmbraced the same views with which the 
royal society was afterwards instituted iti Great Britain. 
The fame of Jungius was originally diffused through thia 
country by his noble pupil, the honourable Charles Caven- 
dish, who appears to have studied under him at Hamburgh. 
This gentleman was brother to the earl of Newcastle, who 
had the care of Charles I. when a youth. 

After a long lif^, spent in the acquirement and diffusion 
iof general philosophical knowledge, and having always 
manifested a strong attachment to the i^utheran cbifrch; 
professor Jungius departed this life September 23, 1657, 
and was buried in the church of St. John at Hamburgh, 
where a handsome tablet was inscribed to his memory by 
his Ariend and pupil, Midiael Kirsten. The following ia 
a list of his works, as given by Martin Foget, who ecSted 
the second edition of his " 0oxoscopiiaB.'* 1. ** Logi<>9 
Hamburge^sis," Hamb. 1638, 8vo. 2. <^ Geomi9t^i<i Em-*, 
pirica," Rostock and Hamb. 4to. 3. " Doxoscopia^ Phy- 
sicsd. Mtnores, sive Isagoge Physica Doxoscopica.*^ Hamb* 
1662, 4to. 4. *' Kurzer Bericht von der Didactica oder 
Lehrkuast Wolfgangi Ratichii, dnrch Christoph. Helvictini 
und Joacb. JuDgium," Giessen, 1614, 4to. 5. ^^Disptitii^ 
tiones d^ naturaJi Dei cognitione : de potentiA activft ; de 
loco Ariatotetis, lib. 3. de codo, t 66 : de figuris locuni 
replentibiis : de relattonibus : denocionibus secondk: d«p 
demonstratione tritermina: de definitionibus,'' &c.^ 

1 Chaufepie.— -Rees'i Cyclop!edta.«-3asii OnoBMstieoii. 

Junius. us 

Junius (Adrian), a learned Hollander^ was born, in 
151 1 or 1512, at Hoorn, of which place his father had been 
tecretary, and five times burgomaster. Having passed 
through his first studies at Haerlem and Lpuvain, he fixed 
upon physic for his profession, and, for his improvementt 
resolved to travel abroad. Accordingly^, going first to 
France, he put himself under the care of James Houlier^ 
a celebrated physician at Paris. Thence he went to Bo^ 
logna in Italy, where he was. admitted M. I), and afters 
wards, passing through several part's of Germany^ arrived 
in England, and became physician to the duke of Norfolk 
in 1543, and was afterwards retained in that quality by a 
certain great lady. He continued in England several years, 
>and wrote many books there; among others, a Greek and 
Latin lexicon, to.vbrhich he added above 6500 words. Ha 
dedicated this work, in 1548, to Edward VI. with the titiei 
of king. Edward not being acknowledged such by thel 
pope, our author, who was of that religion, fell under the 
ilispleasure of the court of Rome for his dedication^ and 
was prosecuted for it a long time after. His Works, were 
put into the *^ Index Expurgatorius,^' where he was branded 
as a Calvinist, and an author *^ damnatsB memortSB," of 
condemned memory; a disgrace which gave him great 
uneasiness and concern ; and, in order to be freed from it, 
having laid his case before cardinal Granville, he applied,, 
by the advice of Arias Montanus, directly to the pope, 
and prepared an apology, shewing the indispensable ne-^ 
cessity h^ was upder of giving Edward the title of king, 
and at the same time protesting he bad always been a good 
catholic. V . 

Before the death of Edward, he returned io his own 
country, and led a sedentary life, closely pursuing biS' 
studies ; but, upon' the accession of queen Mary, he re«« 
turned thither ^ and, being a very good poet, he published, 
in 1554, an epithalamium on the. marriage of Philip IL 
with that queen, entitled " Philippis.'- This address could 
not fail of introducing him in a favourable . light to that 
court, whei^ee he would probably have made a cM>nsiderabl«' 
fortune, had not the turbulent state of those times driven 
him home again. He confined himself some. time in Hoorn, 
b«it, after a while, settled at Haerlem ; and repaired .the 
disappoinUBent be'suttftifled respecting ^ his financfis in 
England, by marrying a young woman of fortune, which 
he knew how to imp'rote by making the* most of his dedi« 

O 2 

I9S J i; N I u s. 

^atk)n» to his books^ of which he published three at Ha«r^ 
jiem in 1 556. Some years after^ he accepted an offer from 
the king of Denmark, to be his physician, with a consider- 
able salary, and removed to Copenhagen; but neither 
liking the climate nor genius of the inhabitants, he left the 
country about 1564, very abruptly, without taking leave of 
the king. Returning to Haeilem, he practised physic, and 
was made principal o-f the college, or great school, in that 
town. He continued there tiM the place was besieged by 
the Spaniards in 1573, when he found means to escape, by 
oi)taining leave to attend the prince of Orange, who desired 
his assistance as a physician ; but lo&t hk library, in which 
be had left a great many works which had cost him much 
pains and labour ; and. the loss was aggravated by this 
circumstance, that they were almost fit* for the press. Ii^t 
this*exigency he went to Middleburgh, where the prince 
bad procured him a public salary to practise physic ; but 
the air of the Country did not agree with his constitution, 
and he fell into some disorders, which, with the grief he 
felt for the loss of his library, put an end to bis life in 1'575. 
There was a design to have given him a professorship at 
Leyden, which university was but just rising when he died. 
He had a prodigious menfiory,. which enabled him to trea- 
sure up a vast stock of learning. Besides his skill in physic, 
which was his profession, he was an historian, poet, philo- 
sopher, and understood perfectly eight languages. Hi» 
works make up 24 articles, among which arp, ^ Lexicon* 
^rsBCO^^Latinum," 1548; '^Adagiorum ab f^rasmo omisso- 
rum centuriaB octo & dimidia," 1558 ; which last was p^b- 
lished after bis death, as others of his pieces were.^ 
! JUNIUS, or Du JON (Francis), professor of divinity 
at Leyden, was descended of a noble family, and born at' 
JBourges. in 1545. At the age, of thirteen he began ta 
^udy the law, and afterwards went to Geneva, to study the 
langu^;es ; but being restrained in bis pursuits for want of 
a proper support from his family, he resolved to get his 
bread by teaching school, which he pursued till 1565, 
when he was made minister of the Walloon church at AnW 
.weqp. B^it as this ^as both a troublesome and dangerous 
post, oii> account of the tumultuous conflicts between the 
papists and protestants at that time, h^ was soon obliged to 
withdrair into^ Gefoiaay. He went first to Heidelbergt 

, ^ I Gen. Diet,— Kieeroo; vol. VU.<»-^SaxH OooButsticoiw 

JUNIUS. 197 

"turhe're the elector^ Frederic III. received him very gra* 
eiously. Hie then made a visit to bis mother, who was stiil 
living at Bourges ; after which, returning to the Palatinate, 
he was made minister of the church of Schoon there. 
This was but a small congregation ; and, while he held it, 
be was sent by the elector to the prince of Orange's army, 
during the unsuccessful expedition of 1568. He continiaed 
chaplain to that prince till the troops returned into Ger- 
many ; when he resumed his church in the < Palatine, and 
resided upon it till 1379. This year his patron, the elec- 
tor, appointed him to translate the Old Testament jointly 
«yith IVemellius, which employment brought him to Hei- 
delberg. , He afterwards read public lectures at Neustadt, 
till prince Casimir, administrator of the electorate, gave 
him the divinity-professor's chair at Heidelberg. He re- 
' turned into France with the duke de Bouillon ; and paying 
his respects to Henry IV; that prince sent him upon some 
cnission iiiito Germany. Returning to give an account of 
his success, and passing through Holland, he was invited 
4o .be divinity-professor at Leyden:; and, obtaining the 
permission of tbie French ambassador, he accepted* the 
o^er in 1592. He had passed through mainy scenes of 
life, and he wrote an account of them himself this year:: 
after which, he filled the chair at Leyden with great repu- 
tation for the space of ten years, when he died of the 
|> 1602. 

He was married no less than four times, and by his third 
wife had a son, who is 4:he subject of the next article. 
The titles of his works are sixty^four iu number, among 
which are, ^' Commentarilss" on the first three chapters of 
Xrenesis, the prophecies of Ezeklel, Daniel, and Jonah ^ 
** Sacred Parallels" and ** Notes*' upon the book of Reve- 
lation ; ** Hebrew Lexicon ;'* ** Grammar of the Hebrew 
Tongne;** ^^ Notes on Cicero's Epistles to Atticus," But 
what he is chiefly, and almost only, known for liow, is his 
Latin ^version of the Hebrew text of the Bible, jointly with 
Ttemelliui. He was a man of great learning and pious 
zeal, and his life by Melchior Adam affords many interest- 
ing particulars of him in ^oth -.characteps* In the account 
of his life written by himself, he relates that in his youth 
he was seduced into ^theism, from which he represents 
liimself as almost miraculously redeemed, and this appears 
;to have made a lasting impression on him.^ 

1 Mdchior AdAin.*«-Gen. Diet,— Niceron, toI. XVL 

198 JUNIUS. 

JUNIUS (Francis, or Fkan^ois Du JON), son of tbe 
preceding, was born at Heidelberg in 1589, and received 
the first elements of his education at Leyden, apparently 
with a view to letters ; but upon the death of his father ia 
1602, resolving to go into the army in the service of the 
prince of Orange, he applied himself particularly to such 
branches of the mathematics as are necessary to make a 
figure in the military life. He had made a gpod progress 
in these accomplishments at twenty years of age ; when 
the war being concluded by a truce for* twelve years in 
1609, occasioned a change in his purpose, and inclined 
him to cultivate the arts of peace by a close application to 
study. His first literary employment was to collect, digest, 
and publish some of his father^s writings. After some 
years spent thus in his own country, he resolved, for far-* 
iher improvement, to travel abroad. With that view be 
went first to France, and then to England, in which be 
arrived in 1620, and having recommended himself by his 
leatning and amiable manners to the literati there, he was 
taken into the family of Thomas earl of Arundel, in which be 
continued for the space of thirty years. Ouring his abode 
there he made frequent excursions to Oxford, chiefly for 
the sake of the Bodleian and other libraries ; where, 
meeting with several Anglo*Saxon books, he resolved to 
study the language, whicsb was at that time neglected. H^ 
soon perceived that the Anglo-Saxon tongue would be of 
service to him for discovering many etymologies necessary 
to clear up the Flemish, Belgic, German, and English, 
languages; and therefore devoted himself wholly to that 
study. He afterwards learned the ancient language of tbe 
Goths, Francs, Cimbri, and Prisons ; by which he disco- 
vered the etymology of several Italian, French, and Spa- 
nish words ; for the Goths, Vandals, French, Burgundians^, 
and Germans, spread their language in the provinces they 
conquered, of which some vestiges are still left. 

After a careful course of these studies and researches^ 
he announced his having discovered that the Gothic was 
the mother of all the Teutonic totigues ; whence sprang 
the old Cimbrian, transmitted to posterity by the remain^ 
of the Runic, as likewise the Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, 
Icelandish, in which the inhabitants of the country ex- 
pressed their thoughts at that time. From the Anglo* 
*Sax6n, which itself is either a branch of tlie Gothic or it^ 
sister, and daughter pf th§ sapae mother^ spr^g the 


JUNIUS. f«9 

English, £lcotch, Belgic, and the old laiigulage of Friesland. 
From the Gothic, and Saxon languages sprang that of the 
Fraocts which, is the mother^tongue of Uppef- Germany. 
He was so passionately fond of this study, that,*after thirty 
years chiefly spent upon it in England, being infornted 
there wene some villages in Friesland where the ancient 
language of the Saxons was preserved, he went thither and 
Hved two years among l^em. Theu^ returning into Hol- 
land, he met with the old Gothic M,S. called the Silver 
One, because the four gospels are written there in silver 
Crotbic letters. He devoted hit whole study in the expli- 
cation of it, which he completed in a Uttle time, and pub« 
bshed it, with notes of Dr. Marshall, in 1665, under the 
title ^* Glossarium Gotbicum in quatuor evangelia Gothica,*' 
]>ordrac, 1665, 4to. Dr. Marshairs performance is entitled 
'.^ Observaliones in evangeliorum versiones per antiquas 
^kas, Gothicam sc. & Angb^Saxonicam,'* &c. ibid. Junius 
iretttrned kuta £ngiaad in 1674, in order to peruse such 
.£ogli«h->Saxoo books as bad hitherto escaped his diligence, 
Qspeoially those in the Cottonian library. In Oct. 1676, 
he mtited to Oxford. He was now 87, and intended not 
t0 leave that beloved university any more. At first fae^had 
lodgings opposite to. Lincoln college, for the sake of Dr. 
MarsliaU, rector of that society, who had been bis pupil in 
the study of the Northern languages, and was th^n a great 
critic, a» well as Junius, in them. Afterwards, he intended 
to. put some of his nbtes and collections into order; and, to 
avoid the interruption of frequent visits, he removed to an 
obscure house ia St. Ebbe's parish, where he digested some 
things /or the press, and made a deed of gift of all his 
MSS* and collecjtions to the public library^. 

. In Aug. 1677, upon the invitation of his nephew. Dr. 
Isaap Vofisius, caooci of Windsor, he>¥ent to his house, 
ayid th^re died of a fever, Nov. 19 following. His corpse 
was interred in St George's ehapei, within the castle, and 
thie following year a table of white marble was fixed to the 
wall, near his ^rave, with an inscription in Latin. He was 
not only very learned, but a mai) of irreproachable cha- 
racter. As a laborious student, perhaps few have excelled 


* There is a list of them in Ath. Ox. scribe^ for tlie press. Hw etymolo- 

under Uiis article. The chief is his gicon Anglicanuin" was published ia 

iviostary, ia #v« Ungoaget, explain- 174>3» hi folio, by Edward Lye, M. A. 

ing the origin of the northeni Ian- vicar of Little Houghton in N«rtbainp- 

guages. It Goolains nine volumes, (Uwshire. 
vhich bishop Fell caused to be tran- 

200 JUNIUS. 

bim. He used to rise at four in the mornings both winter 
and summer^ and study till dinner-time, which was at one ; 
after dimier.he used some bodily exercise, walking or run^ 
ning, but returned to his studies at three, and did not 
leave them till ^ eight, when he went to supper, and then 
to bed. He very seldom stirred abroad, and never but 
when some business obliged him. Notwithstanding this, 
he enjoyed a perfect state of health, and was never once 
sick. Though he spent so long a series of years in thi^ 
solitary manner, he was a man of a pVeasant and social 
temper, even in his extreme old age. He was free from 
peevishness, and affable to those who visited him, thougli 
he did not like to be interrupted. Besides the ** Glossarium 
Gotbicum,*^ the chief of his printed works are, i. thi^ 
intituled ^< De pictura veterum,'* 1637, 4to. and printed 
again, with large additions, 1694, at Hotterdam, in folio. 
He printed likewise an English translation, entitled, ** The 
Painting of the Ancients ;*' in tbr6e books,- with additions 
and alterations, Lond. 1638. To the folio edition was pre« 
fixed his life, written by GrsBvius. 2. ^^ Observationes in 
Willerami Francicam paraphrasiu Cantici canticorum,'- 
Amst. 1655, 8vo. 3. Several letters in *^ Ger. Joh. Vossii 
& clarorum virorum ad eum epistolse,*' Lond. 1690, foU 
where Vossius styles our author ^^ vir omnifaria doctrina & 
generis splendore ornatissimus,' *^ - t 

. JURI£U (Peter), a French protestant divine, somfletimes 
csjled by the catholics the Goliah of the protestants, was 
born Dec. 24, 1637. His father, Daniel Jurieu, was mi- 
nister of the reformed religion at Mer; his mother, the 
daughter of Peter du Moulin, minister and professor at 
Sedan. He was sent, after the first rudiments of his edu* 
cation under Rivet in Holland, to his maternal uncle Peter 
du Moulin, then in England; where, having finished his 
theological studies, be took orders in that church ; but, 
upon the death of his father, being called home to succeed 
him at Mer, and finding what he had done in England 
disliked by the reformed in bis own country, he submitted 
to a re-ordination by presbyters, according to the form of the 
foreign protestant churches. After some time, he officiated 
in the French church of Vitri, where the people were so 
much pleased with him, that they endeavoured to procure 
bis settlement among them; and here he composed big 

I Gen, Pict.-»Niceroii, ▼ol.j2CV].-^Atlif Ox. vol, U.^^Itile by Grjetiiw, 

JUKI E U. 301 

*5 Treatise of Devotiou.'* Before this, ia 1670, he had 
attracted public attention by refuting a project for reuniting 
all the sects of Christiauity, wrote by d^Huisseau, minister 
of Saumur. He was afterwards invited to Sedan, where 
be discharged the office of professor in divinity and He* 
brew with great reputation. In 1673 he wrote his ^^Pre- 
servative against Popery/' which he opposed to the expo* 
sition of the doctrine <>f the catholic church by M. de 
Meaux, bishop of Condom. This treatise did great credit 
to tlie author, who endeavoured to prove that the prelate 
iiad disguised the doctrine of his church. In 1675, Jurieir 
published the first part of his work (the whole of whicl^ 
appeared in 1685), entitled ^^ La Justification de la Mo- 
rale," &c. or, " A Vindication of the Morality of the Pro- 
testants against the Accusatipua of Mr. Arnauld,^' ice. Ia 
1.681, the university of Sedan being taken from the pro- 
testants^, our professor reserved to accept an invitation; 
sent to him from that of Rouen ; but discovering, in the 
mean time, that the French court knew him to be the author 
of a work be bad published anonymously, under the title of 
** La Politique du Clerg^,'' which was a severe satire oti 
the. Roman catholics^ he was apprehensive of being prose- 
cutedj aud therefore retired hastily into Holland, where 
he almost immediately received an offer - of the divinity^ 
chair in the university of Grooingen ; but his friends hav- 
ipg founded the same professorship for him at Rottardam^ 
he preferred this residence to the other ; and he was also 
appointed minister of the Walloon church in the same 
town. He had not been long in this happy situatioup- 
when he pifiduced to the public <' Les derniers Efibrts de 
riunocence afflig^e,'' or ^< The last Efforts of afflicted 

At Rotterdam^ having nothing to fear, he gave full scope 
to his imagination, which was naturally too warm and san- 
guine. Jn this temper be applied himself to study the 
book of ^^ the Revelations," and thought he had certainly 
discovered the true meaning of it by a kind of iuspiration^ 

* The prtncipaUty of Sedan had there maiotaiped, with all the rights aod 
been a iovercigm state till. 1648 ; when pririleges which it then enjoyed : yet 
tbft doke of Bouillon yitMed it up to all this could not save the uoiversity z 
jLewis XII. on condition that every the king even ordered, that it ahoold bo 
thing should continue in the state in suppressed before any other. The de- 
which it then was. Lewis XIV, rati- cree was made July 9, 1681, and noti- 
fied the same treaty ; and promised, fied to the universiiy ttie 14th of ^be ' 
that the protestant religion should be same month, ' 

2M J D R I E U. 

whicb tbewed him, that France was the place of tlie great 
city, wbere the wittiesses meotiooed in t&e apocalypse lay 
dead, bat not boiied ; and that they were to rise to life 
again io three years and a half, nameiy, in 1689. He was 
unalterably 6ze«i and confirmed in this persoasion by the 
rerciutioa which happened in England in 16SS ; and even 
nddiessed a letter upon the subject to king William, whom 
lie considered as the instroment intended by God to carry 
his designs into ezeention. At home, however, all this 
was charged upon him as an artifice, only to prepare the 
people for a moch greater revolntion ; and be wa» sus- 
pected to haiboar no other design than that of exciting 
people to take up arms, and setting all Europe in a flame. 
The foundation of this belief was bis not shewing any signs 
of confusion after the event had given the lye to his pro- 
phecies : they built likewise cmi this, that, after the eX^ 
ample of Comenius, he had attempted to re-unite the Lu- 
therans and Calvinists, in hopes of increasing the number 
of troops to attack Antichrist. But these accusations were 
brought only by the Romanists, his constant enemies, while 
his more indulgent friends attributed his prophecies to en- 
tbusiasm, and it is certain, that, under this period of men- 
tal delusion, he affected to believe a great number of pro- 
digies, which he maintained were so many presages or 
forerunners of the accomplishment of the prophecies. Nor 
is it true that he was indifferent to the ill success of what he 
bad predicted in his '< L'accomplissement des Propheties,'* 
Botterdara, 1686 : on the contrary^ his chagrin was great; 
and it was not a little heightened when he thought himself 
insulted by some of his best friends, who opposed his sen- 
timents. This drew him into violent disputes, and parti- 
cularly with Bayle *, who wrote against him. The oppo- 
sition of Bayle was the more resented by hira^ as he had 
been a friend to him, and was instrumental in procuring 
faim the philosophical chair at Sedan in 1675. They seent 
to have been very intimately connected ; for, after the sup^ 
pression of that university, they were preferred together 
to different professorships at Rotterdam io 1681 ; and th^y 
both wrote against Maimbourg's ** History of Calvinisip*' in 
1682. But here, it is ^aid, the first seeds of the quarrel 

* See the article of Zuerins Box- nods against oar apthor, upon inforpna- 

borniuSt in the last Tolume of his Diet, tion of his having maintained, that it 

Kem. (o), where there is. a particular was lawful to hate one's enenues. 

account of the proceedinss in some sy- . 

J U R I E U. «08 

between them were sown. Both the pieces excelled in 
different ways. Jurieu^s was more complete and full than 
Baylors, and he answered Maimbourg with a great deal of 
strength ; but then the reader did not meet there with that 
easy and natural style, those lively arid agreeable refiec- 
tions which distinguished the latter. The preference given 
' to Bayle was observed by Jurieu with disdain : be began 
to look upon Bayle as his competitor, conceived a jealousy 
and hatred for him ; and to what length it was carried af* 
terwards may be seen in our article of Bayle. In shorty it 
must not be dissembled, that our author's conduct was far 
from being commendable in regard to Bayle, or any of hit 
antagonists. Even those synods, where his authority was 
the greatest, engaged in the contest, and justified Mr: 
Saurin, pastor of Utrecht, and other- persons of merit, 
whom Jurieu had not spared to accuse of heterodoxy : nay, 
the matter was caiYied so far^ that, in some of these church 
parliaments there passed decrees, in which, though his 
Bame was not mentioned, }'et the opinions he bad ad« 
vanoed upon baptism, justiBcation, and the new system of 
the church, were absolutely condemned. These tronblesr 
continued' while he lived, and at length threw him into a 
lowness of spirits, under wbieh he languished for several 
years before his death; yet he continued to employ his 
pen, and revised and printed his history of opinions, and 
forms of religious worship, ^^ Histoire des dogmes et des 
cultes,*' which he had composed in his youth, a wort of 
tery considerable merit. In the two or three last years of 
bis life he wrote only some devotional pieces. At length 
he sunk under a load of infirmities, at Rotterdam, Jan. 
11, 1713. He was unquestionably a man of considerable 
learning, but peculiar in some of his own notions, and in- 
tolerant to those of others. Among bis works, not men<^ 
tioned above, are *^ Histoire du Calvin isme et du Papisme 
mise en parallele,'* &c. 1683, 3 vols. ; ** Lettres Pastorales.'* 
These letters are upon the subject of the accomplishment 
of the prophecies. In one of them, for Jan. 1695, having 
quoted, as proof of the favourable intentions of the allies, a 
proposal for peace, drawn up by the diet of Ratisbon, 
which had been forged by a speculative politrciaii in Am-^ 
sterdam, he was so ashamed of his having been imposed 
«pon by this fictitioiis piece, that he instantly printed 
another edition of bis letter, in which he omitted thajt article, 
?. <* Parallele d^ trois Lettres pastorales de Mr. Jurieu, &c/' 

I / 

«04 J U R I E u; 

1696, quoted in a ^'Dissertation concerning defamatorjr 
Libels,^' at the end of Bay le's Diet. 4. '* Trait^ de 1' unit4 
xle r^glise,'* &c. 1688. 5. " Le vray systeme de I'^glise 
et la veritable analyse de lafoi," &.c. 1686. 6. ^< L'Esprit 
de Mr. Arnauld," 1684. 7. " Abr^g^ de I'Histoire du Con- 
cile de Trente," &c. 1683, 8.^" Les pr^jugez legitimes 
contre le papisme,^' 1685. 9. ^' Le Janseniste convainqu 
de vaine sophistiquerie." 10. '< Le Pbilosophe de Rotter- 
dam accust^, atteint, et comvaincu.'* 11. ^* Trait^ histo- 
rique, contenantle jugement d*un Protestant surla Th^o- 
logie Mystique/' &c. 1700. 12. '^ Jugement sur les mi- 
thodes rigides et relach^es,'* &c, 1686. 13. "Traitg de 
la Nature et la Grace." 14. *' Apologie pour Taccomplisse-. 
inent de Proph^ties," 1687. 15. " Quelque Sermons," &c.? 
JURIN (JaM£S), born in 1684, and a physician of the 
inatbematical sect, was educated in Trinity college, Cam- 
bridge, of which he was fellow in 1711. He was after- 
wards well known in London as an eminent physician ; was 
physician to Guy's hospital, and was, during several years, 
an active member and secretary of the royal society, and 
at the time of his death in 1750, president of the col-' 
lege of physicians. He distinguished himself by a series* 
of ingenious essays, published in the Philosophical Tratis- 
actioDS in 1718, 1719, &c. and afterwards printed coU 
lectively, in 1732, under the title of ^^ Physico-Matbema- 
tical Dissertations,*' in which mathematical science was 
applied with considerable acuteness to physiological sub- 
jects. These papers involved him in several controversies ; 
first with Keill, in consequence of his calculations in re- 
gard to the force of the contractions of the heart, against 
which also Senac published some objections, which he 
answered. To Smith's System of Optics, published in 
1738, Jurin added ** An Essay upon distinct and indistinct 
Vision," in which he made subtle calculations of the. 
efaainges necessary to be made in the figure of the eye to 
accommodate it to the different distances of objects. This 
paper was commented on by Robins, to whom Jurin wrote, 
a reply. He had likewise controversies with Michelotti 
respecting the force of running water, and with the philo- 
sophers of the school of Leibnitz on living forces. He 
communicated to the royal society some experiments made 
jwith a view to determine the specific gravity of the hqcpfu^ 

1 Chanfepie.— 0ei Maizeftox'i Life of Bayle.-^DicU WsU , 

J U R I N. 205 

blood,, and be contributed much to the improvement of 
their meteorol(^ical observations. He was a warm partisan 
and an active defender of the practice of inoculation ; and 
in several publications, giving an account of its success 
from 1723 to 1727, established its utility upon the true 
foundation of a comparison between the respective mor- 
tality of the casual and the inoculated smalUpox. Dr. 
Jurin was also editor of Varenius's Geography, 2 vols* Svo,^ 
1712, published at the request of sir Isaac Newton and Dr. 
Behtley. In " The Works of the Learned" for 1737—8 
— 9, he carried on a controversy with Dr. Pemberton, in 
defence of Newton, and signed his papers '^ Philalethes 
Cantabrigiensis.*' ^ 

JUSSIEU (Antony de), an eminent botahist, was bora 
at Lyons in 1686. He cultivated, with so much success, a 
talent for natural history, which discovered itself in bia 
earliest years^ that, in 1712, he obtained a place in the 
academy of sciences. After traversing various parts of 
Europe, he settled in Paris, where he published various 
works on the most interesting parts of natural history. He. 
published an appendix to Touruefort, and methodized and. 
abridged the work of Barrelier, on the plants of France, 
Spain, and Italy. He also practised physic, and, w^TQr 
niarkable on all occasions for charity to the poor, to whom 
he niot only gave advice, but alms« He nevertheless jefi^ 
behind him a very considerable fortune, of whicbhisl^rothei^ 
Bernard was the heir. He died of an apoplexy, at the 
age of seventy-two, in 1758.' 

JUSSIEU (Bebnard), brother of the preceding, was 
also a native of Lyons, and born in 1699« Like his bro«o 
ther he was a practitioner of physic, and eminent for his 
botanical skill and researches, and was one of the first. bo^^* 
tanists who aimed at a natural system of anrangeiaent^ 
He was member of various learned academies in Europe ; 
curator of the plants of the royal garden at Paris, and was 
invited by the king himself to superintend the arrangement 
of a botanical garden at Trianon. He was highly esteemed 
by bis royal master, and enjoyed, what was no less ho** 
nourable,. the friendship and confidence of Linnseus. He 
had numerous pupils, by whom he was omch beloved, and 
died in possession of universal esteem in 1777, in the 

' Ree8»s Cyclopaedra.— Nichols's Bowyer.— Works of th« Learned," ubi supt»^ 
and also vol, for 1741. 

•Diet. Hat: ' .;•'.'- .n 

206 J u s s 1 fc t;. 

iMTenty^ntntb year' of his age. His only publicsitions werd^ 
an edilion of Toori^ort on the plants which groir neat 
Pari^ 1725, 2 Tob« 12ino ; and ^* Uattii de Fhumanit^, ou^ 
CoDseiU d'un bon citoyen a sa nation,'* octavo, printed 
after bis death. Although a first-rate botanist, he tvas de- 
terred by excess of modesty from giving his ideas to this 
worlds His nephew, the present A. L. de Jussieu, has 
given us a plan of the method, according to which be ar- 
ranged the garden of Trianon in 1759, and which, in fact, 
laid the foundation of his own celebrated work, published 
in 1789. The Jussiasa, of Linnaeus, was so named by that 
eminent, botanist in honour of these two brothers. There 
was a third brother, however, the youngest, who was born 
in 1704, and in 1735 went to Peru, in the capacity of a 
botanist, with the academicians sent there to measure a 
degree. After continuing in that country thirty-sis: years, 
he returned to France in very bad health, and almost in a 
state of childhood, and died in 1779. Some account of 
bis travels and discoveries may be seen in Memoirs of the 
French Academy ; and it was at one time thought that bis 
fiephew was preparing an account for publicatiou, but we 
know not that it has yet appelkred.' 

JUSTEL (Christopher), counsellor and secretary to 
the French king, was born at Paris, 1580. Having excel- 
lent parts, and a strong bent to letters, he made a great 
progress ; and, as soon as he left the college, applying 
himself to the study of the councils and ecclesiastical his- 
tory, he publisheci the <^ Code of Canons of the Church 
universal, and the Councils of Africa, with notes." He 
held a literary correspondence with the most learned men 
of bis time, as Usher, Salmasius, Blondel, sir Henry 
Spelmad, and others, till his death, which happened at 
Paris in 1649. He had the <^haracter of knowing noore of 
the middle ages than any of his time. Besides the code 
already mentioned, he published, in 1645, ** The Genea- 
logical History of the House of Auvergne ;'* and several 
eijlections of Greek and Latin canons, from MSS. which 
formed the ^< Bibliotbeca juris canonici veteris," published 
at Paris in 1668, in 2 vols, folio, by William Voel and our 
autboi^s soil, the subject of the next article.' 

JUSTEL (H£NRY), was born at Paris in 1620, and suc^ 
ceeded his father as secretary and counsellor to tiie king. 

^ bict Hist,r-<-Haller Bibl. Bot.-ȣlQge des AcademicitftaSf tof. II* 
f Moi«ri«"-^axii Oaomast<-^U8her's Life and Letters. 

J U S T E L. »(W 

He WES a man of distinguished learning faimsislfi and ati 
encourager of it in others, employing his interest at court 
in their favour. His house was the usual resort of men of 
letters, among whom we find Mr. Locke and Dr. Hickes; 
which shews that it was open to men of all complexions 
and principles. Mr. Justel had always professed a partis 
cular respect for the English nation, and cultivated aa 
acquaintance with many great men there. He foresaw the 
revocation of the edict of Nantz, several years before it 
happened, as we are informed by Dr. Hickes. This divine> 
who, upon his travels abroad, made a considerable stay at 
Paris, set apart one day in the week for visiting Mr. Jnstek 
In one of these visits, after some discourse about the pro-^ 
testant churches, observed by Dr. Hickes to be in many 
places demolished, notwithstanding the edict of Nantss^ 
*' Alas, sir," says Mr. Juste], *^ as I am wont to talk iit 
confidence with you, so I will tell you a secret, that almost 
none of us knows besides myself : our extirpation is de^ 
creed ; we must all be banished our country, or turn pa-*> 
pists. I tell it yoo because I intend to come into England^ 
where I have many friends ; and that, when I come to see 
you among the rest, you may remember that I told it you.*' 
*^ Upon this," says Dr. Hickes, <^ I asked him how long it 
would be before this sad persecution would be put into 
execution ? He answered, within four or five years at most; 
and remember, says he again, that I foretold the time.— ^ 
After he had been some time in London he made a visit to 
the doctor at his house on Tower-hill ; where, presently 
after the common forms of congratulating one another (it 
was about the time that the bill of exclusion was thrown 
out of the House of Lords), he said, Sir, don't you remem** 
bar what I told you of the persecution we- have since suf« 
fered, and of the time when it would begin ? and you now 
see all has accordingly come to pass." 

He sent by Dr. Hickes the original MS. in Greek of the 
'^ Canones ecclesi® universalis," published by his father, 
and other valuable MSS. to be presented to the university 
of Oxford : upon the receipt of which benefaction, that 
learned body cotiferred on him, by diploma, the degree 
of LL. D.June 23, 1675. He left Paris in 16&1, upon 
the' persecution of the protestants; and, coming tp'Loh<* 
don, was, some time after, made keeper of the king's li« 
brary at St. James's, to which is annexed a salary of 200/. 
per annum. He held this place till his deaths Sept. 1693> 

20S J U S T E L. 

and was then. succeeded by Dr. Richard Bendc^. He 
bad a very, extensive library, particularly rich in MS9. 
which were always at the service of bis learned contem*- 
poraries,. many of whom acknowledged their obligations to, 
bim. He was obliged, however, to dispose of this library 
before he left France* There is a portrait of him and 
bis arms in the Gent. Mag, 1788, taken from a private 
print. ^ 

JUSTIN, an ancient Latin historian, is known by his 
abridgment of the large work of Trogus Pompeius, which 
some think has occasioned the loss of the original ; but it 
is much more probable that the neglect of the original oc- 
casioned the abridgment, as commonly happens in the 
decline of letters. Who Justin was, and when he lived, is 
altogether uncertain ; but he is generally referred to the 
yea,r 150, in the reign of Antoninus Pius. The abridge 
ment comprises a history of the world from Ninus to Au- 
gustus Caesar; and is written with great purity and elegance; 
excepting here and there a word which savours of encroach- 
ing barbarism. It has long been employed as a school 
book, and is held in great estimation by foreign critics. 
La Motbe le Vayer thinks ^^ his manner of writing so ex*- 
cellent as to be worthy the age of Augustus rather than that 
of the Antonines." Justin has been illustrated by the best 
annotators, particularly Grsevius ; and there are numerous 
editions, of which the preference is given to those of Gne- 
vius; of Hearne, 1705, 8vo; of Gronovius, 1719, and 
1760 ; of Fischer, 1757, &c. * 

JUSTjlN (surnaihed the Martyr), one of the earliest 
writers of the Christian church, was born at Neapolis, the 
ancient Sichem of Palestine, in the province of Samaria. 
His father Priscius, being a Gentile Greek, brought him 
up in his own religion, and had him educated in all the 
Grecian learning and philosophy. To complete his studies 
be travelled to Egypt, the usual tour on this occasion, as 
being the seat of the more mysterious and recondite lite« 
rature at this time : he was shewn, as he tells you, at 
Alexandria, the remains of those cells where the seventy 
translators of the Bible performed what is called the Sep- 
tuagint version. He had, from his first application to pht- 
, losophy, disliked the stoic and peripatetic i and chose the 

. > Chmufepie. — Biog. Brit. Supplement — Saxii Onomait 

« Fabric. £ibl. Ut,-^Dibdm*s Classics.— SaxU Onomast^^VMsiiit de H^dt. 

JUSTIN. 20^ 

^tet of PlatOi With whose ideas be was enainQured, and of 
which he resolved to make himself master. He viras pro* 
aacutiog this design in contanphitidn and solitary walks 
by the sea^side, as he informs ns in his ** Dialogue with 
Tcyjfrfio,'^ when. tbere.met hini<3fie day a grave and ancient 
person of a venerable aspect, who, tailing, into discourse 
upon the.subjectdf his thoughts, .turned the conversation, 
by degrees, from the fancied excellence of Platonism to 
the superior perfection of Christianity; and performed his 
part so well, as to raise an ardent curiosity in our Platonist 
U> inquire into the merits of that religion, the result of 
which was his cou version, which h&ppened about the 16 th 
year of Trajan's reign, A. C. 1 d2. 

Several of his old friends among tibe heathens were not 
1^ little troubled at the loss of so eminent a person: for 
dieir sattaiafction, therefore, he drew up an account of his 
CQoducti with the reasons of it, in order to bring them into 
the itame sentiments; Still, however, from an affection to 
the studies of bis youth, he retained the ancient dress ; 
preaching and defending the Christian religibn under his 
old pbilosojphic fffxh, the pallium, or cloak of the Grecian 
philosophers. About the beginning of Antoninus Pius's 
reign he went to Rome, and there strenuously endea- 
voured to defend and promote the Christian c4ut«; in 
which spirit finding the heretic Marcion very busy in pro- 
pagating his pernicious principles, he resolved partscutarly 
to oppose him. This heretic was the son of a bishop ^bom 
io Pontus, and, for deflowering a virgin, had been excom- 
niunicated. Upon this he fled to Rome, where he broached 
his errors; the chief of which was, '< That there ure two 
Gods, one the creator of the world, whom he supposed tp 
be J:he God of the Old Testament, and the author of evil ; 
the other a. more sovereign knd supreme being, crealoirof 
more excellent thipgs, the father of Chdst, whom he sent 
into the world to dissolve the law and the prophets, and to 
destroy the works of the oiher deity, whom he styled the* 
God of the Jews.'* Justin encountered this heretic both' 
in word and writing, . and composed a book against bis 
principles, which be also published. In the same spirit^^ 
when- the Christians came to be more. severely dealt wtth> 
traduced, defamed, and persecuted, by virtue of the stand- 
ing Jaws of the empire, Justin drew up his lirst Apiilogy * 
about.the .y«ar i40, and presented it to the emperor Ai^- 
ninus Pins, with a copy of his predecessor Adritin^s rescript. 

Vol. XIX. P 

210 J US T I N. 

commanding that the Christians should not be needlessly 
Bn<:( unjustly vexed. This address was not without its suc^^ 
cesa: the emperor, being in his own nature of a generoot 
dispositioni was* moved to give orders that the Cbristiaos 
should be treated more gently, and more regularly pro- 
ceeded against. 

Not long afterwards, Justin made a visit into the East ; 
.and| among other parts, went to Ephesus. Here he fell 
into the company and acquaintance of Trypho, a Jew^of 
great note, with whom he engaged it) a dispute that iiel<t 
for two days : the substance of which he afterwards wrote 
in a piece entitled his ** Dialogue with Trypho.'* By the 
conclusion we learn he was then ready to set sail to Epbesus^ 
He returned at last to Rome, where he had frequent con- 
ferences with one Crescens, a philosopher of some repute 
in that crty ; a man who had endeavoured to traduce thel 
CbrisrUans, and repreisent their religion under the most in-< 
fiamous character. Justin now presented his second Apo* 
^gy to; Marcfis Antoninus Philosophus, the successor of > 
Piusy aud a determined enemy to the Christians. The im- 
mediate' occasion of this, second Apology, as he himself 
inforhDs the emperor, was this r A woman at Rome bad,, 
together with her husband, lived in all manner of wantoiv- 
ness^ and,. from a vicious course of life, had been converted 
to Gluistiapity ; and. being reclaimed herself, very naturally^ 
sought .also to reclaim her husband, but at length, findings]itite obstinate, she procured a bill of divorce. The^ 
manvjien raged at this, accused her to the emperor of being> 
a Christitin. She, however, putting in a petition for leavo' 
to answer it, he relinquished that prosecution; and, falling 
upon her converter, one Ptolomeus, procured his impri-^ 
sohment and condemnation. On that occasion, Lucius, a> 
Christian,, being present, presumed to represent how hard 
it. was that an innocent and virtuous man, charged with ro 
crime, should be adjudged to die merely for bearing the > 
name of a Christian : a proceeding that must certainly be a 
reflection upon the government. These words were no 
sooner spoken than he, together with a third person, were 
sentenced to the same Yate. The severity of these pro». 
ceedings awakened Justin^s solicitude and care for the rest 
of his brethren ; and he immediately drew up his second* 
^pt>logy, in which, among other things, he made heavy 
eomplaints of the malice and envy of his antagonist Cres- 
cens. The philosopher^ irritated at this charge, procured 

JUSTIN. 311 

htitt tb be apprehended, witb six of his companions, and* 
bnnight before the prtefect 6f the ciiy. After their ex 
ttinination, this sentence was' ptoi>ounced| ' that *^ Thej 
who refuse to sacrifice to the gods, and to obey the im- 
perial' edicts, be first scourged, and then .beheaded, ac* 
cording to . the laws :" which was put in execution upon 
Justin and the rest. * This happened, according to Baro- 
nitis, A.'C. 165, not long after Justin had presented bis 
second Apology; which is said^^ therefore, in the language 
Of *those times, to have procured him the crown of mar« 

' He was the first Christian, after the days of the apostles, 
who a^ded to an unquestionable zeal and love of the gos- 
pel, the character of a man of learning and philosophy, 
both which were employed in propagating and defending 
bis principles. He stands at the head of the Christian 
Platohiidts, or those who endeavoured to reconcile the Pla- 
tonic principles with the dictates of Christianity ; and the 
consequence of this attempt Was his holding some opinions 
not altogejther agreeable to the genius of the gospel. There; 
are several valuable editionk of his works, the first of ivhich 
was that of Rob. Stephens, Paris, 1551, fol. and the best, 
are those of Maran, printed at Paris, 1742, fol. and of 
Oberthur, at Wurtzbqrg, 1777, '3 vols. 8vo. There is an 
edition of his second Apology by Hutchinson, Oxon. 1703, 
8iro; of his Dialogue with Trypho, by Jebb, London, 
1719, 8vo; of his Apologies, by Ashton, Cambridge, 1768, ' 
8vo; of his first Apology, by Grabe, Oxon, 1700; and of 
both Apologies, and his Dialogue, by Thirlby, London, 
1708, fol.' 

JUSTINIAN, the first Roman emperor of his name, and 
more celebrated for his code of laws, was nephew of Justin . 
I.- and succeeded his uncle in the Imperial throne Aug. 
1,527. Hebegan bis reiguwith the character of a most 
religious prince, publishing very severe laws against he- 
retics, and repairing ruined churches; in this spirit, he 
actually declared himself protector of the church. While 
he was thus re-establishing Christianity at home, be car^ 
ried bis arms against the enemies of the empire abroad, 
witb so much success,- that he reinstated it in its ancient 
glory. He was very happy in having the best general of 
the age, Belisarius, who conquered the Persians for him * 

I Cav«.<«LMdMr'« Worluk— Brucker.-'Saxu Oaomst, 

V 9 


ip 52S, 542^ mA jf43 ; BX^itk 533 extermin&ted the Yandids, 
and took their king Gillimer. prisoner He also recov^ed 
Africa to the empire by. ai^ew conquest; vniiquiybed the 
Goths in Italy ; and, l^tly, defeated the Moors^and tbe 3a« 
maritans. But, in the midst of these glorious successes 
the emperor was endangered by a pot^ent faction at i^me* 
Hypalius, Pompeius, and Probus, nephews of the 
emperor Anastasius, the immediate predecessor, of Justin, 
combining togiether, raised a powerful insurrectidn, in 
order to dethrone Justinian. ' The conspirator^ fovmed 
two parties, one called the Varti, and the other Veneti> 
and at length became so strong, th$t the eitoperor, in de» 
spair of being able to resist them, began to think qf quitting 
the palace; and had certainly submitted to that disgrace 
had mot the empress Theodosia, his consort^ veiled at his 
betraying so much tameness, reproached him with, bia pu«" 
sillanimity, and induced him to fortify himself againet the 
rebelis, while Belbarius and Mundus defendedihim so well, ' 
that the conspiracy was broken, and the ringleaders ca- 
pitally punished^ J 

The empirie being jnow in. the fall enjoyment of profound 
peacb and tranquillity^ Justinito made the (best use ^fit, 
oy cpllecjdng the^ imjnenae variety and njumberof 4ihe Ro* 
man laws into one body. X^^^t^i^^^^^dj he sdeoted ten of 
t^te most abte lawyers in thb . enipire } .who, revi$ing. tile 
Gregoriak),.TbeodQ$ian,. imd Henhogeoian codes, compiled 
out of th^ ohe body, calIed»"The Code," to.wbiththe 
emperor gave : his own name^ Ttys. mlty h& ceiUed: the sta-^ 
tute law,! ^s consisting pf^tiie r^scriptk of the emperors: 
but the compilation of the other part was a mtutb. more 
difficult task. It was' made up of the di^iailan^ of the 
judges aiid other, magistrates, together with tb^ tothori* 
t^tive opinions, of the .^ost eminent lawyer^ ; all which lay 
scattered, without ; any order, in above 2000 ivolnmes. 
The^e, however,, after the labour of ton y^t»$ chiefly by < 
Tribpnian^ an eminent iawyer, were redticed toithe nmki^ 
her of 50 ; and the whole design was eompleted in the year 
4i33, and tbe Jiameof ^^Digests,** OT'^^Pahdects,!'* given toiH 
Besides these, for the userchiefly of young stiidents ia die 
law, Justinian ordered four books of << &stitutes*' to be 
drawn up, by Tribonian, Dorotheus^ and Theophilus, con* 
taining an abstract or abridgement of the text of all the 
laws : and, lastly, the laws of modern date,, posterior to 
that of the former, were thrown into one volume in the 
year 541, called the "Novell®,'* or « New Code*" 


This most important transaction in die state has rendered 
Jastinian's name immortal. Hb conduct in ecclesiastical 
affairs was rash and. inconsiderate. On one occasion, 
when TheodotuS) king of Italy, bad obliged pope Agape* 
tiis to go to Constantinople^ in order to submit and make 
peace with the emperor, Justinian received him very gra«> 
ciously, but enjoined him to communicate with Anthenius^ 
patriarch of Constantinople. That patriarch being. deemed 
a heretic at Rome, the pontiff refused to obey the com* 
jmand ; and, when the emperor threatened to punish his 
disobedience with banishment, he answered, without any 
emotion,-'^ I thought I was cotae before a Christian prince^ 
but I find a Diocletian." The result was, that the hardi^^ 
ness and resolution of the pope brought the emperor to a 
submission. Accordingly Anihenius was deprived, and an 
orthodox prelate put into his place. 

After this, Justinian, resolving to take cognizance of 

the difference between the three chapters, published a re* 

script for that purpose, in form of a constitution, which 

created g^eat disturbances in the empire He also exerted 

bis authority against the attempts of the popes Sylverius 

and Vigilius, both before and after the celebration of the 

fifthgeneral council held in the year 553. Towards the latter 

end of hifflife, he fell into an erroneous opinion concern* 

ing Christ's body ; which he maintained bad never been 

corruptible, nor subject to the natural infirmities of a hu* 

man body. He carried it lso far as to prepare an edict 

against those who maintained the contrary opinion, and in* 

tended to publish it; but was prevented by his deaths 

which happened suddenly, in 565, at the age of 83, and 

softer a reign of 39 years. It veas this emperor who abo*^ 

Wished the consulate. He built a great number of churches, 

and particularly the famous Sancta* Sophia, at Constanti* 

nople, esteemed a master-piece of architecture. But the 

increasing jealousies, and the heavy burdens which^usti- 

nian imposed upon his subjects, had, some time before 

his death, destroyed all attachment to his person ; and be 

who, iii many respects, deserved the title of the last Ro-< 

man emperor, left the ^tajge unlamented and unhonoured^ 

The editions of his ^ Code," << Institntions," &c« are too 

many to be enumerated, but the best of them occur in aU' 

jaoost every catalogue. ^ 

* Ufiiverml History.-^-Oibbon's History.— Cave.— Mosheim's, but ptrticu- 
larly MilnePt, Churab UUtKff.'wheT^ his character, as « Cbristian emperor, it 
%ell deliotsted. 

514 JUST I Nil A N I. 

JUSTINIANI (St Lawrbnce), the first patriaixsh of 
Venice, was descended of a noble family, and born there, 
13SU He took the monk^s habit in the monastery of Su 
George, in Alga, before he was a deacon ; and in 1424 
%6came general of that congregation, to whom he gave an 
excellent set of rules, which were afterwards observed, and 
made him esteemed as one of their founders. Pope Euge- 
nius IV. gave him the bishopric of Venice, of which he 
was the first patriarch, from 1451. This prelate died 
Jan. 8, 1455, and was canonized in 1690 by Alexai> 
der VIII. He left several works of piety, which were 
printed together at Brescia, 1506, 2 vols, folio; and again 
at Venice, 1755, folio ; to which is prefixed his life, by his 

' JUSTINIANI (Bervard), nephew of the above, was 
born at Venice in 1408. He pursued his first studies un» 
der Guarini of Verona, and continued them at Padua, where 
he took his doctor^s degree. Notwithstanding he put on 
the senator's robe at the age of nineteen, yet he still pro* 
secuted. his studies under Francis Philelphi and George 4e 
Trebisonde, whom he took into his bouse, and retained 
there, till pope Calixtus II L sent for him to Rome, tod 
e'mployed him in several commissions. Upon his retiiril t6 
Venice, he was sent ambassador to. Lewis XL of Fran^ie, 
who made him a knight in 1461. He went afterwards seve* 
ral times ambassador to Rome from the republic ; and, in 
1467, was made commandant of Padua. He afterwards 
became a member of the council of ten, and bore the dig« 
nity of Sage GriSind no less than twenty times. In 1474, be 
was elected procurator of St. Mark, a post next to thai; of 
doge. He died in 1489. 

His speeches on different occasions have been printed, 
with his letters, and ** History of Venice," Venice, 1492, 
folio. I'his history, which has been admired as tlie first 
regular attempt of the kind, and which comes down, to 
809, may be frequently fouud without the other pieces, 
which have been suppressed. He also left ** Vita B. Laiir 
reiitii Justiniani," 1475, 4to. His life in Latin by Aotooio 
Stella was printed at Venice, 1533, 8vo. Of the same 
family, which is still honourably distinguished in Italy^' 
was the marquis Vincent Justioiani, who employed Blom- 
maert, Millan, and other?, to engrave his gallery, Rooief 

^ Moreri.— MoiheiV.-rSsxii Oiiomut. 

J U S T I N I A N I. . fi5 

I642f 2 Tols. fol. OT this splendid work some impressions, 
much inferior to the old ones, were taken since 1750. 
Another branch of the same family was the abb€r Bernardo 
Justiniani, who wrote the *^ Origin of the Military Ordefs/' 
Veniee, 1692, 2 vols. fol. in Italian, from whence the ^^ His* 
toiy of the Military Orders,^' Amsterdam, 1721, 4 vols. 8vo, 
has been extracted; to which is added, ^^The History of 
the Religious Orders,^' Amsterdam, 1716, 4 vols. 8vo. ' 

JUSTINIANI (AuGUSTiN), bishop of Nebo or Nebbio, 
one of the most learned men of his time, was descended 
from a branch of the same noble family with the former ; 
and born at Genoa, in 1470. After having resided some 
time at Valencia, in Spain, he entered into the order of 
St Dominic, at Paris, in 1488; when he took the name 
of Augustin in the room of Pantaleon, which be received 
at his baptism. Soon after he distingaished himself by his 
learning, and knowledge in the languages, which be ac- 
quired in a Tery short time ; so that Leo X. named him to 
the bishopric of Nebo, in the island of Corsica, in which 
capacity he assisted in the fifth council of Lateran, ^ber^ 
lie opposed some articles of the concordat between Framce 
•nd the court of Rome. The revenue of his diocese 
being small, he petitioned the pope* for a better; but Fran- 
cis I. who was a patron of learned men, drew him to France^ 
by making him bis almoner, with a good pension ; and he 
was also regius professor of Hebrew for five years at Paris^ 
Returning to Genoa in 1522, be'found every thing in con* 
fiiaion, by the sedition of the Adornes ; on which he went 
to visit his diocese, and discharged all the duties of a good 
prelate, till 1531. In a voyage from Genoa to Nebo, be 
perished, together with the vessel, in which he yras em- 
barked, 1536. By bis last will, he left his library to the 
republic of Genoa. 

He composed some pieces, the most considerable of which 
is, ^' Psalterium HebrsBum, GrsBcum, Arabicum, & ChaL- 
dttUBij cum tribtts Latinis interpretationibus & glossis." This 
was the first psalter of the kind which had appeared in 
print, and he intended it as a prelude to a similar edition 
of the whole Bible, but he lived only to execute this part, 
which appeared at Genoa in 1 5 16. Tiraboschi, forgetting 
tilt Complutensian polyglott, calls this the first at- 
tempt of the kind. It is not a work of very rare occur- 

I Gbaufepie.^-Nictron, toI. VII.— -Ginsneni Hist. Utt. d'Jtalie. 


renoC) .there being SQOO cofMes prioted^ arid 50 upet 
vellum, which, however, bear a high price. There CBmm 
out also *^ Annales- de Republica Genoensi,'* at Geoo^ 
in 1537; but this was posthumous, and imperfect* There 
is likewise ascribed to him a translation of Maunoiiidk 
^' Moreh Nevochim.'* He was the editor of ^VPorcheti 
Victoria ad versus impios Hebrseos,*' Paris, 1520, folJ' 

JUVENAL (Decius JuKiua), the Roman satirist, was 
bom about the beginning of the emperor CiaudiUsfs. reign, 
at Aquinum, a town in Campaiiia, stiic^ ^famous, for ikft 
birth-place of Thomas (thence styled) Aqtinas. Juveiial!s 
father was probably a fr^ed man, who, being rich, gave 
him a liberal education ; and, agreeably to the taste of the 
times, bred him up to eloquence. In this he madtj a 
great progress, first under Fronto the grammarian^ and 
then, as is generally, conjectured, pnder^uintiUa.n ; after 
which he attended the bar, where he made a distii^guished 
figure for many years, as we learn from some of ^Martial^s 
epigrams. In this profession he had improved his fortune 
and interest at Rome, before he turned his thoughts to 
poetry; the very style of . which, iu his satires, speaks a 
long habit of declamation : '^ subactum redolent declama* 
torem," say the critics. He is supposed to Iiave been 
above forty years of age, when he recited his first essay to 
a small audienc^ of his friends ; but, being encouraged by 
their applause, he ventured a publication,, in which Parisy 
a player, and Poroitian^s favourite, was satirized; this 
minion complained to the emperor, who sent the poet iniio 
banishment, under pretence of giving him the oomaiaBd 
of a cohort, in the army quartered at Pentapohs, a- city 
upon tlie firontiers of Egypt and Lyhia. After Domitian's 
death) he returned to Rome^ ^ored of his. propensity to 
attack the characters of those iu power nuder arbitrary 
princes, and^ indalge in personal reflections upon living 
characters. His 13th satire, addressed to Calvinu$, was 
written U. C. 871, in the Sd year of Adrian, whenJuveoal 
was abovejseventy years old I and as it is agreed that he 
attained to his eightieth year,, be tnust have died about 
the lltbyear of Adrian. 

In his person he was of a large stature, which made some 
think him of GFallic extraction. We meet with nethiog 

* Tiraboschi.— Geo. Dibt.— M«reri.— ^ict. Hist, 

J U V E:iN;A L. ^17 

concerning kis ifaoralrfloJ Svay /bf lifit.*; but^ by die whfAe 
teoor.of his wfitibgK^ fac; seems iobsyfe beeii anian of acutie 
olyser^ailton, and a friend to liberty and virtue, but at. the 
same time miiy, hejuttly charged tyitfa a iideiitious boldness 
in hia expressions, vin point of classicai* merit, he is the 
last of the Roman poeis, and after faini' Ilomati poetry ra- 
pidly degenerated. ' The mo8t.?alnable edition of this poet, 
without Persius, is that of Ropefti,' [Printed at Leipsic, in 
1 80 1 , 2 vols. 8 vo. But most generally Juvenal and Persiin 
are printed together^ of which there are many valuable 
editions, particularly the Variorums, the Delphin, those by 
Henninius, Hawkey, Sandby, &c;' 

JUV.ENCUS {Caws Vectius. Acwjiunus), one of the 
first Christian poets, was born of an illustrious family in 
Spain, and lived, according to Jerom, in the timla ofCen- 
stantine, about the year 330. He wrote th^ ** Life of 
Christy" in Latin verse, in four books, following the* four 
evangelists faithfully, and* almost word by word ; but his 
poetry is in a bad style, and his Latin not pure. This 
work, which is entitled '^ Historian Evangelicse, lib. iv.*' may 
be found in the library of the Fathers, the ^/ Latin Poets^' 
of Venice, 1 502, 4to, and the ** Corpus Poetarum.** The 
best edition of it separately is that of Rome, 1792, 4to.* 

' JUXQN (William), a loyal and worthy-English prelate* 
the son of Richard Juxon of Chichester in Sussex, was boka 
in 1582, and educated, upon the foundation, at Merchant 
Taylors* school, whence he was elected a fellow of St. 
John?s eoUe^e, Oxford, in 1598. Here, as his intentions 
were for the bar, he studied civil law, and took the degree 
of bachelor in that faculty, July. 5, 160^, having before en^ 
tered himself a student in (}ray*si4nn. But for sonie reasons 
not assigned by his biographer, he entirely changed his 
mind,' and after having gone thi'ough a course of divinity 
studies, took orders, and in the latter end of 1609 was pre«- 
sented by his college, which stands in that parish, to the 
viearage of St. Gileses, Oxford. Here he was much ad- 
mired for his plain, practical style of preaching. In 1614, 
^ we are told, he left this living, pt'obably on being presented 
to the rectory of Somerton in Oxfordshire, in the east wili^- 
dow of the chancel o^ which church are his arms ; but it is 
equally probable that he might hold both. It' is certain 

' Crusiot's Hitt of the Roman Poets.-*>Saxii Oaomast — Dibdin's Classics. 
< Fabric. Bibl. Lat. Med.— Morerl.— Diet. Hitt-^Sasii Ohomast. 


Aat his connexion with Oxford continued ; and wben^ m 
1 62 1 , Dr. Laud resigned the office of president of St. John's 
college, Mr. Juxon was chosen in his room, chiefly by his 
influence. In December of the same year, he proceeded 
doctor of laws, and in 1626 and 1627 served the office of 
▼ice* chancellor of the university. About this time his ma- 
jesty Charles I. appointed him one of his chaplains in or- 
'dinary, and collated him to the deanery of Worcester, 
along with which be held a prebend of Chichester. In all 
these promotions, he was chiefly indebted to Dr. Laud, 
then bishop of London, who had a high regard for him^ 
and, as dean of the king's chapel, recommended him to^be 
clerk of the closet, into which office Dr. Juxon was sworn 
July 10, 1632. Laud's object in this last promotion is 
said to have been, that ^* be might have one that he might 
trust near his majesty, if he himself grew weak or infirm.'* 
By the same interest Dr. Juxon was elected bisbbp of 
ilereford in 1633, and was made dean of the king's chapel, 
but before consecration was removed to the bishopric of 
London, in room of Laud, now archbishop of Canterbury, 
and was also sworn of the. privy council. He entered on 
'bis bishopric Nov. 5 of the above year, and although his 
diocese was much displeased with the conduct of his pre* 
decessor, bishop Juxon, by his mild temper and urbanity, 
obtained the respect of all parties. 

It was, however, his misfortune, that the archbisbop car- 
ried his esteem for him too far, and involved him in a 
scheme which Laud vainly fancied would raise the power 
and consequence of the church. This was no other than 
to place churchmen in high political stations ; 'an4 hy way 
of experiment, he prevailed on the king to appoint bishop 
Juxon to the office of lord high treasurer, to which he was 
accordingly promoted in 1635. This office no churchman 
had held since the time of Henry VII. and although that 
was not such a very distant period, as not to afford some- 
thing like a precedent to the promotion, yet the sentiments 
4>f:the nation were now totally changed, and the noble fa- 
milies, from which si)ch an officer was expected to have 
•been chosen, were not more astonished than displeased to 
see the staff put iirto the hands of a clergyman scarcely 
known out of the verge of his college until called to the 
bishopric of London, which he had not filled two years. 
Notwithstanding this, it is allowed on all bands that Dr. 
Juxon conducted himself in svicb a manner, as to give no 

J u X O.N. eif 

f^Senee to any parky ; while, in the omoag^ndeot of official 
coocecnsy be was so prudent and ceoonoifticalt as cpD8ider<r 
«bly jto benefit the exobeqner* Tbere oaundt, indeed, be 
a greater proof of bis good cond^ic^ than 4^i$i that wbQQ 
^the republican party ransacked ev^y office for causes of 
inpctacbinenty sequestration, and deatb^ tbey found no- 
thing to object to bisbpp Juxon. He was not, .bQwever, 
made for the tia]ies ; and when he saw the storm approach* 
i»g which was: to overset the whole edifice of church und 
^ute, be resigned his office. May 17, 1641, just after the 
(execution of the earl pf Stjrafl^rd, in consequence of the 
king's passing the bill of attainder, contrary. to Juxon's ex«' 
presis asMl earnest .advice. 

, . On his resignation, he retired to his palace at Fulbani, 
^bere be continued for some time, not only, undif^torbed, 
but sometimes visited by the greatest persons of the oppo- 
site party, although he remained firm in his loyalty to the 
king, f^ho consdlted biqai upon many occasions* . Sir Philipr 
Warwick, .being employ^ on one of those occasions, de- 
sired he might bring the bishop himself to his majesty, for 
fear of a. mistake in the message, or lest the bishop should 
not speak freely to him. To which the "king replied, ^^Go 
as I bid you ; if he will speak freely to any body, be will 
speak freely to you. . This I will say of him ; I nev«r got 
his opinion freely in my life, but, when I had it, I was ever 
the better for it." Bishop Juxon also attended upon his 
majesty at the treaty in the Isle of Wight in 1648, by the 
consent of the parliament ; and by the king's particular 
desire, waited upon him at Cotton-house in Westminster 
on Jan. 21 following, the day after the commencement of 
his trial. During the whole of this trial, he attended ithe 
king, who. declared that he was the greatest support apd 
comfort to him on that occasion. He followed his^.royal 
master also to the scaffold, and when he was preparing 
himself for the block, ' Juxon said to him, *^ There is, sir, 
but one stage more, whicb, though turbulent aud trouble- 
some, is yet a very short one. Consider, it will soon ca^ 
you a great way ; it will carry yoi^ from earth to heaven ; 
and there you shall find, to your great joy, the prize to 
which you hasten, a crown of glory.*' — ^VI go,", said the 
king, ^ froQi a corruptible to an incorruptible crown, wheire 
no disturbance can be." '^ You are exchanged," replied 
the bishop, ** from a temporal to an eternal crown ; a good 


It was rettMM-hy the ragiddieflf^ Ibiii; the kiog^ the 
moBiefit befoti^>lMf sti^hed' (»it hifti ueek to the execa^^ 
lioDeri si»id to Jiixdii^ with -ft'-vety eatue^ accettt, the 
Buigle w6rd''R£M^lfBfift. Great mysteries were ccwae* 
queotly supp6titA\o- be c(meea^ed liiider that es^ptessioii i 
md the gtoerals vebetnently msisted with the prelate, that 
he ftheuld iofbrm* Aem of Mie king*s meatxing. Juitbn toUd 
tbem^'thit'thekittg having (vequentlycfattrged him to in* 
etilcaite <dii his ^n the foi^ii^iiess of hk murderers, had 
taheii this bjpportiinityy in the last moment of his li/e, when 
hilp comaaattdi, b^snijjjyposed, would be regarded as sacked 
and invicAabte, to" reiterate that desire ; aiid that his mild 
spirit thus terminated its present course^ by an act of be* 
nevolenfc^ towards his greatest eiiemies. — Dr. Juxon was 
also one of those 'who aceompanied the kiog^s body to 
Windsor, but was tiot permitted to read the funeral service^ 

Seine ttoifths after this, when the commonwealth was 
estabKsfaed, he was deprived of his bishopric, and retired 
to his private estate, the' manor of Little Compton, in 
Gloucestershire, where he^ passed his time free from mo«i 
, testation, and in the occasional enjoyment of field sports^ 
to which he was rather more addicted than beciame his rank 
in -the church. At the restoration he was nominated arch^ 
bishop of Cafiterbnry, m Sept. 1660, and at the colrona* 
tion- placed the crown on the head of Charles II. H^wasr^ 
man of a liberal and princely spirit. During the short pe^ 
riod that - he enjoyed the archbishopric, he expended ift 
btiilding and repairing Lambeth and CrOydon palaces^ 
nearly 15,000i?. ; and augmented the vicarages, the great 
tithes of which Were approplriated to his see, to the amount 
of 1 lOS/. In the-deeline of life he was much afflicted with 
the stone, of which he at length' died June 4, 1663, in hit 
^ghty^first year, and was interred with the greatest so- 
lemnity in the chapel of St John's college, Oxford, n€fa¥ 
the remains of archbishop Laud. To this college he had 
ever been a friend^ and was at last a munificent benefac* 
tor^ > bequeathing 7000/. t6 be laid out in the increase of 
fellowships. His other charitable bequests amounted td 
5000/. Hid contempors»ries unite in praising his piety^ 
learning, charity, moderation of temper, and steady loyalty* 
As a divine he has left little by which we can appropriate 
his roeritsi There is but one setmon of his el^taifi't; eti^ 
titled'*^ The Stibjeets' sorrow; or Lamentations upon theL 
death of Britain's Josiah, king Charles,'* 1649, 4t(), an^ 

J U X O N, Ml 

*< Some eoDsi^cmtioDB upon the Act ci. ^^niforjpa^ty: s inrith 
nn ejcpedient for the.BtrtirffLCtion of tbe 'devgy wtthlD the 
IHroirinGe of Cantorbury. By a Servant of the God of 
peacoi" Load. l^H, 4to. It is also said that he was the 
siuthor of ^* A Catalogue of the most vendiUe Veeka m 
Enghndy^ a well-known 4tO| printed in 1€UI9, aad signed 
W. Lpndon^ in the dedication ; but whoever pemses thai 
dedicatioh wil( perceiire it cannot be from the peniof 091? 


JLbBOT .(0&< B£KJAMIN), an ingenious and learned 
writer^ and a judicious and useful preacher, son of the wer. 
Mr. Thomas Ibbot, vicar of SwaS bani> . and rector of 
Beachamwell, 901 Norfolk, was born at Qeacban»weU in 
1B$Q. He wa^ admitted of Glare-ball, Cambridgei, July. 
23, ledS,, under the tuition of the rev. Mr. Laughtoa^.a. 
gentleman justly celebrated for his eminent attaihmcj^ta in 
pbil^aophy and mathematics, to whom the very l^eamed. 
pr^ Samuel Clarke generously acknowledge.d himself to be 
much indebted for many of the notes apd illustralioas 
inserted in his Latin version, of ^^ Rohault*s Philc^ophy.'* 
Mr. Ibbot bayipg taken the degree of B, A. 1699,. i^moved 
tpt Corpus^Christi Jn 1700, and was made a scholar of 
that house. He commenced M* A. in 1 703, and waa elected 
ii^to a Norfolk fellowship, in 1706^ but resigned it next 
year, having then happily obtained the patronage of arch- 
iHsbop Tenispn* That excellent primate first took him 
into his family ip the . capacity of his librarian, . and soon 
after appointed him his chaplain. 

1 Biogt Brit.-— Le Neve's Lires of the Archbishops.— 'Atb. Ox. toI, II.— 
Home's Hi8toFy.--Sir Philip Warwick's Menoifs.— J^aad's life and Diary.-- 
Clarendciii's History. 

Mt^ ^ I B B O t . 

Ill 1708 the archbishop collated Ibbot W tb^ treasurer* 
ihip of the cathedral churc4i of Wells. He also presented 
him to the rectoiy of the ' united parishes of 8t Vedast^ 
alias Foster's^ and St. Michael leOne^ne. George I.- ap- 
pointed him one of his chaplains in ordinaiym 17 1^';* dnd 
when his majesty visited Cambridge, in Oct. 1717, Mr. 
Ibbot was by royal mandate created D. D. In 17 IS and 
1714, by the appointment of the archbisbop, then the sole 
surviving trustee of the hon. Robert Boyle, our author, 
preached the course of sermons for the lecture founded 
by him, and desired in his last will, that they should be 
printed. They bear evident marks of the solidity of bis 
judgment, and are well adapted to his professed design of 
obviating by just reasoning, the insidious suggestions and 
abusive censures of Collins, in bis ** Discourse of Free- 
thinking.** In these sermons the true notion of the exer- 
cise of private judgment, or free-thinking in matters of 
religion, is fairly and fully stated, the principal objections 
against it are answered, and the modem art of free-think- 
ing, as treated by Collins, is judiciously refuted. Some 
time after, he was appointed assistant-preacher to Dr. Sa- 
muel Clarke, and rector of St. Paurs, Shadwell. Upoti 
his being installed a prebendary in the collegiate chureh 
of St Peter, Westminster, in 1724, he retired to Cam- 
behvell, for the recovery of his health, which had been 
impaired by the fatigue of constant preaching to very nu- 
merous congregations, at a considerable distance from 
each othef. Here he died April 5, 1 725, in the forty-fifth 
year of his age, and was buried in Westminster- abbey. 
His sermons at Boyle*s lecture, were published in 1727, 
8vo, and " Thirty Discourses on Practical Subjects** wcri 
selected from bis manuscripts by his friend Dr. Clarke, 
and published for the benefit of his widow, 2 voh. 8vo, for 
which she was favoured with a large subscriptian. In 
17 J 9, Dr. Ibbot published a translation 'of Piiflehdorff's 
treatise ** De habitu religionis Christians ad vitam eivi- 
lem,'* or of the relation between church and state, and how 
far Christian and civil life affect each other; with a preface 
giving some account of the book, and its use with regard 
to the controversies in agitation at that time, particularly ' 
the Bangorian. In 1775 were published, " Thirty -six 
discourses on Practical Subjects,** 2 vols. 8vo. This is a 
re-publication of the thirty discourses selected by Dr.. 
Clarke, with the addition of six occasional discourses, and 

I B B O T. 22S 

a life of the author, by Dr. flexiiian. There are soiae 
verses of Dr. Ibbot^s, in Dodsley's CoUection» vol. V. en- 
titled << A fit of the Spleen," in imitation of l^akspeave.^ 

IGNATIUS {sarnamed Thbophorus), one of the apos- 
tolical fathers of the church, was born in Syria,* educated 
under the apostle and evangelist St. John, intimately ac« 
quainted with some other of the apostles, especially St 
Peter and St. Paul; and being fully instrueted in the doc^ 
tnnes of Christianity, was^ for his eminent parts and piety, 
ordained by St. John ; and confirmed about the year 67, 
bishop of Antioch by these two apostles, who first planted 
Christianity in that city, where the disciples were first 
called Christians. In this important seat he continued to 
sit upwards of forty years, both an honour and safeguard 
to the Christian religion ; in the midst of very stormy and 
tempestuous times, undaunted himself^ and unmoved with 
the prospect of suffering a cruel death. So much seems 
to be certain in general, though we have no account of 
any particulars of his life till the year 107, when Trajait' 
the emperor, elated with his victory over the Scythian^ 
and Daci, came to Autipch to prepare for a war against 
the Partbians and Armenians. He entered the city with< 
the pomp and solemnities of a triumph; and» as he had 
already commenced a persecution against the Christians in 
other parts of the empire, he now resolved to carry it on* 
Here. However, as he was naturally mild and humane,' 
though he ordered the laws to be put in force against them, 
if convicted, yet he forbad any extraordinary means to be* 
used for discovering or informing against them. 

Ii\ this state of affairs, Ignatius voluntarily presented 
bijD^lf to the emperor ; and it is said, ihere passed along 
conversation between them, in which the emperor express- 
ing, a surprise how he dared to transgress the laws, the 
bishop took the opportunity to assert his own innocence, 
and the power which God had given Christians over evil 
spirits ; declaring that ^' the gods of the Gentiles were no- 
better than daemons, there being but one supreme Deity, 
who made the world, and his only begotten son Jesus 
Christ, who, though crucified under Pilate, had yet de« 
fitroyed him that had the power of sin, that is, the devil, 
and would ruin the whole power and empire of the dsemons, 
and tread it under the feet of those who carried God in 
their hearts.'* For this bold avowal of his principles, com- 

* Life as above.— Masters's Hist, of C. C. C.C. 


blMd with.A ^efimce of.hQaih9iUftin> be was casfc iota 
pwpQ, .»ad patience pa»&ed upon hii», that be .sboald he 
fCi^nedb0U0d by.9picliers:to Rouq^, aud there tbrown as a 
prey to wUd beast;^. It may: seem strange tbat tbey should 
seod W: old man. by land, at a great expenoe^ attended 
with soldierSi: from Syria to Home, instead, of casting him 
tpthelions at Antioeb; hut it is, said, that Tnyan did this 
0n purpose tojx^ example of bim^ as of a ringleader 
of the sect, and . to deter the Christians from preaching 
fuid spreading their religion ;. and for tiM^same reason he 
sent him: to be executed* at Rome, where there were many 
Cbristianf^ and which, as it was .the capital of the world, 
90 was id theheadrqiiarters of.all religious sects. After all, 
thi^ part of his semsence was a particular cruelty, and above 
what the laws' required, and: consequently such as might 
not be expected' from. Trajan. But, in our inartyr'scase, 
he miglit not improbably be persuaded to. act contrary to his 
Mtorai diApeflitUH) :by those about him, who began to per-* 
ceiv» thftjt Chcbtiafiiiy, if it prevaiieid, would prove the 
tmB of their oreligioo. Ignatius was so far froin. being dis-^ 
miyed^ thai hc;.heartily rejoiced. <al the falal decree* '^ I 
lihiiok thee,' d Lord^?*^^ys.he, f^ that thou^ hast conde- 
scietided to bbnour.nie.wiiih thy love^ and hast thi^oght me 
worthy,: with thy. apostle St Patil^. to be iron- 
chains.'* With > these mords lie, cheerfully embraced hi» 
cl)ains ; I aikd. having frequeetly. prayed for iiis church, and 
rmommeaded it; to. the; divine oare^and provideooc^ he de«« 
livered up himself into the hands of hia keepers. These 
were ten soldiers,, by whom be was first conducted to Se* 
leuoia, a po«t lof Syria, at about sixteen miles distaDcet the 
place where Paul and Barnabas set sail for Cyprus* ^ Ar» 
riving at Smyrna, in Ionia, Ignatius went to visit Poly- 
carp, /bishop of that -place, and was himself visited by tbtt 
clergy of the Asiatic churches round the country. In re* 
turn for. thabt kindness, he wrote letters to several ichurchesy 
as the Ephesians, Magnesians, Trallians, besidea. the Ro- 
maOs, for their instruction and establisbmeot in the faith ; 
one of ^hese- was addressed to tlie Christians at RoMe, to 
acquaint them, with his present state and passionate desire 
not to be hindered in tbat course of martyrdom which he 
was now hastening to accomplish. 

His guard, a little impatient at their stay, set sail with 
him for Troas,, a noted city of the lesser Pbrygta, pot far 
from the ruins of old Troy ; where^ at his arrival, he was 

I Q N A T 1 U 9. Wf 

mwk ffe£reM^ wjttli thf^ mfj be r^ei?ed of tke p«rPi9<^»p 
4Mm ce»9^ng in the cHurcJbi of Antioph. fiither 9>ko 9f9V9r 
r9il ohurqbes Aeot iti^ vi^s^eiiigeri to p^jtb^iir resfn^ctf 10 
tiioi, 9^i b^9€i9 l;po i^ 4i§p9tpb|3ci ^wo epi»deM^ one to th0 
cb»rch of PbiUdeJpbi»> aod ibeoAber t^ tfaat of Smyrn«k; 
Md tog^bcvr mtib db^ ^Bti as Eu^ebiui relates, be wrotf 
ffiy^tMy <o Polyc^p, iecw^i|Be,udiag to hit^ (b^ cut Uki 
^pePMof) of tbe ^^rcj^ of Antjocb. AU Ai§ wbile ki^ 
)(eeper9 Mated bim very orpeHy and barbanouily. Qe comi- 
plains of it bifO«elf ; ** From Syria even to Roine^'' %fyB 4#^ 
^^ both ^y sen ayid bjnd, I figbt with bem» i nig^ ftud dl^f 
I im obtained to jtbe lec^4ir4s| wbich ia my milil^^ry gmrd» 
wbo, tb^ kinder Y «in i^ tj;;^ «re tbe more qruei wi 
#er«etOfliie." And yet it ja evident^ i;bVtt|i^ wSkpH 
him tp be visited by Cbristians, and to give 4iep iomru^r 
tiiMiPs ^ and writ^ epistles 49 several cUies throu|^ whicb be 
p^aed» Stut hi$ owa ^ccouBt of tbe m^itter ^^f^fiin^ tbtn 
, appsifienlt dilfioulty ; the wor4i implying, li^at M^ r^ffieof 
made money of him this ^y, beiog hf^soipely reivardeid 
for tjtiiji perAifiaion by tbe Cbristians wbo re^opfted to bim, 
eikhoqgh their savage tee^per$ induced tlieffi'to use hw tbt 
ivof9e tor it. Froiod Tro«L9 they sailed t^ Neepoli9> e majeir 
t|ii»e $owd9 io Macedonia, i^hfnce to Philippic a j^oiata 
fs^ony, iiiFbere itbey irer# e.iMertaioed wit;h rii ii|i«ginabli9 
jjEKidDeaa wd ex>wrtesy, «Qd conducted forw^ds on tbeif 
JQorney, patsvag oo foot ^br^w^gb Macedonia end £piru«9 
till libey came to EpMwrun^ a city of DaloDMJm where 
agaiA tfiki^^g idiipping, ^ey sailed through the AdrJAtip^ 
»ed arcived at KhegioiBi a :port town iia Italy ; directittg 
Ibeir cooroe ibenoe through ^ Tyrri^^eniao sea to Puteoli^ 
v^epce Ignatiea 4«Aired to ifvoceed by land, ambitMMis tg 
trace ^e saais way by whi^h ^^. Paul went to Rome ; but 
this wish was not complied wilb« In a^oiit {twenty-four 
boiiffS, howeveer, a bri^k mod owvey^od tbeia to Ostta at 
the .moMAfa of the Tiber, aboat «itte0|i miles from Rome* 

Whe €hriolkxMi at Rome, d^^Ly e^cpteetiog hjs arrival, had 
come out :to meet and eateruin biiii» and accordingily rei« 
eeived him arith aa /e%ual mixture of joy and aoRKiw.: but 
Hftea same of tbem i^imated, that possibly tbe popolaoi 
mgbt be dissoaded irom desiring his death, bo expressed 
a pious indignation, iaUieatAQg them to oast no obstaciea in 
bif( way, nor do aivy thing (ha^ anight hinder him» Aow be 
w^4iaBtening to his crown. Tbela^rval beiore his marf 

Vol. XIX. Q 


tyrdom was spent in prayers for the peice and prosperity 
of the church. That bis pantsbnient might be the more 
pompous and public, one of their solemn festivals, the Sa« 
turnalia, was chosen for bis execution ; when it was their 
custom to entertain the people with the conflicts of gladia* 
tors, and the bunting and fighting with wild beasts, Ac* 
cordingly, Dec. 20, in the year 107^ or as some think in 
116, he was brought out into the amphitheatre; and the 
lions, being let loose upon bim, quickly dispatched their 
meal, leaving nothing but a few of the hardest of bis bones. 
These remains were gathered up by two deacons who bad 
been the companions of his journey, transported to Anti* 
och, and interred in the cemetery, without the gate, but 
afterwards, by command of the emperor Theodosius, were 
removed to the Tycheon, a temple within the city, now 
consecrated to the memory of Ignatius. Thus far all his* 
torians concur ; but the pretended translation of these re- 
lics to Rome, and other places, must be classed among 
the fables of the early Romanists. 

His epistles are very interesting remains of. ecclesiastical 
antiquity on many accounts. He stands at the bead of 
those Antenicene fiiihers, who have occasionally delivered 
their opinions > in defence of the true divinity of Christ, 
whom he calls the Son of God, and his eternal word. He 
is also reckoned the great champioa of the episcopal order, 
a^ distinct and superior to that of priest and deacon. He 
is constantly produced as an instance of the continuation 
of supernatural gilfts, after the time of the apostles, parti- 
cularly that of divine revelation, but the miracles imputed to 
him are of very doubtful authority. The most important 
use of bis writings respects the authenticity of the Holy 
Scriptures, to which be frequently alludes, in the very ex- 
pressions which are extant. 

There arje silso some spurious writings attributed to Igna- 
tius, which are accurately .examined by Dupin and others. 
Of the. genuine seven epistles, the best editions are, that 
of AtnsterdaiP) 1 697, fol. with remarks by archbishop Usher 
aiid Pearson ; apd that by M. Cotelier, in his <* Patrea 
Apostolic!,** Greek and Latin. These seven epistles are 
addressed to the Smymeans, St Polycarp, the Ephesians, 
Aiagnesians, Pbiladelphians, Tiallians, and Romans. They 
are also excellently translated, and make part of archbishop 
Wake*s^< Genuine Epistles of the Apostolical Fathers,^* 

I ia R E. 2ii 

1737, 8vo/ fburih edit where there ift a y^luaUe iotrodoc* 
toiry chapter on the history and writings of Ignatius.* 

IHRE (John), professor of rhetoric and politics in the 
university of Upsal, was bom in March 1707, and on ac* 
count of the early death of his fadier, chiefly educated 
under his grandfather, then archbishop of UpsaL In 1730 
he set out on his travels to improve hioiself by the com- 
pany and conversation of learned men. In 173 3. he re* 
turned to Upsal, where he was elected a member of the 
academy of sciences. In 1737 he was made public profes- 
sor, of poetry, and in 1748 he was appointed by the king 
professor of rhetoric and politics ; an office, the duties of 
which he discharged for forty years with great reputation. 
In 175^ king Adolphus Frederic raised him to the rank of 
a counsellor of the chancery ; two years after to that of 
patrician; and in 1759 conferred on him the order of the 
polar star. He died in 1780. In 1756 he undertook a 
Sueco- Gothic Lexicon, and began to arrange the materials 
which he had been preparing for the purpose. In 1766 
he published a '* Lexicon Dialectorum,*' in which Jie ex- 
plained and illustrated obsolete words, still used in the 
provinces ; and in 1769 his <^ Glossarium Sueco- Gothicum^' 
was published in 2 vols, folio. He was the author also. of 
an explanation of the old catalogue of the Sueco-Gothic 
kings, to which are added the old West-Gothic Laws. In 
his dissertations ** De Runorum Antiquitate, Patria, Ori- 
gine, et Occasu,^* he asserts that the Runic writing was 
formerly used in the'greiuer part of Europe, was intro«* 
duced into Sweden about the sixth centurv, and became 
entirejy extinct in the beginning of the fifteenth. He wks 
possessed of a sound judgment and a retentive memory; 
and so clearly were his ideas arranged, that he had nev^ 
any need to correct wliat he bad composed*' 

ILIVE (Jacob), was a printer, and a son of a printer; 
but he applied himself to letter-cutting in 1730, and car** 
ried OB a foundery and a printing-house together. He waf 
an expeditions compositor, and was said to know the letteri 
by the touch; but being not perfectly sound in mind, pro«» 
duced- some strange works. In 1751 be published a pre* 
tended translation of ^^ The Book of Jasber ;'^ said to have 
been made by one Alcuin of Britain* The account given 

1 LKc bj Cave.— JortinN Remarks on Beclesisstical History. ^-MHstifS.. 
Church History. — Dr. Horsley's Letters to Pn€ttley---"Li[fdner't Wwltt. 
t Diet. Hist— Rms's Cyclopcdia.--Saxu 0«|^ft« 

Q 2 

2li I L I y £• 

of tlie tMisMkftk is Midi g\mng absurdities ; bul di« pub- 
lication^ in i«ct» was secretly wrkten by him, and pnnlei * 
off by night. H« pubKshed^ in 17 S3, an Of»tiois in- 
teflded to prove tbe ptoftsility of worlds, and asserting tfm 
thvi earth is hell) that the souls of men are apostate angek, 
and ihat the fire to punish those oonfined to this worM «a 
the day of jndgMent wiU be inimateriaL This was written 
in 1799, and spoken afterwards at Joiners- hail, puvsmust 
td the will of his mother \vho bad held the same extniar<- 
dinars opinions* In this strange performance Mae antbor 
unteiis his deistical principles, and takes wo small liberty 
with ^M sacred ScrtptureS| especially the character of 
Mbseit. Emboldened by this first advaitare^ he deter- 
iWied to become the pnblio teacher of infidelity, or, as be 
oalls it, <* The religien of natnre**' For this purpose, he 
llired the nse of Carpenters'-ball, wfae^e, for some cow- 
sMetable tiifte) he delivered his oraitions, which consiswd 
cbiefly of scraps fi'Otti Tindal, and ^dber similar wriiefB. 
In the course of the same year, MtSy appeared si second 
pamphlet called '' A Dialogue between a Doctor of tbe 
Church of England and Mr. Jacob Hire, upon the snhjwct 
of the oration." This strange oration is highly praised in 
Holweirs ^trd part of ^ Interesting Events relatsng to 
bengal.'* For publishing '< Modest Remarks on ilie laie 
bishop filierh^k*s Sermon^," Mive wasconfined in CHerimn* 
-weU-bridewell ftom Jurne 15, 1756, till June W, 1756^ 
' during which perrod he publtshed ^ Reaions offered for 
the Reformatioti of the House of Correction in ClerkesH 
#eM," &c. 1757, and projected several other reforffnng 
treatises, enumerated in Genghis <^ Britiidi Topoem^p^y^- ^ 
iiehet^ is ulso a memorandum, communicated by Mr. fiow- 
- yer, of IMve's attempt to restore the company dl Stationers 
to their primitive constitution. He diedin 1763. ^ 

ILLTRICUS (MATtBiAB f LacK;% or FaAiiKX>VHta)4f.but 
trho Latinized his JMtme into Fiaccus iLLYRrdns^ beeause 
it fVaiive of Albona 6t Albana in Illyria^ was bom MavdhrS, 
A^BfX>. He was instructed in grammar and tbe ctassias kf 
Egnaiiids at Venice, and ga^^ the preference to 'divmitryr'as 
a professhsn^ Not being able, however, to maintain ilie 
i^xpenaes ^of nnii'erMty eduoation, he intended 4k> tlnMr 
' |ttit»eif into a nioaasiefy, but happening to ^considt urtsb a 
r^relatton of bis mother's, who was provincial of the Cor4e- 

V'^^>cho]s'8Bb«7a4r~^ib(m^«HaU4)f Dissenting ^. . 

ILtYmiOUS. tt9 

Imrtj mnd wtio bad begun le tee tbfongb tbd .«rroii f f 
jMipety/ this pecaoii prevailed witb Fksius to ]«y aaide jdl 
tiftoughts ^ tbe monastic lifei and gainta Genaany, wbe«e 
Jtisknowledgeof Greek and Hebramr wQuld procure 'bim. a 
Maintenance until be bad oompieted Ua tbeeli^pkal atodifs. 
f laciot accordingly took this adFice^ went to fi^ in 
ii30y and) after a few aftontbs 8tay> jvettt to Tnbingeay 
«rbere he remained until I541| and then remoYed to Wit- 
tenbei^^y to complete bia studies under Luther and Me* 
ianctbon^ tbe latter of wbom found bim aome employmettt 
in the unifBerpiQr, and was tbe means of veUeving bis mind 
. from anxious doubts respecting some ef the fundamealal 
fMrincipIes of the neformed religion, reapeoting the nature 
of MU) tbe wrath of God, and predestination. 

He was thus employed when .all the scbckola of Saafiog^ 
were dispersed by tbe war^ on which, Flacius went to 
Srufiswick, where he adjuired great reputation by bis 
iectores. In 1547 be returned to his former employment 
^at Wittenberg, and here £r&t began bis dil&rences with 
^is bvetbren on tbe subject of tbe Jnterim^ that famous 
iedict of Charles V. which was to be observed witb tbe 
nrtielesof religion then in dispute, uutil they should be 
iletermiaed by a council, and therefore was called wtmpi». 
^But as it retained most of the doetrioes and Qereaooaies ef 
^tfa^ Romanists, though 4»cpreased for the most part in the 
4oAest words, or in scriptural phrases^ or in tetms of ate* 
died ambiguity, excepting that of marriage^ which was 
allowed to priests, and communion, which was adminifterea 
to tbe iaity under both kinds, laoet of tbe -Protestants re« 
jected k, and none with more warmth than Flacius* This 
involved him also with Melaocthon, against whom he wrote 
with so much intemperanee, that the latter called bim 
<^ £ehid<>a Illyrica," tbe lilyrian viper. Flacius, however, 
dMU; he might be at liberty to oppose popery in bis own 
waj^, retired, in 1 549, to Magdeburg, which town was at 
tbet time proscribed by tbe empes^r. Here he published 
several books, and began that ecclesiastical, history which 
we have mentioned in the article Judex, called the ^^Gea- 
turiea of Magdeburg,^* of which he bed tbe chief direction. 
Of this work the first four centuries, and part of tbe fifths 
9k0ie composed at lilfaigdeburg. / Tbe Bf^waa finisbedat 
Jena. Tbe sixth was written in the place to which the 
authors bad retired on account of tbe persecution of their 
two coadjutors, Gallus and Faber. The s^^ventb was com- 


poted in ihe country of MecUenburgh, and the remaining 
in the city of Wismar, in the same conntry. Tbk first three 
centuries were published in 1559, though dated in 1560, 
according to the booksellers* custom, with a dedication in 
queen Elizabeth, earnestly exhorting her to establish the^ 
pure, uncorrupt religion, and particularly the doctrine of 
Ae corporal presance in the sacrament The best edition 
of this work is that of Basil, 1624, 3 vols, folio. This is 
the most considerable of FUcius*s works, and employed 
him during the whole of his life, at such times as be could 
spare fieom his public employments and controversies, which 
last he carried on with too much violence. 

In 1557 he accepted the offer made to him, of the 
Hebrew and divinity professorship in the. new university of 
Jena, where he had read lectures for five years, and where 
he engaged in a dispute with his colleague, Strigelius, on 
the nature of original sin, which Sirigelius held to be 
aecidmUal of the soul, and Flacius maintained that it was 
of the souPs substance and essence. This dispute was 
held before the duke of Saxony at Weimar, and carried 
on to thirteen meetings, the acts of which were published^ 
with a prefece by Mussus, one of Fiacius's foUovent. 
His opinion on this subject, however., was so unpalatable 
that he was obliged to leave Jena and go to Ratiabon, where 
he published, some more works, and was in such reputation 
among the adherents to the Augsburgb confossion, that, in 
1567, he was called into Brabant,, to establish churobes 
there according to that rule of faith ; but these new 
churches were soon dispersed by the persecution arisen in 
that country, which obliged him to fly to AntiHerp and 
Strasburg, and finally to Francfort Here* he maintained 
bis opinion on original sin with such rigid adherence as to 
be charged with Manicheism on this point, which greatly 
injured his reputation, and deprived hio) of maoyof iiis 
followers. He died in this city, March 11» 1575* He is 
said to have been a man of extensive learning, but of ^a 
controversial ^turn, which frequently embroiled him with 
his brethren ; but on the other hand he must be allowed to 
have been a powerful agent in promoting the Reformatioii* 
His works were numerous. Teissier, in his ^< Eloges des 
hommes savans,** has given the titles of seventy-eigfat 
treatises, the greater part of which are also enumerated by 
Niceron* * The principal are his ^< Clavi$ Scriptura,*' 2 
vols, fol* of which there have been seven editions, the last 

I L L Y R I C V S. 2»1 

'tt Leipsic in 1695; no toconsiderable test cfits mectt 
To tfau may be added his ^^ Catalogue testiam veritatis^V 
pf which there hatve been several editions in 4to and {bl, ; 
and an edition of the ^* Ancient Latin Mass/' Strasburg^ 
15579 8vo. He thought this work would assist the common 
cause ; but the Lutherans^ perceiving the contrary^ did ail 
they could to suppress it, which is the reason of its scarce* 
ness ; nor has the republication in P. le Cointe's <* Annals/* 
and in cardinal Bona's '< Liturgies/' reduced the very high 
price. In the edition of Sulpicias Severus, published by him 
at Basil, )556, 8vo, there is an <^ Appendix to the Latin 
Mi^,*' which may be added to it. There is another very 
irare work of his, entitled ^* Varia doctorum piorumque 
Tironim de corrupto ecclesisB statu, Poemata," Basil, 1557*^ 
IMHOFF (John, or, according to Saxius» James- VViu 
xiam), a very famous genealogist, born of a noble family 
at Nuremberg, in 1651, was a lawyer in that city, and one 
of its senators. He was considered as hfiving- a profound 
knowledge of the interests of princes, the revolutions of 
states, and the history of the principal families in Europe. 
He died in 1728. His works were, 1. ^' Geneaiogise ex* 
cellentium in Gallia famjliarum,*' Norimb. 1687, folio. 
2. ^^ Genealogis familiarum BellomanerisB,'' &c. Norimb. 
l&SSy folio. 3. *^ Historia Genealogica Regum Magna 
Britanniao,*' Norimb. 1690, folio. 4. ^* Notitia procerum 

5. R. imperii," Tubingen, 1693, folio. 5. *^ Historia 
Itklias et Hispanic genealogica," Norimb. 1701, folio. 

6. '* Corpus Historian geneabgicfe Itaiise et Hispanise," 
Norimb. 1702, foHo. 7. ^* Recherches Historiques et Ge* 
oealogiques des Grands d'Espagne," Amst. 1708, folio. 

8. ** Stemma regium Lusitaoicum," Amst. 1708, folio. 

9. '< Geoealogise 20 illustrium in Hispanic familiarum/* 
Leipsic, 1720, folio.' 

IMPERIALI (Joseph RENikTUs), a famous cardinal, was 
born April 26^ 1651, of an illustrious family at Genoa. 
He was appointed general of the mint, then treasurer o£ 
the apostolical chamber, afterwards cardinal, February 13,. 
1690. The popes employed him in the most important 
affairs, and he was/ within one vote of being elected 
pope in the conclave 1730. His probity, talents, and love, 
of learning, made him universally esteemed. He diext' 

« Melchior Adam. — NicerM» vol. XXIV. ^ Gen. Diet. — Clemeot BiUj 
Curieus^.-^Moreri. J Diet Hifft» — Suui ODonfasticQO, 

2S2 tU^kliiALi. 

thslt bis dobli^ library Atndi he maed^ public, 6f ^hicb a 
catalogue y^ai pHnted ^t Rome in 1711, fol. by Josttii 
Fotitamni. Tliis Itbmr^ was Idttg onci of the orn^tntots of 

iNCHOFtR (MfiLCHrdlt), a learned German, Was boini 
fh 15*4 at Vienna. He entered the Jesuits* society at 
itome \60ij tLtiA taugbt philosophy, matbemaKtics, and 
Ibeology, at Mussina, where be published a Latin treatise 
in 1629, fbl. which made much noise, and shows no Itttl^ 
fctedulity. It was reprinted at Viterbo, 1632, fol. In this 
l^ork he sajrs that the pretended ^* Letter ftioth the Blessed 
Virgin Mary te the people of Messina" is gendine ; aud 
hb was therefore Ofbiiged to go to Rome and clear himself 
frt>iti the accusation brought against him in consequence of 
ttlis wt)rk ; but it ended in his being only compelled t6 
change the title of his book, and to make some small 
iterations in it. He spent several years at Rome, and died 
it Milauy September 28, 1648, leaving a ** Treatise on the 
Motion of the Earth and Sun," 1633, 4to; « De sacra 
LiEitinitate,'*'1635, 4to; "Historia trium Magoruto," 1639, 
4td ; ** Annalinm Ecplesiasticorum Regni Hungarise,** 
torn. i. fol. This is a valuable work, but has not been 
finished. He wrote also the funeral oration of Nicholas 
Rithard, a Dominican, ma$$ter of the Sacred Palace, 4to ; 
^d a satire against the government df the JcJsnits, entitled 
**Mc»narchik Solipsdrum,*^ is also kttrH>oted to him, but 
was more probably written by JuHus Ciemeitt St*otti, an 
ex-J^suit. On its first appearance it was Ascribed to Sci- 
Opius, but that opinion is now given up. ' It was, how'ever^ 
<fedicated to L<^o AUatitis, and was reprinted stt Venice, 
1652, with Irr^fhofer'ls name. Bourgeois, in his actount 
of the book an " Frequent Communion,*' pageW, enters 
into a large detail respecting Indhofer, and the *♦ Mdnar- 
ehia Solipsorum,'* and as he was ^t Rome when the work 
first came out, ^nd was acqudhted with tnchofer, to whota 
he ascribefs it, his testimony mu^ be allowed to bav^ con- 
siderable weight.* 

INGKLO (NaYhai^iel, D. 0.), a divlhe of tte seven- 
teentu d^ntury, was a fellow of Ehtahnel college, Cam- 
bridge, and admitted fellow of Qne^n^s tdlege by the 

1 t)ict Hht. 
9 Qen. DlGt---Niceroii^ vol, JEXXV.«— Cbanfepie^^^Saxii QnomaBtibbD. 

, I >I O E L O. Sis 

|lilihiiila6tafy ¥ililonH by wlMMe ini«rest likewisi he pro- 
boMy became a felled df Eton in 1^50. He vfB9 re*ad- 
mutfed to the tofne in IMC. He {lubliitied three Sertnoas 
ilk I659ftml I6t?, a&d inr^e a relitfiows yottance in foliof, 
«fitlt)ed •« Bentivolio and Uvanta^*' Lend. imo. He died 
in Aiiguftt 16»3, and hit eptnapb in in Ctao ceHege chapel, 
^bere he was %imed. In Apvit ]739t were published 
<' Ninefteen Letters from Hettry Hamttend^ 9« D. t^ Mr. 
Feter Stacrny titaght atfd Dr. NathaoM logeky*^ laany of 
them on very ctiiwm sttbjectSw' 

' INGENHOUZ {3omf)t an etoinent physidati and 
^hemiM) was born at Rreda in i1^. In 1767 he 
eane to England with a view ^ obtaining infohtiattoft on 
the Suttonian method of inodolatten for the amall-pox^ and 
In the foliowiog yeat* be went^ on the reoomihexrdauoii of 
the late str John Pringle, to Vienna^ to inoculate the 
archdnchess Theresa-Elisabeth, ofiiy daughter of Josefrfi 
II. and the archdukes Ferdinand and Maximilian^ brothers 
of the empefor. For these services be obtained rewards 
^ttd h^onoufs : be Was made body^by«ieian and coumi^or 
Of st^.te to tkeif imperial majesties, with a pension of €00l. 
pet annum. In the tdlowing spring he went to Italy, and 
inoculated ttre f^^nd duke of Toscany. After this he 
yetumed to Engiatid, to which be was much atta^^bed, where 
he spent hrs time in 9ctentific pursuits. He published a 
Very valuable work, entitled ** Experimeots on Vegetables^ 
discovering their great power of purifying the common ait 
in sunshine, but injuring it in the shade or night." This 
^Worfc was first poblished in 1779, and was translated into 
the Ffench and German languages, and highly esteemed 
by all the etpeninental philosopftiers of that period. He 
Ascertained, that not only from the green matter found on 
stagnant waters, bm likewise from the leaves of f egecabies, 
from the gTeen branches and shoots, even from t^ entire 
Vegetable, when placed under water and eitposed to the 
solar light, oxygen gas, in a state genernlly of gtieatputity^, 
is elf^lVed ; and as che result of bis nnmerous experiments 
be adopted the conclusion, that oxyjgen is elaborated in 
the leaves and other organs of vegetables, by a vi^ action 
e'kclted and sustahxed by the 9olar Kght The doctor, 
through ibe whole of life, was fond of, exhibiting amon^ 
kit fliends, partteularly young persons, experiments dT 

* nsrwoovi junnni siOBsniBS* 

234 I N G E N H O U Z. 

this kind, which required acaroely ed; i^pafmlttSy except*' 
ing a bell glass and a phial or two; aod with the oxygW 
gas which he obtained from cabbage-leaves or other vegij»t» 
tables, be would exhibit the combustion of tron-wire, which 
is a striking and very brilliant experiment. Dr. Ingenhoos 
was author of many papers inserted in the Traoaactioos of 
the Royal Society, of which body he w^a an active and 
useful member. Of these papers we may notice the foU 
lowing: Experiments on the Torpedo. Methods of •iiieae» 
suring the diminution of bulk taking place on the mixtare 
of nitrous with common air. Experiments on the Electro* 
phorus. New Methods of auspendiug Magnetic Needles. 
Considerations on the influence of the Vegetable Kingr 
dom on the Animal Creation. He died in i799» highly 
esteemed for the simplicity of his manners, and foif^ the 
discoveries which he had made in the several departments 
of expc^rimental philosophy.' 

INGHIRAMI (T0M4SO FedHa), an eminent Italian 
scholar, was bom in 1470. He descended from a noble 
family of Volterra, where^ in the commotions which took 
place in 1472, his father lost his life, and the auryiving 
members of the family, among whom was ^Tqmaso, then 
only two years of age, sought a shelter in Flocence. Being 
there received under the immediate protection of Lorenza 
de Medici, and having closely attended to his studies, he 
was induced, by Lorenzo's adviqe, to pay a visit, to Rome 
in his thirteenth year, where he made such rapid progress 
in his acquirements, as to obtain an early celebrity. He 
obtained the name of F£DRA, or Ph^bdra, by a singular 
instance of talents and promptitude. Having undertaken, 
with some of his learned friends, to perform Seneca's 
'^ Hyppolytus," in which he acted the part of Phaedra, and 
a part of the machinery having by accident been broken, 
which interrupted the performance, he alone entertained 
the audience wfiilst the injury was repaired, by the recital 
of extemporary Latin verse ; on which account be was 
saluted, amidst ttie applauses of his hearers, by the name 
of Phasdra, which he afterward^ retained apd used as hia 

Soon after the accession of Alexander VI. he was nomi-*. 
nated by that pontiff a canon of St Peter's, and dignified 
w^h the rank of a prelate. In 1495 he was sent as papal 

* • 

9 Rees^s Cyfi]opff{Ua«-«-Morraj'9 Cbead«try.<— NioMs't Bowyer, vol. VIII« 

1 NO H IRA ML 235 

fRflBtdirifitD the Milanese^ to treat with the einperor-elec^ 
(Maxicnilian, on which embassy be obtained not only the 
cpprobauoB of the pope^ but also the favour of the em- 
{leror^ who soon after the return of Inghhttmi to Roroe^ 
transmitted to him from Im^ruck an imperial diploma, by 
which, after enuinerating his various accomplishments, and 
particularly his excellence in poetry and Latin literature^ 
he created him count palatine and 'poet4aureat| and cod*^ 
cedhMl to him the privilege of adding! the Austrian eagle to 
his family arms. Nor was he less favoured by Julius IL 
w4io^. besides appointing him librarian of the Vatican, con» 
feirved im Urn the io^portant office of pontifical secretary, 
which he forwards quitted for that of secretary to the 
ddttege of clirdinais. Leo X. also enriched him with many 
ecclesiastical preferments, and continued him in his office 
.of librarian until his death, which was occasioned by an 
accident in the streets of Rome, Sept. 6, 1516, when he had 
not yet completed the forty- sixth year of his age. To 
.this unfortunate event it is probably owing, that so few of 
his writings have reached the present times. From the 
li^timony of his contemporaries, it is well known that he 
was tbe author of many books. Among these are enume- 
rated a defence of Cicero ; a compendium of the history 
of Rome ; a Commentary on the poetitizs of Horace ; and 
remarks on the comedies^of Plautus; but these works were 
left at bis death in an unfinished state, and have since been 
dispersed or lost. It has been supposed that he was the 
author of this additions to tbe ** Aulularia" of Plautus, 
printed at Paris, 1 5 1 3* 

INGLIS (Hester), a lady celebrated for her skill in 
calligraphy, in qucfen Elizabeth's and king James's time, 
appears to have lived single until the age of forty, when 
she became the wife of one Bartholomew Keilo, a native 
of Scotland, by whom she had a son, Samuel Kello, who 
was educated at Christ-church, Oxford, and was minister 
of Speckshall in Suffolk. His son was sword-bearer df 
Norwich, and died in 1709. All we know besides of her 
IS, that she was a correspondent of bishop Hall, when he 
was dean of Worcester in 1617. Various specimei^s of her 
delicate and beautiful writing are in our public repositories^ 
and some in Edinburgh-castle. In the library of Christ- 
c»liarcb| Oxford^ are the Psalms of David, written in French 


bj, Mra; IngKs, who preaeiited Aen m pefitMi to %iMa» 
Elizabecb, by wfaom they were given io the iibrary. Twb^ 
auuRUfcripts, wnuen by httr, wtre «bo preBerved mlbtmid 
in the BocUeiwi library : one of them u entitled *^^ Jb.e sue 
Tingt et six QnatrainB de Guy de Tonr, tienr 4e P ybi e g , 
^•crkt par Esther In^i, poor eon dernier adioQ^ at tie 
|«wr de Juui| 1617/' The foUowitig ad<kets i% in the 
eecond lea^ written in capital iettert : ^^ To the mgliK 
^rorshipful my very singnlar frtende^ Jowph Hall^ doetnr of 
4ivi»ity, and dean df Winehesfcer, Eather Inglia wiahedi 
«IHocveaseof true bappinesa. Jonii xxi. ICi7.*' In At 
third leaf it pasted the bead of the writer^ painted upon a 
oard* The other manmcript is entitled ** Lea Prowrbet de 
fialenion ; escrites en div^vses aortes de lettresi par Esther 
AngloiS) en Francoise. A Lidebonrge en Eooossey^* 1 59§. 
Svery chapter of this canons perfornAnoe is written in a 
-different hand, as is also the dedication; The manwscript 
ocontatns near fosty diflfofmt eharacters of wtitiog.. The 
beginnings and endings of the 'Chapters ane adorned with 
beantiful bead and taiUptecesi and the margin^ in iantts^ 
ttkxn of tbe aid manuscripts, coriously deooraled with the 
pen. The book is dedicated to the earl of Easec On 
"one of the ftrst pag^ ane bis arms neatly dmwo, wi^ ail 
^their qoarterings. In tbe flf«h leaf, drawn with n pM, ia 
the' picture of Esther loglis, in the habit of At timet : 
jier right Jmnd holds a. pen, tbe Mil rests upon an open 
book, on one of tbe leaves of which is written, ^ De 
PEternel le bien, do moi le mal, ou rien»" A moste^book 
lies open before her. Under the picture ia a liatin epi- 
(granv by Andrew MeWin, and on the f oMowing 'ptge a 
itecond by the Mme author, in praise ef Mrs. Inglis. In 
the royal library, D. x?i. are *^ Esther IngUs^s fifty Eas^ 
Uems,'' finely drawn and written : *^ A Lisleboorg «n 
Eaeosse, t*anne 1624."' ' 

INGRAM (lloBER^T), a worthy English divine, was bofn 
March 9, i7ir6*7, at Beveriey in Yorkibire, and educated 
«t Beveriey school, from whence he was sent to Corpus 
Christi college, Cambridge, of which he became fellow, 
land took there bis degrees in arts, B. A. in 1749, and M» A. 
in f 75$. His ftrst preferment was the perpetuiil curacy of 
'Bridberst, in Kent, td which he was presented in 1759, by 
4>r. Green, bishop of Untoln, '^ter which ho gbiakiod 

1 Sallard's Memoirc-^-SfasMy's Origin and Progresi of Letters. 


nmtceminiy the miiaU vk«nge of Orstmi in Nottingkai 
aAnmy and the nc9Lmge§ of S¥oraikiglofi and fioxted, in 
Btsex. He died Attg. 9, lB04y loarring bebtnd him a high 
cfaafacter for simi^ltGi^ of maviner^ grett inte^rityy and^ 
gonuine beMroletioe. He bad « bigb «onto of the dtgoity 
ofid iftiporlance of the clerical fiinctiouts and for fi#iy yearn 
of hn life wan itidefatigaMe it) faJ9 attention to professional 
d4iiies« He wAs autbor of '* A View -of the great eventa 
of the ftoventb plague, or period, when tbe mystery of 
God sbmll Jl»e finialwd.^ <^ Aeeounts of the ten tribev of 
Israel being, in Ameriea, originally publiabed by Manasseh 
Ben Israel,*' &c. 1790^ ** A complete and uniform ezpta^ 
Mtion of ^e {^'opbeey ef the sei^efi vitis of wrath, or 
foven lait plagaos eootaioed in the Revektioii of St. Joha/^ 

INGRASSIAS {John PttiLfi»), an eminent pbysteioft 
aiirf modtoal writor, a natire of Sicily, was born in 1540. 
H^ f^d4ed modkine at Fadiia, where he «ook Ae 5legreO 
of dottor wnBOdicioe in the year 1 997^ witfa singakr ro- 
ptttaitioa; insomwch tihat ho«oon received several uwita^^ 
Itoni no |)l«ofesaonbip» from different aefaools hi Italy. fl€ 
aceepted «he c^ir of medicine and snmomf at Naples^ 
wMch lie ottoii)»ied for a omnber Of years^ leoturiog to the 
iHost-e^owded aodteaeea ^Arawn by his feme from «11 parts 
of' tha6 eoontiy. He ^ ^^ossessed peemliar ^aMIicatioiia lor 
theofite, baving willed « eonMwmnaite Icnowledge of «ho 
wfttinj^ of tiieanciewt physieiana with gri oat practical cdsift 
Oad a sound jud g wi e nt, M^iidi ted him to etffeinmte yostlj 
the merits wA defects of those fitters of tbe art. A sin- 
gular testiaveny of his talents and Ofyremittiog firttenttoti to 
the 4fapfe%ementof 4mpnp!ls was given by the latter, wbo 
caused liis portrait to be placed in tbe achooh of Naplea 
'*with ihe Mining inscfiptton : ''^Pbilippo Ingraasi® Sioolo, 
tjni ^ram mediciposB artem et anatomen, pobTici enarnando, 
i^^poli reertiitiit, Discipifli meaioriie oa»«a P.P.*' At 
*lengili be qtntt^d his sitnation at Naples, in ofder^ retufti 
"to 4ms 'ryafire vs^iiand, where be settled at Palermo. Heve 
olsd he received many marfcs of pnblic ^stinction. The 
drights of cittsensbip were 'Conferred upon him ; and, in 
1S6S, Philip 11. icing of Spain, appointed him first pfa^* 
>€ian fer Siei^ty and t^ adjacent isles. By viitae of the 
^jpowers ottadicd to this offiee be restored order in fhe 

•I Gtst. Mi^ w>i. jamv. 

2S8 I N G R A S S I A 6. 

medical constitdtion of the country, by pfev^oting ^ 
persons, unqualified by their education and abilities, from^ 
practising there. His zeal for the credit of his profession < 
rendered him rigid and severe in his examination of can- 
didates;^ and. he exercised bis art himself in the most 
honourable manner. When the plague raged at Paierfno 
in 1575, he adopted such excellent regulations as to put a 
stop to the calamity, and restore the city to health, and 
was hailed by all the citizens, the SiciUan Hippocrates. 
The magistrates were so grateful for his services, that they 
voted him a reward of two hundred and fifty gold crowna 
a month ; but he disinteresti^dly declined to accept any more 
than what served for the maintenance and decoration of the- 
cbapel of St. Barbe, which he had built in the cloister of 
the Dominican convent of Palermo* He died, greatly rer^ 
gretted, in 1580, at the age of 70 years. 

Ingrassias cultivated anatomy with great assiduity, and 
is esteemed on^ of the improvers of that art, especially iff 
regard to the structure of the cranium, and the organ of 
hearing. ^ He discovered the small boue of the ear, called 
the stapeSf which has been claimed as the discovery of 
others, but is admitted even by Fallopius to have been his» 
He described minutely the cavity of the /ympantim, the 
fenestra rotunda and ovaliSf the cochlea^ semicircular canals, 
mastoid cells, &c. ; and Eby thinks, from a view of bis 
plates, that he was acquainted with the muscle of the iim/« 
teusy the discovery of which is ascribed to Eustacbius. He 
is said also to have discovered the seminal vesicles. He 
was author of the following works: 1. ^^ Jatropologia ; Li* 
ber quo multa adversus Barbaras Medicos disputantur/' 
Venice, 1 544, 1558, 8vo. 2. << Scholia in Jatropologiam,'* 
Naples, 1549, 8vo. 3. *< De Tumoribus praeter naturam,*' 
ibid. 1 55S, folio^ vol I. This is properly a commentary on 
some of the books of Avicenna* 4» ** Ra^ionamento fatto 
sopra Pinfermita epidemioa dell' anno 1558,'^ PalermcT, 
1560, 4to, together with ^< Trattato di due mostri nati in 
Palermo in diversi tempi.'* 5. ** Constitutiones et Capi- 
tula,, necnon Jurisdictiones Regii Proto*Medicat(b officii, 
cum Pandectis ejusdem reformatis,'' Palermo,. 1564, 1657^ 
4to. 6. ^ QusBstio de Purgatione per medicamentum, at» 
qne obiter etiam de sanguinis missione, an sext& die possit 
fieri," Veni(?e, 1568, 4to. 7. *^ Galeni Ars Medica,"' ibid. 
1573, folio. 8. ** De frigidae potu post medicamentum 
purgaus Epistola,'' ibid. 1*^75, 4to, reprinted at Milan, 

I N G R A S S I A S. 239 

1586. . 9.-^ Informatione del pestifero e contagioso morbo, 
&€.*' Patermo, 1576, 4to. This work was translated into 
Latin by Joachim CamerariiM, and pnblished under the 
title of << Metbodus cnrandi pestiferum contagium,** at 
Nurimbergy 1583. 10. *< In Galeni librum de ossibus 
doctissima et expertissima Commentaria^" a posthumous 
publication, printed at Messina, in 1 603, under the inspec* 
iion of bis nephew, Nicholas Ingrassias. This, which may 
he deemed the principal work of Ingrassias, contains the 
text of Galen, in Greek and Latin, with a very diffuse and 
learned commentary, in which there is much minute and 
accurate description, particularly of the parts belonging 
to the organ of bearing. The figures are those of Vesalius. 
The author defends Galen as fiir as he is able, but not 
against the truth of modern discovery.^ 
. INGUIMBERTI (DoM fific, Joseph, Marie d'), an ex- 
emplary and learned bishop of Carpentras, at which place 
he was bom in 1683, was first a Dominican, and in that 
order he successfully pursued his theological studies ; but, 
thinking the rule of the Cistertiaos more strict and perfect, 
h^ afterwards toA the habit of that order. His merit, 
quickly raised htm to the most distinguished oflBces among 
his brethren, and being dispatched on some business to 
-Rome, he completely ^ined the confidence and esteem of 
Clement XII. By that prelate he was named archbishop 
of Theodosia m/Msr/ite^) and bishop of Carpentras in 1733. 
In this situation be was distinguished by all the virtues that 
can characterize a Christian bbfaop ; excellent discernraenty 
and knowledge^ united with the ccAnpletest charity and hu- 
tnility^ His^ life was that ^f a simple monk, and his wealth 
V9tA all essployed to relieve the ^ poor, or serve the public. 
He built a vast and magnificent hospital, and established 
the-mest extensive library those provinces bad ever seen, 
which he gave fi[>r public use. He died in ]757| of an 
apopteetic attack, in his seventy*fifth year. This excel-» 
lent man was not unknown in the literary world, having 
published some original works, and some editions of other 
authors. The principal of these productions are, 1. '* Ge* 
nuinus character reverendi admodjim in Christo Patrts D. 
Armandi Johannis ButilHerii Ranccei,'* Rome, 1718; 4to« 
2. An Italian translation of a book entitled '* Tbeologie 
RdUgieuse,'! being a treatise on the duties of a monastic 

^ Chaafepie«— Tiniboicki.-»IUet*t Cydopiidia, 

>40 1 NG U>1 M B 5 RTI. 

» Freocb irwtUfy bjr £uber Pidipfi oath^ ii»|s^UiMity of 
tb« pape, IVwe, 1732, folicu 4. An ^dixim of tbf9 W<9fJ» 
of BanbobiMw of the Martyrs, with bis Uf£^ 1^ ^ol^. foMgw 
5. ^ La Vie sepac^ei'* ADP^b^r tre^ise on mpna«Up tif#t Hi 
9 vols. 1727, 4to,' 

INGULPHUS, tkhoK pf CroyUn^ m4 fMiOior of %\^ 
bistDfy of that abhojTf w«s born in IxKidofi ab^put 1030. 
H^ rec^v^ tbe first p^rt pf bU •edod^ioo at Wfe«tiiH«Bt«5 
and wbon b« visited Us fatbqr, wb9 b^Q^ged to tb^ cpjart; 
of EdwdTid the Can£f ssiCMr^ be w«is sp fortMut^ ^ t9 f^W^ 
the attoi3^oji of qwen Edgitha, wbo took a jgikmvLm m •tbff 
progrfi89 of bis edi^^t^^o^ smmI in disputing witb Um A9 
Ipgic^ sind Aeldppi disnsisfipd bjm witbojut sqid9 preiaQtw ^ 
mark of her approbatioo^ From WestipiM^lvateir be wmit il^ 
Oxford, 'wher^ be applied to ^ atudy pf tb^ AristoteUan 
pbilosopby, i^ wbioh be iMde gr^eaiter pxofkm^y Af^ 
inaoy of bis ppnttoipoiariefs iaja4i m be ^yii» ** frlothei^ 
himsetf down to the beel in ^ first and aepood irhetorief>f 
TuHy.'* When be was aboij^t .tiReniy-ooe y^^rs iof age* Jm 
was introduced to WiUianii .didue of Norm^dy {w^Q mit^ 
the oourtof £agl^d ijn i05l}, and made bimsetf 90 i^f^ 
a^le to tbait priaee, that be appointed bm his aaoiBeMir^ 
«od x^anried bios n^ him iotp bis own 4oo9inioai. In ^ 
little time he becaiAe the prime layoiirite of bis pn^inoei 
and the dispenser of all preferments; hm^ b^ bimseLf ooft«p 
fesaes that be did not behave in tbif atatiop with sufficicA^ 
modesty .and prndenee^ and 'that be incnrjre4 the eovy wd 
hatred of the ooortiers^ to avoid v^h^b be obtained feiMre 
from the -duke to go on apiljgrimi^e to the Holy ]Lan<L lii 
the coarse of this jooi»ey^ bis .at^endaet pUgi^ois at one 
time amount to aeveo thpnamd, bnt either frpm faemg 
^tackpd anfi killed :by ^ Ao^-nr ^w disaster^ Aweo^fr 
finly of ^bis goodly (oompany av^ere lable to retoriB hornet Md 
those iialf-^tarvedf wd idmoat 4i^kedL Ingn^h now m^ 
solved to forsake tthe (wodd* »nd Wame Oi iDPnk in (thu 
abbey of FontanoUe in. Nprmimdy^ of wi^icb hie was in » 
few years made ipdor. Whim this (i^d master William ^ 
Normandy um9 pfapmmg &r bi0 )mefi¥>mbl» e^peditiiMi 
into Ef^and, in 1066^ Iiigulpbns n»s ;«ent by bia Abho^ 
with one (hundred marksin mpney» end imeiwe yojmg ^meiv 
ymbly mpunted Oind x^wpletelgr iwrmed^ m ^ present jboii 

N G C L P It U S. 241 

t »>» 

trieir f^lfbf^^ in conf equenqe of thiS| WQliam raised* him 
a|terw^rd8 4p,lh;^ government of the rich ^hey of Croy-« 
lai^fl in MncoWsbire^.in 107|5. .Here Jogulphufi spent the 
last^ t)iirty-toiir years of bis life, governing that society 
wjtj^ ^reat prudence^ and protecting their possessions from 
thcj rapacit^^pf the, neighbouring barom^ by the favour o£ 
&i3,royai|ma3tei:;^and bei|e.*he died Dec. 1, 1109. Ha 
wi:ot^, i^ut; ioa hooiely Latin style, a.very^ curious and 
palpable Hj^tQry of Croyland abhey from its foundation, in 
the! year 66i to lOdl. It was printed by sir H. Savilley 
l^oodon,^ . 1 ^96^ and is. aipoog G^e'a ** Scriptores.'* .There 
is^al^o an* edition, of ^rapcfprt. in 1601,. and one of Oxford^ 
r*684^whicl;ij)ast is tbpugbt the moat comple|;e.^ 
. II^LA^I>,(Ji9|i)N)r authpr ofi the/^ Illustrations of. Ho* 
gar^h,** was boi;; tlie Trench farm^ near Wem,.in Shrop- 
t|j[i]cej in a bouse which had. been rendered somewhat re- 
mar^lile, by having, been th^e birtb-^place and country re^* 
fidi^nce. 9f, Wycberley.t^e poet, and whose widow is said 
tf , have adopted Mr. Ireland, when a child; but thisilady 

2 jog without a , w^ll, left h^iQ unprovided for. He wai 
^scended bV. the mother's side from two eminent. dissenu 
mg clergymen ; his mother. being the daughter of the rev. 
Tbai^^8.|HoIland,. a^d ' great-grand-daughter of the rev. 
I^hilip. Hi^nry, la bis.youth be discovered, a strong predi* 
lect^ioq t^the arts^ and/ such literature as la immediately 
coht^e^ted with them, but ^ his pfirentis were unable to< 
g].v^ him a r^ular educa,tioD, and as he had a turn for 
laechanics, he was brought up to the business of a watch^- 
njakf^r. Although he carried on this for some time with 
gpod connexions, it was not upon the whole successful, 
and during a considerable part of his life, be subsisted by 
tnafficking in pictures, prints, &c. for which he had a qor- 
rect .taste, and in which he was probably assisted by the' 
artistsr and print-sellers. He amassed a e;ood collection of 
Mortimer's and Hogarth's works, and lived on intimate 
tetms with many daea of eminence in the literary world, 
aiid particularly with the ar^tists Mortimer and Gainsbo*^ 
roiighy and Henderson the actor, whose ^'Memoirs" he pub- 
lished in 1786.. Thlifr actor had lived in Mr. Ireland's house 
for spme ti^ie after coming to I^rondon, but their inttaiacy. 
bad for some reason abated, and at the period of Hender* 

1 Pits — ^TanDer.*-.Heonr't Hint, of Qrea* BriUtn, vol. VI. p. 120.— Qoufb's 
British Topography. . 

Vol. XIX, E 


son^s death was, if we are rrghtly informedy quite dissolved. 
His Life of Henderson is said to have been his first publica- . 
tron^ and certainly was not very successful, nor very inte- 
resting. He was more fortunate afterwards in being em- 
ployed by the Messrs. Boydell in the *^ Illustrations of 
Hogarth,'* 3 vols. 8vo, a work in which he displays a cor- 
rect knowledge of the arts, and a vein of humourous re- , 
mark and anecdote not ill suited to the subjects he had to- 
illustrate. As Mr. Ireland was a man of integrity, he often 
felt himself very much hurt as being mistaken for Samuel 
Ireland^ the proprietor of the Shakspeare forged manu- 
scripts, who had also publi^ed a volume of scraps and 
anecdotes relating to Hogarth. Our author, therefore, . 
thought proper to disclaim, in the preface to his third vo- 
lume, all connexion and relationship with his namesake. 
For several years Mr. Ireland had been aiRicted with a com- 
plication of disorders, which had rendered society irksome 
to hiin, and occasioned him to remove to the neighbour*^ 
hood of Birmingham, where he died in November I SOS. ^ 
He was ai man of pleasant and inoffensive manners, and 
fuH of literary anecdote, which he liberally dispensed i 
ar6und, whether in a coffee* house among strangers, oral , 
the social table among his friends.^ 

IRELAND (Samuel), mentioned in the preceding arti- 
cle, and we trust more unfortunate than accessary in the 
possession of the forged MSS. of Shakspeare, was origi- . 
nally a mechanic in Spitalfields, but taking advantage of 
the taste of the age for literary curiosities, commenced a 
speculator in scarce books, prints, and drawings. He had* 
some skill in drawing and engraving, and endeavoured to. 
turn it to account, by combining it with description, under , 
the name of ** Travels.'* With this view he published in 
1790, " A Picturesque tour through Holland, Brabant, and 
part of France, made in the autumn of 1789,'* 2 vols. 8vo, 
illustrated with aqua-tinta and other prints. This sue- . 
ceeded well, although his descriptions were common-place, 
and his information seldom new. Encouraged, however, 
by the sale of the Work, he produced in 1792, "Pictu- 
rescjue Views on the river Thames," 2 vols. 8vo, and in 1793 
** Picturesque Views on the river Medway," in 1 vol. In , 
1794 he published his •* Graphic Illustrations of Hogarth,*' . 
coosistkig of anecdotes of that epiinent artist, and engraved 

» ' . t. AUuBnteum, vol. V.-«-Gent« Mag. ToU LXXVni. 

I R E L A N D. 243 

copies of many of his lesser and fugitive works, such as 
shop-cards, 'tickets, &c. In 1796, he was an accomplice 
in that fraud which eventually proved fatal to his character, 
and conifbi^t. This was the production of a large quantity', 
of manuscripts, pretended to be in the hand-writing of 
Shalcspeare/ and consisting of p6ems, letters, and one en- 
tire pUy. These were exhibited at his house in Norfolk- 
street for the inspection of the public, and for some time ' 
divided their opinions. Connoisseurs, however, in ancient 
writings, and particularly in the genius and history of 
Shakspeare, soon detected the fraud, which, although it 
did foir a time impose on some gentlemen in the literary ' 
world, was executed in the most slovenly and clumsy man- ' 
ner. A more full account of this imposition, and the 
controversies to which it gave rise, may be seen in our 
authorities: it is scarcely worth reviving in this work. 
After complete detection, it appeared that Mr. Ireland had 
been himself the dupe of a near and worthless relation ; but - 
his obstinacy in maintaining the authenticity of these pa- 
pers long after he ought to have given them up, injured 
his charact;er, and it is thought hastened his death, whick 
look place in July 1800. We have to add to his works 
" Picturesque Views of the Severn and Warwickshire Avon,*' 
and a ** History of the Inns of Court,^' the latter a posthu- 
mous work. The MSS. of Sbakspeare were published 
under the title oiP ** Miscellaneous papers and legal instru- 
ments, under the hand and seal of William Sbakspeare, 
including the tragedy of King Lear, &c.'' at the price of 
four guineas to subscribers. What was yet more absurd, - 
a play pretended to be Sbakspeare^ s, entitled ^^ Vortigern,'* - 
wak actually performed on Drury-laue theatre, but hooted 
from the stage the first night.* 

IRENjEUS (Saint),, bishop of ^ Lyons in France, was 
undoubtedly, by birth a Greek, and, not improbably, bofn ' 
at or near the city of Smyrna. He was trained in the 
studies of philosophy and human learning : in the doctriues 
of Christianity, two disciples of St. John the apostle^ Pa* 
pias and Polycarp, were his masters. The latter he is ' 
said. tQ have accompanied in his journey, about the Paschal 
controversy, to Rome; where^ by his and Anicetus's per- 
suasion, he was prevailed upon to go to France ; great - 

; ' ^ \ ' , '■ "'■• 

« Cent. Ma». 1796-7.— Month. Review, N. S. yol.XU. XX, }LX\h XXVU,* 
XXXV.— 'Maloae's Inquiry.— Chalmers** Apology f»f ike Believert; &c. 4c. 

R 2 

^ I 

^^ I R 1 N « U; S: 

lyfQjjb^^ of Qroekfli residing in some pdrliiof that ktngdo|R^ 
efp^c^ially %bQut M«ra^IlAB» .9nd the chiirck diefH befpn-* 
n^fi ^ b^ 4i^tiirbed bjr sfiveral pernickiuB hevesics. In hi« 
joiu^Myt A^iving atr Ljooa^ he oontinusdi sesentl yeMt 
t^ri^ %[^ tbf^ statipti ^ ft presbyteiv under the oare and 
gPKercHnapt oj^ FQd^iRu% the bi^h^p of that city^ ^ . aad^ 
by^ Is^ behfL9iUHi«> dt^tjagabhed biaoaalf ao: mucb^ tbat^ 
ai^Q4^^ tbe.yef^r 177^ be was ohoaen. to. draw up the jade^ 
v^fi^p^ a^i4 ojinioii. of the chii^rches of LyonsiandVieiim^ 
i;i;l)icb. wer^ a^ft toitbose in. Asia, m order to cooaipo^^ the 
d^^esrc^^fii lately raised by Montanus and hi& foUoweiai 
vij^ pf ett^i^^Qd tc^ tihe propbede spirit In the samia Mteiv 
tbfty tpok qcc^^iaa aluo to gvm an aceount of the persooifr*' 
ti^^ vi^qb tbe& mged peculiarly among them, under 
S^cvis AAtoninusfc The opinioDs of the coofessors- in 
tbo^'tiones ^re always neceived with esteemi and^venera^ 
t^Qi), Xhe; s.aa%e cburchea therefore sent othpr lettefi^^ 
ahqpttlHt^e.QOUtroversies to Eleutfaerius, bishop of Rome^ 
Wbitcbw^i^ proibably carried by Irenaaus, who undertpokf 
t^. joM^i^eiyj at their request. Two year»afteiv in the year 
lj74ii.vppn thi9 aiartyrdom. of Pothinus at. Lyonsy iKeafleaa- 
sypiV^^d^ditQ that cbair^ in a troublesoiaeranid tenlpestuou!^ 
tim^ w^b^A the : church was assaulited by^ eoetmas^ flM)m 
vdtljypMtij 9M>d betrayed, by hereticsi feom witbin; Tbes^ 
cfr^iMDi^^c^requiced both, cours^and: oonduol in^tbd^ 
g^yf^wrs^ and^our new bishop gave conspicuous* pfoof» ^t^ 
hj$i<iHaJLi8cfttioos.inrboth respects. He i6 said tO'hare' held' 
a^proYH^ci^l synod, at L3!(on69 where, by tbetassista^ee-atidi' 
siUFfiagQ: of: tjiyielye other bishops, he condemned the*hei^6M> 
sies.of . H^ftroion^ Yalentinus, and.BasilftleB^ H« hlbd f^ty 
s9|2^Uy,egv^u;itered some of these) ringleaders amo«igtb€^; 
Gnostics^ and read the books of othersi; when, at the re-^ 
qi^e^t of many wJiq impDi*tuned him,<. he set about thedk- 
borate wojrk ^^. against. Heresies/' pteutttofwhiefa is still ^if-^- 
taqjt: ufid^r his t name* It was composed in- the^ time* of^- 
E^leMjtiieriilis.;. upon whose decease,* Viotor^ suecQ^ing to 
tb^see of R«me^ headed afresh the diipute ajbout tbe'tSfi^e ' 
ofjc<2jiebratiQg faster,, and endeavoured impemouiiyto^op;^ 
ppsse tb^ BlQiaan ci^^ton^ upeuitbe'Asiatiosv To-^b^ltto' 
. scbisii^ ,$j(iu>^'were called ip several places; a^Kl, among^ ' 
therest| Irenti^scoDvened.oaeiof the chtirehes o^ t^kM^'- 
under his jurisdiction; where, having determined the 
matter^ he wrote a, synodi6al epjatle to pope Victor,, aod^ 
told him,* that they agreed with him in the main of the 

■ f ft t K M U S. 245 

Mfitrbv^r^y, b»t withfti advised him to idL^t b^&d b6w her 
excommunicated who\6 thurch'es, tot obsi^rving tb^ custo^ 
derived down to thetti fVom tbeilr ancestors. H'e bbserved^ 
thAt there was Hs little agreisment iii the mantief 6f tb4 
preparatory fast before Easter, a^ ih tb6 day itself, som§ 
tiiinking they were to ftst but one day, others twd, olbere 
more, and i^on^e measuring the time by ^ Continued fast oi 
Ibrly hours ; and that thi3 variety was of Ibng standings 
and had cfrept into several places,^ While th^ gbverriofs or 
the church took less care about these differeiit custom^ than 
ibout maintaining a sincere and mutual loVe afid peac^ 
f5ward» one another ; putting him in mifid t6o of Anicetus 
Atod Pefyeatp, who, though they cJould not agree abou£ 
Aeifr different usages, did yet mutually embrace, orderly 
receive the communion together, and peaceably pari 
trom one another. Irena^s wrote aho, to the same effect^ 
Id sevehd other bishops, for allaying this unhappy dif- 

The ehurcfr fcad, for some year^, enjoyed thote calm 
a^d' qufet- days from without, whi<!:h had been abused by 
animosities and contentiorns iVom' within, when the emperor 
Severiis^ hithertt^ favourable, began ai bitter and bloody 
ffCtseen^cHt afg&insl^ the Chrilstian^, and prosecuted theih 
withr giidat severity in dl' parts of the empire. He hacf 
' once governed the provipcis of Lyons himself; and, pro- 
Habtyv then takibg peculiar notice of Trenaefu^ and' the 
flburishing state of the church in that city, niight there-' 
ibre give more particular orders foi* proceeding against 
tfaem in this place: The persecution, which in other parts 
picked out some few to make examples of, was here more 
indiscriminate ; and Irenteus, having been prepared by 
several torments, was beheaded. It is not easy to assign 
the certain* date' of his martyrdom^ whether it was when 
the emperor published this edict, about A. C. 202'; or in bis 
expedition to Britain A. C. 208^ when be tbok Lyohs^ in 
bis way^ 

Ireneeus wrote several bookit, which weire all' lost, except' 
biv five against heresies ; and the far greatest part, of the- 
original Greek is wanting in these. Th^y have been many 
times published, particularly by J. £rn'estus (Jrabe, at 
Oxfordj 1702, fol. and there is prefixed an account' of lire- 
nsBus, from which this is taken. TertuUian oalU'him 
** omnium, doctrinaroat. Guriostssira^ieh etepHemtor^^^ zt'tBickt 

246 I R N E R I U S. 

curious searcher into all kinds of doctrioe. His religioai 
opinions were nearly those of Justin Martyr. ' 

RUS, a celebrated German lawyer^ was born at Bologna^ 
about the middle of the eleventh century. After studying 
the law at Constantinople, he ta.ught it at Ravennai where a 
dispute arising between him and his colleagues about th« 
word /< al|** he sought for the meaning of it in the Roman 
law ; and thence took a liking to it, applied to the study 
of it, and at last taught it publicly at Bologna in 1128. 
He had a great number of disciples, became the father. of 
the Glossators, and had the title of ^^ Lucerna Juris.^' Thut 
he was the restorer of the Roman law, which had beeo 
destroyed by the invasion of the barbarian^. He had gieat 
credit in Italy with the princess Matilda; and, having en-: 
gaged the emperor Lotharius to order, by an edict, that 
Justinian^s law should resume its ancient authority at the 
bar, and that the code and digest should be read in the 
schools, he was the first who exercised that profession in ! 
Italy : his method was to reconcile the " responsa jurispru^ 
dentum^' with the ** leges,*' when they seemed to clash. 

It is also said, that he prevailed with Lotharius, whose . 
chancellor he was, to introduce into the universities the 
creation' of doctors, and that he drew up the form of 
that ceremony ; which had its commencement at -Bo- 
logna, and extended soon to, all other universities, and . 
passed from the faculty of law to that of divinity. ^ The 
university of Paris having adopted these degrees, they were . 
used for the first time, in the person of Peter Lopibard, 
master of the sentences, who, was created, in this form, 
D. D. Irnerius died some time before 1150, and ivasin^ 
terred at Bologna, the law school of which was afterwards 
rendered very famous by his disciples, and the Rooian law^ 
was thenceforth taught by Italian professors, not only in^ 
Italy, but in England and France. One Vacarius, a na- 
tive of Lombardy, was invited to England for that purpos^e 
about the middle of the twelfth century. ^ 

ISAAC (Karo), a rabbi, was one of those Jews who 
left Spain on an edict of Ferdinand and Isabella, in 1492, 
which obliged the Jews to quit their dominions within four 
months, or else embrace Christianity. Karo went first to 

' 1 Life in OraWs edition.— -CaTe.-—Mo8heim and Milner's Church Histories. 
* Gen*«-«Moreri,— Giofttenl H»t. Litt. d'ttalie. 

I S A A p. 247 

Portugal ; and, travelling thence to Jerusalem, he lost his 
children and his books on the road. He lived in great soli*- 
tude ; and, to console himself, composed a book, entitled 
" Toledot Jiskach, the Generations of Isaac.^' It is a com- 
mentary upon the Pentateuch, partly literal and partly 
cabbalisticai, in which he examines the sentiments of other 
commentators. It has gone through several editions : the 
first was printed at Constantinople in 1518; afterwards 
ajt Mantua, and Arpsterdam in 1708. Buxtorf ascribes to 
our rabbi a ritual entitled ^' Eben Haheser, the Rock of 
Support" ' 

18^US, a celebrated Grecian orator, of Chalcis, in. 
Syria, the disciple of Lysias, and master of Demosthenes, 
was born probably about 418 B.C. He taught rhetoric 
with reputation at Athens ; and sixty-four orations are at- 
tributed to him, but he composed only fifty, and we have 
but ten of them remaining in the ** Greek Orators*' of 
Stephens, 1575, fol. of which we have an excellent trans- 
lation by sir William Jones, in 1779, 4to. Isaeus took 
Lysias for his model, and has so well imitated his style 
and elegance^ that he might be easily confounded with 
the other but for the figures of speech, which Isseus i$ 
the first orator who makes frequent use of. He was also 
the first who applied eloquence to political subjects, in 
which his pupil Demosthenes followed him. He must be 
distinguished from another celebrated orator named ISiEus, 
who lived at Rome in the time of the younger Pliny, 
about the year 97, by whom he is highly extolled. A 
sketch of bis life is drawn by Philostratus, but he had no- 
thing in common with the Athenian orator, except the 
volubility of his language, and his name, which last sir 
.William Jones thinks might be assumed, as that of Ispcrates 
also was taken by one of the later sophists, who wrote the 
instructions to Demonicus. The best of the recent edi- 
tions oi IssBus is that of Reiske, in the '< Orat. Graec*'' 
Leipsic, 1770 — 75, 8vo.* 

ISELIN (James Christopher), in Latin Iselius, a 
learned, antiquary, was bom at Basil, in 1681. He was 
9iade professor of history and eloquence at Marpurg, in 
170f; but was recalled to. Basil, to teach history and 
antiquity, in 1707, where he was also promoted to the 

• Moreri. - 
f Fabric Bibl. Graec.— Preface to Jones's Traiislation.-*Saxii Onomaitiooa. 

248 * I S E L I N. 

dinnifcy-cbair in 1 7 1 1 . He went to Paris in 1 7 1 7, intending 
to visit Holland and Enelaod ; but, being nominated rector 
of the university of BasB, was obliged to recnm into his 
oivn country. Shortly after, the academy of inscriptiofcfs 
and belles lettres at Paris made hint an honorary for^igh 
meotl^er, in the room of M. Cuper. Iselin was also libra- 
rian at Basil, where he died in 1737. He publishfed'a 
gre^t number of books, of which the principal ate^ t. ^< De 
.j&allis Rhenum transeuntibus Carmen Herotcum.'^ 2. '*I)b 
Historicis Latinis melioris acvi dissertatio.*' S. Dbserta^ 
jtions and orations upon various subjects.' 

ISIDORE (Saint), surnan^ed Pelusiota or Damietta> 
from his retiring into a solitude nbar the town which' bears 
both these names, was the most celebrated of the disciplei 
of John Cbrysostom, and flourished in the fifth cetituryi 
lie professed the monastic life from his youth, and retired 
from the world ; but appears to have been more useful €d 
the church a^d to society^ than might have beeA expected! 
from a jQpnk. This appears by hist letters, of which^ $m'<^ 
das < says, ^he wrote no? less than 3000; and Nic^phorlls 
assures us that he composed sevieral works, and mentioni 
particularly ten chiliads of his epistles. Siytds ^enensi^ 
4lso adds, that he saw in the library of St. Mark' at Venice,' 
a MS. containing 1 184 of such epistles, whicb are not no^ 
extant. He agrees with the orthodox in the leading ddc'^ 
trines of the gospel, but his great excellence is his prac-'* 
tical rules. He died about the year 440. We have re- 
xnaining 2012 of his letters, in five books : they are short ;f 
but tbe^e are important tUngs in them about maHiy pas« 
sages of Scripture, as weN as theological questions, and 
points concerniug ecclesiastical discipline ; they anre Writ-' 
ten in good Greek, and in un agreeable florid styl0. Th^ 
best edition of St. Isidore's works is that of Pa^s, 1638^. 
foiiojt in Greek and Latin. In 1737, Chriltt. Aug. Heu*^ 
maup att^ked the authenticity of some of bis epistles ill a 
tract entitled -*' Epistolas Isidoros Pelusiotse kstximam' 
partem esse qonfictas.''* 

..ISIDORE (St*) of Seville, was born at Cartbagena, in 
Spain, the sou of Severtan, governor of that city, ahd was^ 
educated by his brother Leander, bishop of Seville, whdth' 
he succeedjed in the year 601. St. Isidore was the oracki 


1 Chaufepie.— Moreri.^-Saxii ODomatticoD. 

t Care, toJ, L— Lardner*a WorHso-Mosheim and Milner'i Cb, Hiit 

ISIDORE. 2f 9 

«f Spain during thirty-five years, ai^d died j^pi^il 4^ S36, 
learingtbe following works: Twenty fcboks of *^prigjney* 

'"' , {oU; 
le his* 

^ _^ ,,,_, ,^ , , ,^._„..tar^^3'* 

on the historical books of the Old Testament; a treatise 
■*on Ecclesiasticar iVi-iters ;** " a Rule for the Monastery 
of Honori;" a *"* Treatise on. Ecclesiastical Oteces,*'"cQnr 
taming many very important passages relating to Lccle- 
^iiisticdl pisciplihe^ and*' in Vhich he mentions seyen 
ttrkyiers of the sacri^c^. Theise prayers may*§tiir qe rouni 
p the Mbsarabic mass,"which is the ancient Span isl^ liturgy^ 
and of which this saint is known io have been the principal 
author. The edition of thf' Missal, iWo,'fol. a:nd of 5\^ 
Btevikry, 1502, fol! printed by cardinal i^imene^^ ordei^ 
ire^ very scarce ; a Treatise on this Liturgy was printeijd, ^i 

Speaks of the monks as follows :" 7 Th,e. monks 
shall ^teVy ^ear at Pentecost niake a c(eclar^(fioi| tli^t tl)ey 
keep ndthine: as their own. A monk ousht to work With 
Uis nands, accordmg to the precept of qt. Paul, aucf tjhf 
eicaUiple of the patriarchs!' Every on^/ought to lyprk^ ijpf 
duly for' his 'Wn' maintenance, but for that of the. poQi) 
Thosd who are m health, and do not; wqrk^ sip douh>ly, tijjf 
idleness, and setting a l^ad example, ' Those who chusQ 
to read without working^ show that they receive no benefit 
from* what' they read, which commands then^ to work,'* 
This Rdle of St. Isidore "prescribes about six hours work^ 
eVery djaV, and three hours reading. This Isidore; is fre- 
quently ranked among musical writers, lt\ his treatise (^n 
the divine oiBces, much curious information occurs con^ 
cerniug canto fermo, and miisic in general; but particul^Vlv 
its introduidtion into the church, the /institution of the fou^ 
toneb by St. Ambrose, and the extension of that puspbeir 
to ^ght by St. Gregory. ' In treating of secular music^ 
be has' a short chapter on each of the following subjects : 
of music, and its name ; of its invention; its definiiioq;. 
of its three constituent l>arts^ harmonics, rhythm, and 
metre'; of musical numbers; of the three-fold aivision3 oj^ 
music ; 1st, Of the harnionical division o^ music ; 2dly^ 
Of the organic or instrumental division; 3dly, Of the 
rhythmical division. These chapters are very short, ana 
contain little more than conijpressed definitipus oX musical 

«50 I S I D O R E. ^ 

terms. In eoumerating the seven liberal arts, cap. II. hst* 
ranks them in the following manner : grammar, rhetoric, 
logic; arithmetic, music, geometry, astronomy.' , 

ISLA (Joseph Francis D£ U), was a Spanish Jesuit 
who on tb<e^ suppression of his order, went to Italy, and 
settled at Bologna, where he died in .1783. He is known 
chiefly as the author of ** The History of the fanious 
preacher friar Gerund de Campazas; otherwise Gerund 
Zotes/' This work was written with a view to correct the 
abuses of the Spanish pulpit, by turning bad preaichert 
into ridicule. The &rst volume of the original Spanish 
^as published at Madrid, in 1758, under the assumed 
name of Francisco Lobon de Salazar, minister of the parish 
of St. Peter in Villagarcia. It %vas not only . highly ap- 
plauded by many of the learned in Spain, to whom it had 
been communicated in manuscript; but even the inqui« 
sitors encouraged the publication, and bore testimony in 
writing to its laudable design, believing that it would in a 

Srreat measure produce a reformation. One of the revisers 
or the inquisition says, *^ It is one of those lucky expe- 
dients which indignation and hard necessity suggest, when 
the best means have proved ineffectual, and we are not to 
find fault if the dose of caustic and corrosive salts be soa|e<r 
what too strong, as cancers are not to be cured with rose 
water.*' Notwithstanding this approbation of the inquisi- 
tion,' i^ome orders, particularly the Dominican and Men- 
dicant, represented to the king that such a piece of mer- 
ciless criticism would too much diminish the respect due 
to the clergy, and would render all religious orders ridi- 
culous in the eyes of the common people, &c. These ar- 
guments, repeatedly urged by the friars, and supported by 
several of the bishops, obliged the council of Castile to 
take the book into their serious consideration, which pro- 
duced a suppression of it. The author had a second vo- 
lume ready ; but, finding it impossible to print it in Spain, 
presented the copy to Mr. Baretti, by whose means both 
volumes were printed in English in 1771, with the omis* 
sioti of some tedious and irrelevant parts. In Spain this 
work was so highly approved, that the authqr was hailed 
as a second Cervantes, whom he certainly endeavours to 
copy ; but it would be too liberal to allow him the merit 
of successful, rivalship. Friar Gerund, however, is cer« 

< Cave,— J)aprii.— Mor«ri.— Bumey, in Rees*s Cyclopedia. 

I 'S I. A. '«t 

Aiinly a urork of grest^bumour^ and mmt have appeared to 
much advantage in Spain, where the subjects of the satire 
are more cominon and obvious than in this eountry. Here 
it cannot besapposed to yield more than mere amusement, 
unless where it presents us with the customs of the common 
and middle ranks of Spain, and those are said to be faith-^ 
fully depicted J 

ISOCRATE6, an eminent Greek orator, was bom at 
Athens, in the 86th olympiad, five years before the Pelo- 
ppunesian war, and 436 B« C. At an early age he began 
to study philosophy and rhetoric under Gorgias, Prodicus, 
and Tiseas, whose doctrines and eloquence about this pe- 
riod astonished all Greece. It is affirmed that be also was a 
disciple of the celebrated orator Tberamenes, whom the thirty 
tyrants caused to be put to death because he favoured the 
popular cause. He passionately loved glory ; and the de- 
sire of distinguishing himself, and of ' bearing a part in the 
public administration^ animated all his" proceedings. In 
order to this end,; besides possessing information and a' 
tujrn for business, it was necessary to excel in eloquence ; 
but nature having denied him both voice and self-coihmand, 
he directed his efforts to composition, and confined him- 
self to interesting questions, such as appeared to him caU 
culated to render his country bappy^ and his fellow-citi- 
zens virtuous. His talents corresponded wijth the gran- 
deur of his views. Youth flocked from all parts to be bis 
pupils, and to form themselves on his lessons. Some of 
them afterwards became orators, some great statesmen, '■ 
and others polished and profound historians. He died 
loaded with glory and wealth, at the age* of ninety years, 
a few days previous to tbe battle of Chasronea, B. C. 338. 

In the orations of Isocrates, says tbe abb^ Arnaud, his dic- 
tion. is pure ; and no obscure or obsolete phrase disfigures 
his style ; but it is seldom lively, rapid, and vehement ; it 
is various and splendid, but hardly ever simple and natural'. 
Whatever obstructs a smooth pronunciation, Isocrate^ re- 
jects; be studies above all to measure and round his pe- 
riods, and to give them a cadence like that of yerse. Alt 
his discourses are deligfatfiil to peruse, and well adapted' 
for panegyric, but are unfit for the turbulent proceedings 
of the bar, and the tumult attending 'popular harangue^. 
Yet there is sometimes too much aflPectation in his arrange^ 

• Piot. Hilt.— Preface to the TraBftntioD/ : ^ ' 



loent ; bi^ ^gwrns iKff either to^ f^r^&tehed, or duoof dtnl, 
pf ^^tri^vagapt, ap th^ to becojoa^ cold umi fnaiimer€di 
^psidesj; 10 prd^f t^ei ^^^v t^ tune bis stylft, and Bnxmm 
^9 periQ(i(9 w)(b nicf ty, bfl m«be9 u«e af inefficieot wordi^ 
f^pd unnecff s^rily (ei)gtb<^.ii^ wxt bia diwoorsfis. 

Of bis Orations, tbiity-one r^faain ; and among tbe va» 
rious editions published. Dr. Harwood pronounoea that by 
^attie» . Cambridge 1729-^17^ 9 vols, dvo, to be the 

(TTIGIUS (Thpmas)i a learned professor of divinity a| 
Leipsicii was son of Johp Ittigia3> professor of pbymc in 
the s9.Qie i^piversity, and bonn there in 1644. He receivei 
the %s^ part of his ed^cation at Lfiipna ; then went toRoi* 
^qc, ^iid l^s.tly to StEasbiirg9~t«i perfect bis studies ;■ aftev 
^hic)[i be Vfa9 {^dmiU^ed a {mfesaor in philosophy at LetpM 
sip, and pubiis^d a treatise upon bjaming mountains. Hen 
1;h,^n becaip^ a mioii^ter, aud exeroised that funolioii in va^ 
jpious .churches in ^e s|gp:ie plaoe. la 16lia he was aiadci 
«rc^4^a90i|, and liceniUate in dLiFinitg^; and, in 1)691, pro- 
iesi|ior pxivapr^nia^y in the. same faeulty^ apd ordiftaTy pro** 
fj^ssor t^e ensi|ii)g y/ear. He ikhrnid^ several papers' 
publjished ip the I^eipsic Aqts : besides whida we have o6 
hb^ << Di£lsertatio d^ hja^resiai cb«Si asvl apqitolioii c^ prox- 
ijBf^if^ ^' Appendi;;^ de. hq^resiarchia;'' <^ Prolegomena ad> 
Jo^ephi. opera ;" ** Bibliotbeca pslsrum apdstoUooruin Grieh^ 
co-Latin^;'' 'f Qist^d^.aynodoruniinationaliiim in Galtiad^ 
reformf^tis habit:^runi ;'' *^ Liber de bibliotbecis et cateais] 
patram;^' '<. Exhortationes, theologies;'' *^ Histories ed- 
clesiasticsB p^im^ et secundi seculi selects capita^'' Som^^ 
part of tbis last, did not appear till after the death of the* 
autbor, ^hich. bfippeqed April. 7, 1710.' 

IV£S,orYV£$« in Latin Ivo, the. celebrated bishop Of 
Cha;rtres^ was born, in the territory of Beauvais, in 1035. 
He was ri^si^, to the see of Ghartres in 1092 or i.098, 
under tl}^ pontificate of Urban XI. ^^bo had; deposed Geo- 
frpy^^ Qqf.avi^or!fi^)pr^d<^cessor in the. see, for vartons brinies 
of wbicb he w^Siaf^usc^. Ives.panieularly signalized' bis 
zea) ag|M.i]|st, i^hilip.L who had put away bis wife Benhsj 
o^, Qqil^d} aqd tabea Bertrade of Montford, the wife dF 
Fouimqi d4^ B(e<|efti^ Qomnl: of Anjou^ This r divorce was 
contrary; tq, tbf^ejC^lesiastkalilaw.; and. the- affair we«ild- 

' Kabrie. Bibl. OnMXr-'Morcri*— Life by Arnand.— StxH Ononaiticoii, 
• M«reri.— NicaroB, toI. XX1X«— Lardner't Workf»— Saiii Onoma^ooo. 

I V E 6. isi 

b^« he^ti kitkiitSii With hM 66xi%^({U€!titei hid not thi 

pibif^d kknseir #ft<!>N^ m iftf^ filAictionfs of 'his liihibtiy^ 
laadKe ftefvettft rdligibo^ fA^ti^cktioris, HinA died tllS; His 
(H|fp#e ikras int^Md iA tiMef ehUi^ti of St. Jbhti in l!be Tidcl^ 
wbi<eh lie^ had* fotfndMI.' P6p^ PiU^ V. 6y a bnli, datedf 
D«c^. id; ¥570} ^dhiiiM^d^flf« ntoti^s of ttrd' dohgi^^iibri 
of[ LsfeMn to ttVatit&^atf^tiyiV 6f St. f^l^. We hii^e, 
of his compiling, '< A cbUfeiitibn 6t Decreed ;'* ^< Exiiep- 
tiOiie«^eocleMtt9ti^aM»i' f egtila^uiii ;*' beddes' <« 22 SienUoti V' 
aii*a«* Cbi^i^rif* aftS^liitih wdi* 66Hfe6ted iti 1«7 by 
JofMl ddptiMT Sbiicl&t, H' oattbh of Cbattirtsi; iti' one' toL 
moi divided iAt6' panlii Tii6 *< I)ebirees*»' W^e jbrfiiftSfed iti 
1^1 y >fl!nd th^i^ hdHi' te^ii/ aHoth^t dditioh Arite. A eoHefc- 
tiott>oP eauoiir called' tlie « P«nti6nM^;'* df « PabAhtiiay^ 
andlsdme' otha^ pieces' pritiffed- in tfa^ ^ Biftliotb^ca ^a- 
HutAi'^ ai^e dso ascribed to dot bishop: ^ 

I VBS' (Jofiif), WI&' the oiiij' sort of oni^ of tbe ihbst eini'-' 
n^ttt nlleteh^hts atYartnonchy Where'' he was'iibrh in 1751. 
Il6 ' was entferedf of Cains cdll^ge, Cambiidge;. wh^re he' 
did riot* lott^ ifeiidi ; but, returtim^ to Yahttocfth, becatafer' 
*^P"^ttte* with^ tihWr cetebr^ed anttqtfirjr TOonias Martin' 
of PalgitV^/ and caught from hiin that taste fbr antiquities 
Whi^h he puiisued dnfring tbel short peri6d of his life.' He 
fwm* elected F; 81 A: 1771; ahd F. R: S. 1772 ; aA'd; by fa!- 
vwr of the ekrl of SufiblK; in him di^'b6nour of Suffolk 
faferald extraordinary \^\bA revired ; aA:t>ffice a<!tended With 
in^profitj but valuable to'him by the access rt gave to the' 
MS8i muniments, &c; of the heralds ctUegej of which he ' 
theireby became ' ah honority n^ember. His' fifr^ir'attempt^ 
ait antiquarian publication was by propo^sils (Without bis,'* 
namej* in 177i, f6r printing ah' afccount^ of Ldthingland^ 
^undi^- in SnfBlk*; for which he had eri^ravted' sevteral,* 
sfavaU plates of arms- and- moriumedts w the churches of ' 
Ftiaton, Gorleston, Loud, LowestpfFe> and Somerliton; frdfh ' 
hlff own* drawings. His next essay was the short preface^ 
to Mr. Swindon's " History and Antiquities ofdfeat Yar-' 
mouth, in the county of Norfolk, 1772," 4to. Mr.Swih* 
d^Qy who was a schoolmaster in Great YamMiabf "War 4" 
mpost intimate friend of Mr. Ives; who not onty assisted^ 
hhn with his purse, and warmly patroqized him W^^'^ 
living, but superintsonded the book for tbe eiddltniienCof 

1 MoMnfakY«M.^-Ov9e, vol. Ii;--3a«iil9iiMnk«itMift''te Yt^si' 

»5* IVES. 

the . authoi's widow^ and delivered it tp the tubscribers ^. . 
Ii:il77l& he caused tobe cut nine wooden platea of old Norfolk 
seals, entitled ^^ Sigilla antiqua Norfolciensia. Impressit 
Johannes Ives, S. A. S." and a copper*plate portrait of Mr. 
Martin holding an urn, since prefixed to Martinis ** History 
of Tbetford." On Aug. 16, 1773, by a special licence ' 
from the archbishop of Canterbury, he was married at )Lam-^: 
beth church to Miss Kett (of an ancient family in Norfolk), 
andaftervvardsresuled at X^nnoatlk 

In imitation of Mr. Walpole (to whom the first number 
was inscritieii), Mr. Ives began in 1773 to publish ^* Select 
Papers*' from his own collection ^ of which the second num- . 
ber was printed in 1774, and a third in 1775. Amonj;^ 
these are ** Remarks upon our English Coins, from the 
Normau invasion, down to the end of the reign of queeit- 
Elizabeth/' by atchbishop Sharps sir.W. Dugdale's << Di*. 
rections for the Search of Records, and making use of ■'■ 
them* in order to an historical Discourse of the Antiquities 
of Staffordshire *,** with '^ Annals of Gonvile and Caius col- 
lege, Cambridge ;^' the ^^ Coronatioa pf Hendry VIL and 
of queen Elizabeth,'' &c. &c. In 1774 he published, in 
l2mo, '* Remarks upon the Garianqnum of the Roinans ;. 
the sciteand remains fixed and described ;*' with the ichnor 
graphy of Garianonum, two plates, by B. T. Pouncey ; 
south view of it, Roman antiquities found there, map of 
the river Yare, from the original in the corporation chest 
at Yarmouth, and an inscription on the mantletree of a. 
farm-house. He died of a deep consumption, when he 
had just entered his twenty-fifth year, June 9, 1776. Con- 
sidered as an antiquary, much merit is due to Mr. Ives, 
whose valuable collection was formed in less than five years* ^ 
His library was sold by a.uction, March 3 — 6, 1777, in- 
cluding some curious MSS. (chiefly relating to Suffolk and* 
Norfolk) belonging to Peter Le Neve, T. Martin, and 
Francis Blomefield. His coins, medals, ancient paintings, 
and Antiquities, were sold Feb. 13 and 14, 1777. Two 
portraits of him have been engraven.^ 

■ * * * * 

* •* The author,'* says Mr. Ives, and application, will appear in the 

'* doted Ml life and bit work tog«ih«r. - course of the «ork.'* Mr. Swinden Was 

Tha iatt sheet wai ia the press at the buried ii\ the churob of Sc, Nicholas at 

time of his decease. To me he com- Yarmouth, iii the north-aile, where a 

milted the publication of it. A short, handsome mural monument is erected 

hot uaiuterropted, (neDdthip subsisted to hia memory. ... 
between us. His assiduity, industry, 

) Nichols's Bosryer^— Qent H99. LVU and LXIiL^-NbttTi't Collegt of^rms. 
— Qrtufer*t itttart* by Malcolm^ p. 201, 296, &c. 

I V ET A U X. 


IVETAUX (Nicholas Vanquelin, seigneur des), a 
French poet, was born of a respectable family at la Fres- 
naye, a castle near Falaise. He discovered early a taste 
for poetry and the belles lettres, and, after having distin- 
guished himself as a studentri^ Caen, succeeded his father 
^ lieutenant-general of the city ; but the marechal d^Es- 
tr^es persuaded him to resign his post and go to court, 
where he placed him with M. de Vend6me, son of the ce- 
lebrated Gahrielle d*£str£es. It was for this young prince 
that des Ivetaux wrote his poem of '* ^Institution du 
Prince," in which he gives bis pupil very sensible, judi-* 
cious,' and even religious advice. After this he was pre- 
ceptor to the dauphin, afterwards Louis XIII; but his li- 
centipus way of life displeased the queen, and occasioned 
him to be excluded from the court a year after Henry IV. 
died, A pension and several ben^fice.s were,, however, 
given him $ but he afterwards re^igued .bis benefices, on 
being reproached by cardinal Richelieu for hi^ Jibeninism*. 
Thus free from all restraint, dqs Ivetaux retired to an 
elegant house in the fauxbourg St. Germain, where he. 
spent the rest of his days in pleasure apd voluptuousness, 
living in the Epicurean style.. Fancying that the pastpral 
li!fe was the happiest, he dressed himself like: a shepherd^, 
and led imaginary flocks about the walks of his garden,, 
riepeating to them his lays,, accompanied }py, , a ^irl in the 
dress of a shepherdess, whom be had picked up with her- 
barpin the streets, and taken for his mistress*^. Their 
whole ^employment was to seek refiuemf^ntsjn pleasures, 
and every day they studied how to render thjem.more ex* 
quisite. Thus des Ivetaux passed his latter years ;, and it- 
has'been said that he ordered a saraband to be played whi^u. 
he was dying, to sooth his departing soul; but M^.Huet, 
on the contrary, affirms, that he repented of bis .errors at- 
the point of death. However that may be, he died in his 
ninetieth year, at Brian val, near Germigni,. in 1^49.: Be-> 
sides the poem above mentioned, des Ivetaux left stanzas, 
sonnets, and other poetical pieces, in the t^X)^)ice9 de^^a 
Pofisie Fran9oise," Paris, 1620, 8vo. * 

» Moreri.— DictrHist. de L'Atocat; 

'■'i J.': J 


• * 

•f U, K , ■■■ r. 

( 2^8 ) 


Ka8VL. StetAVEl. 
KA'EnnPFElR (EHOtiiBEitV]. in 

b6rn Sept: 16; \65\, ai t^goti 

fab Atbier was ^ miniaier. AftS- s) 

md BMking s (]uicW progress, not; 

gilb^s, but ^so in butory, ^eog^ 

•nd instrumental, be wtjnt to Dantzl 

atby, and gave the 6nt public spf^ 

by a- dissertation " De Divis^oneM 

tbbn went tt> TboVn, indtben'de't 

cb^rr; wh^re^> for tfare« ydsta, st 

fbreign laasu^ea, he' took the d< 

tapby ; iita then wetit to ^ohingi 

h^ siajed fbur^ea^'. All this t 

very intensely to pby'si^' atid natiiti 

veiled to Stteden, vrfiere h'e ibon i 

thef university of Upsal, and to th 

gteat enCourag^r' of learnins ; In 

M^r6 made bitii, ufwti cotidition tb 

Bat 'be cbbae to accept the etnployinent of secretary of the'i^ 

enibbssy, which the court of Sweden' w^ tj^eh sending to^ 

ttJe sopln of Persia ; ahd in this capacity' he set 9ut f^oin 

Stockholm, March 20, 1683. He went throyeh Aalan^^ 
.Finland, and Ingerniatiland, to Narva, wher* ne met Ta-^ 

briciui the ambassador, with whom he arrived at Moscovif,. 
■ thitf 7tb' ofJuiy; The negociations at the Russian court^l 

being ended, they proceeded oii to Persia ;' but had, like^ 

to have been lost in theii" passage over the Caspian s^a,.. 

by all unexpected stbi'm and the unslcilfulness of their ^ 
: pilots. During their stay in G^ot'gia,'Kiempfer went id 

search of simples, and of sU the curiosities that could be 

met with in those parts. He visited all the neighbourhood 

or Siamacbi i and to these labunons and learneaexcursioas 

we owe the many curious and accurate accounts he has 

given us in bia "AmcBuiutea Exotic^/' published atLem- 

gow, in 1713. 

k: A. E M F r « I& ii9 

tbere near two juttn ; diflribg^ i41 Whick timef of his ibodfe 
in the capital of tbd Pefsian em{iire,- Ksnipfeir mndei every 
possible ftdiriuitagcl. The ambaniadof, bdving eftdM hiii 
oegociatioiM i^wftrdi ibe dole of 1686, pirated to rettttb 
ioto Europe ^ but Keempfer did not )udge it elipedietit tb 
rttinn with bkn, resolvif)g to gOfaitMr ibUi ihe east, iMA 
make still gr^a(«r fteqciisitions by tratdlthg. Wiih thlii 
view be entered )nti» the setribe of the Jdntdk E^t-India 
^ottipany^ ill the ^Qality bf ebiefnur^eOti t6 the ^et, Which 
•«vaa then crui^ikig hf the Per^mo Gulpb, btit set oot fer 
Gamrot) Nov. l^^Si He sfayed some time ih Sijfas, Wh^t 
be visited the l^eiMios ef the ancient Persepolis, and the 
foyai palaee of Darius, ihrbose statCeted nnhr i^e stiR itb 
isodeuialde montuuem Of its former spletTdof and gtetft^ 
^ iieBs. . As soon as be arrived a<i Gaiuroti l»e vfks seized v^ttk 
a violent fit of sickne^d, wirich wis hear carrying him 6ilf ; 
bm, hsqipTty #eeove^ng, he spenlt a snniiher in the neij^ 
. bourfaood of It, and mode a gj^eat ntttnber of cuiioas dliser- 
vationB. ~ He did nOt leave tltot city till June 169^^ atld 
then embarked for Batata ^ whither, aftef touching at 
many Dutob settlehients, in Arabia FeKx, on iihe coasts of 
Malabar, in tlie island of Ceylon, tod in the gulpti o^ Betf- 
gal, he arrived in September. This dfy hating been ^ 
/ particularly described by other Wi^iten^, be turned hi» 
thoiighls chiefly to the natural history of die country obotft 
it. He possessed many qnalificatfons necessary for makitrj^ 
a good botanist y he had a competeht kho#led^e of h ih 
ready, a body inured to hardships, a great itotk of indufi^* 
ttry, and an e:tfcellent hand at de^signiiig. Itr May IddtT^ 
ht set otit from Batavia tm his voyage to Japa^^ Hi qtiaticy 
of physvctan te the etobassy, which the Duteh Eost-tn^cM 
-GOMpony used to send Once a year <o tire Jopane^ etit- 
pero/s eourt ^ afid he spent ti^o yeantf ih thi^ couhtty, Mak^ 
ing all the while most diligent reseafthe* in'to etery thi/f^ 
feki«ing «o it.- He qnitted Japonr in order to* return t6 
Europe, Nov. 1692, and Batavia, Feb. 1^691 He sta^^ed 
.^eor a monib at the Cape of GOoduHope, atldt arrived Itt 
lAlnscerdaWi in October. 

> Ap#it 1 #94, be took a doetoir of physlc^s de^ee at Ley^^ 
4eny oa Wbioh occasioirrJie cOnraiutitt^ed, in* his thesis, 
same ^^^ry mguktr obset^votibtn^ whieh we sfaali pfesentt^ 
notice. At his return to his nath^ coiintvy he intended 
imniiediately to digest his papesa and memoirs iflto pyepihr 
Vol. XIX. S 

SS8 It A E M P F E It 

order; iiut, being appoanted physician to bis piriiuiJey b^ 
fell into too much. practice to pursue that design with the 
vigour he desired. He married the daughter of an eminent 
merchant at Stolzeoau in 1700. The long course of tra*' 
vels, the fatigue of his jirofession, and some family-unea- 
siuessesy arising (as it is said) from the debis be had cour 
tracted, had very much impaired his constitution ; so that^ 
after a variety of ailments, he died Nov. 2, 1716« 

His inai^ural dissertation, before noticed, and pub- 
lished at Leyden in 1694, is entitled ** Decas observation 
num exoticarum." Of this an unique copy is preserved in 
Sir James Smithes library. The subjects on which it treats 
are, 1, the agnus Scythicus, or Borometz ; 2, the bitter- 
ness of the Caspian sea; 3, of the native mumia» or bitu- 
men, of Persia ; 4, of the torpedo, or electrical fish of the 
Persian gulph ; 5, of the drug called dragon's blood, pro- 
duced by the ft'uit of a palm ; 6, of the dracanculus of the 
I'ersians, a sort of worm proceeding from a tumour in the 
skin; 7, on the andrum, ok endemic hydrocele of the 
Malabars; 8, on the perical, or ulcer of the feet, funong 
the same people ; 9, on the cure of the colic amongst the 
Japanese, by puncture with a needle ; 10, on the rooxa, or 
actual cautery, of the same people and the Chinese. 
These subjects are, as Haller observes, all of them pro* 
bably treated, more fully in his << Amoenitates Exoticse,.*' 
so ofteh quoted by Linnseus for its. botany, as well as other 
authors for its authentic details, relating to the history and 
manners of Persia^ and other parts of the east. His History 
of Japan is well known by the English translation in folio^ 
and is extremely valued for its accuracy and fidelity. It 
was published in 2 vols. fol. Lond. 1728. Kicmpfer, we 
have remarked, was skilled in the use of the pencil ; and 
some botanical drawings of his, made in Japan, are pre- 
served in the British museum. Of these sir Joseph Banks^ 
in 1791, liberally presented the learned world with 59 folio 
engravings at his own expence. Many of the plants are 
still undetermined by systematic botanists.' 

KAHLER (WiQAND, or John), a learned and inde&ti- 
gable German writer, and Lutheran divine, was born Ja* 
nuai^ 20, 1 649, al Wolmar, in the landgraviate of Hesse* 
CasseL He was professor of poetry, mathematics, and di* 
vipity at Rinteln, and member of the society of Gottingeo. 

• -1 Nicefon. toI. XIX«-^eB. Dict.--M6reTi.^Haneri Bib). B»t.*-R*e8's Cy.^ 
dop«dia,— Life prefixed to lus Hiitory of Japaa. 

K AH'L EH. 259! 

11)1 died M^y 17, 1729, leaving two sods and four daugh< 
ters. A great number of his ^< Dissertations" are collected 
in two volumes, printed at Rinteln, 1700^ and 1711, under 
the title of ^' Dissertationes Juveniles;" the principal are^ 
'^ De oceano ej usque proprietatibus et vario motu; De 
Ubei:tate Dei; De terra; De reflexione luminis gusque 
efFectu; De imputatione peccati alieni, et speciatimAda- 
mici*; De Poligamift,'' ^^c.*" 

KALDI (GfiOHOK), .a learned Jesuit, was born in Tir-« 
naw in Hungary, about 1572, was received into the Jesuits* 
order at Rome, and returning to. his own country, was 
oariisbed into Transylvania, with the other members of the 
society, during the commotions which, at that time, agi- 
uted the kingdom. After this be discharged the. duty o£ 
theological professor in the university of Olmutz, and filled 
some other iinpoirtanl posts in different places. His last 
retreat was to a college which he built at Presburg, where 
be died in 1634. He was regarded as one of the most 
eloquent preachers in Hungary, and published some ser- 
mons, but he is chiefly celebrated for having completed a- 
translation of the Bible from the Vulgate into the Hunga* 
rian tongue, which was printed at Vienna, in 1626.' 

KAL£, or KALF (Willum), a pain ier<of still life, was 
born at Amsterdam in 1630, and was a disciple of Hen« 
drick Pot, a portrait and historical painter ; of whom he 
learned the practice of the art, but from whom he varied 
in the application of it ; and applied his talents, which 
were very considerable, in a close imitation of objects in 
still life ; which he composed with great beauty and effect. 
In the gallery of the Louvre at Paris, are . two exquisite 
works of his, in which he is said to unite the merits of Rem- 
brandt and Teniers. He possessed an eye informed with the 
power of Rembrandt's arrangements and contrast of light 
and shade, and a hand, that managed the pencil with, the 
neatness and correctness of Teniers. He died in 1693.' 


KALM (Pbter), a very celebrated naturalist, wa? a na- 
tive of Finland, and was born in. 1715. Having imbibed 
a taste for the study of natural history^ it appears .that he 
pursued his inclination with much zeal and iiidustry. .His 
first researches, were rewarded by itbe discovery of many 
new plants in Sweden, of which he gave some account to 

1 Moreri.— Diet HistI « Moreru ' 

^ Pllkinj^toQ.— Diet. Hist.--»R^es'8 Cyclopedia. 

■ fe - ^- • • ■ ■. . . 

S 3 

26a K A L M 

tbt b^taniosd world between theyeafil 1742 ind l?i6. He 
#S8 particularly aaitious t6 etflore the Tirtde» of plants^ 
both with ir^spect to their uses in medioine, and in tlvft 
uteful art8^ m thd^t (daoting a^ agriisulture occupied ^m^ 
pd^tion of his attention* Hi& repotation as a naturalist caused 
Mm to be appointed professor at Abo; and in October 1741^^ 
be set out upon bis travel^ ssuHng; from Ootteabwg^et 
America; but, on account of a violent hurricane^ Was obliged 
to take shelter in a port of Norwa/, whence he could not 
depart till the ensuing Febraary, when he proceeded im* 
mediately for London. From hence he went to North 
Ainerica ; and having spent two or three years in eicploring 
whatever was worthy of observation in that country, he 
lieturned to bis professorship at Abo in 1751. The ei^- 
pences of this undertaking appear to have estceeded wbftt 
Was allowed him by the Academy of SeienceSi si> that our 
author was obliged to live nltber penurionsly upon bis re-* 
turn ; yet he found means to^ cuhivate, itt a small garden 
ef bis own, several hundred plants^ for the u^ of the vittU 
versity, as there ww^ no public botankal garden at Abo< Hia 
diacovetieain botany very materiatly enriched the ^'Spetiies 
Plantarum^ of bis great master, and the Linni^ti Herba-« 
yitim abounds with specimens hroiight home by him, dtstln-r 
guisbed by the letter K. HalLer enumerates a long liilt of 
tracts published by Kalm ; and bis inaugural dissertation 

Sheared in the '* Amcenitates Academicse'^ of Linnseus. 
e was originally intended for the ecclesiastical profession, 
but was drawn aside from this pursuit by attending the 
kctures of Linneito on natural history, given in the uni« 
vereity of UpsaL Indeed, it was through tbxd reeornmen*" 
datton of Linnteus that professor Kalm was fi-xed upon to 
undertake the voyage to North America, and the account 
^f bis voyage was published in English by Forster in 177!. 
lie afterwards made, at his own ekpence, a very eitlensrve 
touV into Russia^ the btstd^y of which never appeared in 
print, but which is supposed to have ftirhish^d eonsidfer* 
able iftMitter for the work of a Swedish writer, who ptib- 
Kshed a book of travels in that kingdom. Kalm was at 
menliber of the royal Swedish academy of science^, and 
died in 1779. Bis ci^llection of dried plants, made itl 
bis various journeys, aiDd doubtless valuable for the pnr« 

Eoses of botanical information, is said to remain hi thi$ 
ands of bis family in a scate of neglect. ^ 

1 Stocror's Life of X4Dn»U8,->|IaUer Bibl. Bot— Aees'i Cyclojraedia. 

kant; 'ist 

a « 

KANT (Imbianvbl)) a German writer, who ha^ lateljr 
attained extjraordiDary fame in his own countiy as the in^ 
vetitpr of. a new system bf philosophical opinidns, whiehy 
iMwevev, Ace not Tery likely to reach posterity, was boni 
April 2£j 17249 in the suburbs of Konigsberg, in Pitis$ia^ 
Hjs father, John George Kant, was a sadler, born at 
Memel, but originally descended from a Scotch family, 
who spelt their name with a C; but the pbilosopber, the 
subject of this article, in early life converted the C into a 
K^ as being more conformable to German orthography. 
Immamiel, the second of six children, wap indeibted to his 
father for an example of the strictest integrity and tile 
greatest industry ; biit he had neither time nor talent to%€ 
his instructor. . From bis mother, :a woman of 9oudfd sense 
and ardent piety, he imbibed sentioients of warm and ani- 
mated devotion, which left to the latest periods of bis life 
the strongest and most reverential impressions df her me« 
mory on his mind. He received his first inaitructions id 
reading and writing at the charity-school in his parish ; 
but soon gave such indications of ability and ioctination to 
learn, as induced bis uncle, a wealthy shoe;- maker, to de- 
fray the expence of bis farther education and studies. 
From school he proceeded to the college of Fridericianum. 
This was in 1740 ; and his first teacher was Martin Kaut* 
zen, to whom Kant was stro^igly attached, and who de- 
voted himself with no less zeal. to the instruction of his 
pupil, and contributed very gready to the unfolding of his 
talents. His favourite study at the university was that of 
mathematics, and the branches of natural philosophy coh« 
nected with them* On the completion of bis studied, he 
accepted a situation as tutor in a olergyman*s fairiily. In 
this, and in two other similar situations, he was not able to 
satisfy his mind that he did his duty so well as be ou^t ; 
he was, according to his own account, too much occupied 
with acquiring knowledge to be able to communicate the 
rudiments of it to others. Having,, acted as a 
tutor for nine years, he returned to Konigsberg, and main- 
tained himself by private instruction. In 1746, when 
twenty-'two years of age, he began bis literary career whh 
a soulII worJK, entitled '^Thoughts on the estimation of 
the animal powers, with -strictures on the proofs advanced 
by Leibnitz and other mathematicians on this point,** &c. 
In 1754 he acquired great reputation by a prize essay op 
the levolutieii of the earth lound iit axis ; and the following 

262 ' KAN T: 

year was admitted to his degree of master of arts, and ^li^ 
tered immediately upon the task of lecturing, which he 
.performed for many years to crowded audiences, and pub- 
lished several works, the titles of which are now of little 
importance, compared to his new metaphysical system, 
the first traces of which are to be found in his inaugural 
dissertation, written in 1770, when he was appointed to a 
professor^s chair in the university of Konigsberg ; the sub- 
ject was, ** De mundi sensibilis atque intelligibilis forma 
et principiis." Seated now in the chair of metaphysics,' 
his subsequent publications were almost entirely of this 
nature. He pursued this study with unremitting ardour, 
and entered into all the depths of metaphysical subtlety,- 
in order, as we are told, ^^ to unfold the rational powers 
of man, and deduce from thence his moral duties." It 
was not till 178], that the full principles of his system iip- 
peared in his '' Review of pure reason ;^' and the system it 
contains is commonly known under the name of the *^ Cji-. 
tical Philosophy." As this work had been variously mis- 
represented, he published a second part in 1783, rentitled 
** Prolegomena for future Metaphysics, which are to be 
considered as a science." ' In 1786 he was appointed rec- 
tor of the university, and was a second time jcalled I'o the 
same office, in 17.88 ; and in a few months he was ad- 
vanced to be senior of the philosop^hical faculty. About 
1798, he took leave of the public as an autHoi^, and'soon 
after gave up all his official situations. During bis latter 
years, his faculties were visibly decayed, in which state 
be died Feb. 12, 1804. The character of Kant is said to 
have been contemplated with universal respect and admi^ 
ration, and during his Hfe he received from the learned 
throughout Germany, marks of esteem bordering upon 
adoration.. How far he deserved all this, ^ is very question- 
able. His language is equally obscure, and his reason^ 
ings equally subtle with those of the commentators of 
Aristotle ip the fifteenth century. The truth of this asser- 
tion will be denied by none who have endeavoured to make 
themselves masters of the works of Willich and Nitsch, 
two of his pupils ; and the source of this obscurity seems 
to be sufficiently obvious. Besides employing a vast num- 
ber of words of his own invention, derived from the. Greek 
language, Kant uses expressions which have long been 
i^amiliar to metaphysicians, in a sense different from that 
jA which they ^e generally received; and we have no 

KANT. 263 

doubt that the difficulty of comprehenditig hU philosophy 
has contributed, far more* than any thing really valuable in 
it, to bring it into vogue, and raise the^fame of the au* 
thdr. For the following analysis of his system we are in- 
debted to one of our authorities^ and we might perhaps , 
deserve blame for the length of the article, if it did not. 
appear necessary that some record should remain of a set 
of opinions that once threatened to usurp the place of ali 
true philosophy as well as religion. The reader who studies 
for the practical improvement of his mind, will perceive^ 
at once, that it is the object of all such metaphysical^ 
projectors to render the world independent of revealed 

Kant divides all our knowledge into that which is '^ a 
priori," and that which is *^ a posteriori." Knowledge 
*' a priori" is conferred upon us by our nature ; and know*, 
ledge '^ a posteriori" is derived from pur .seosations, or 
from experience; and it is in this system denominated^ 
^^ empyric." Kant does not, as this division would seem 
to imply, intend to revive the doctrine of innate ideas, 
lie considers all knowledge as acquired ; he maintaina that 
experience is the productrice of all knowledge, and that 
wiUiottt it we could not have had a single idea. Our ideas 
^Va priori," he says, are produced with experience, hut 
not by it, or do not proceed from it. They exist in, .and 
are forms of the mind. They are distinguished from other 
ideas by two marks, which are easily discerned ; they are- 
universal and necessary ; they admit of no exception, and. 
their converse is impossible. Ideas which we derive from 
experience have no such characters. We can imagine 
that what we have seen, or felt, or heard- once, we may 
see, or feel, or hear again; but we do i not perceive any. 
impossibility in its being otherwise.* Thus, f if I see. a 
building on fire, I am certain of this individual fact ; but 
it affords no general knowledge. But if I take twice two 
small balls, and learn to call twice two. four, I shall immer 
diately be_convinced that any two bodies whatever, when 
added to any. other two bodies, will constantly make: the 
sum of bodies four. Experience affords the opportunity, 
of acquiring this knowledge, but it has not giveji it ;^f<»: 
how could experience prove that this truth should neveir 
vary ? Experience must be limited, and cannot teach ^what 
is universal and necessary. It is not exf>erience which dis-. 
cpvers jto usiihat we shall always have the ^rface of a whole 

H# K A N.T. 

fffmmi^ \v Mil^lllgnvg iM l^^sa by tiii* diird pnrl of.kii 

^11 Mver ineel, 

AU pittbeiagMftl Ibritlbi, noeordfttS tn KMt,. aore >< a: 
priim :^\ th^s, tbikC a ^tr»igbt Ibe is the shortest Af bK 
pnaiUe liaes b^twean two gtTen poiots ; that the tinee 
jtflglcs Ml any pkne tfiangle arei always .equal to twa rigbt 
aungles, are propo^tioi^ vhieb are true ^^ a priori.^* Porft 
|AonIedge ^^ a priori/* is tb^t wfaicb ia wkbciut aaj iniKi- 
taee of expeneoce. Two and two mdiko four, is a trutb of 
^bieb the kaowledge is f<a priori;'^ but it is not pure 
loHftwleilge^ because the trutb is pasticmiar. Tfaa ideas of 
substance, and of cause and effect, are ^^ a priori.;^^ find 
^en tbej ate separated fnim ibsi objects ta which they 
ref^y thej^ form^ aceordtpg to this sjxsteai, f' vdd ic)eas.*^ 
2t is our fcqowledge ^' a jpriosi,^^ that is, tbo knowledge 
' Vibi<;h preoedes expeviencQf as to its origin^ wktch reai^aini 
<^perieiice possible. Qnr faeuky of kpovdedge has an 
lefioet on cmr ideas of seniaitio^» aaaJogous to that of i| ifesselr 
iidiieh gives its own form to the liquor with whieh it .is filled^ 
, This, in all kpowl^dge ff a pesteiiiori,^^ thena is sometbiBf^ 
^ a psiori^^V<}®>^^>^ iroiii our faculty of kaowiodge.. AIL 
tbe opesationa of o^f aaiBds,.«U the impressioBs indiidi our 
senses recerre aad ratain, are brought itito effect by the 
oottditions, the forais, whiah exist in us by the pi>ve ideas 
^i a priori^V which, alone Bendes all our other knowledge 
ceirtain. Time and space are the Iwq essential forms of 
the n^ind: the first, for impressions received by the in-^ 
tevnal sense ; the second, for those received by our ex^ 
teciM||l senses. It is by neans of the form ^accy that we 
are enabl^^ ^ a priori,'* to attribute to external objects 
iaipenetrabilily^ divisibility, Jic* ; and it is by meatis of tibe 
form iiTUef that we attribute to any thing duration, sqc* 
ocssiqn, &o. Arithmetic is derived from thf iatenial sense, 
andgeometry from that of our exteroaL Our undevstaodinf^ 
eoUeotsihe ide^s veceived by the impressions m^de on our 
organs of senae^ oonfers on those ideas unity by a parti«o 
cular energy ^^ a prioily^^ and thereby forms the repniesem^ 
lattioQ of eafdi object Thua a peiison is, successively struok 
with ^he impressiona of all the parts which fone a paaticalar 
garden^ His mjiderstanding unites these iinpressions, 00 
the ideaa resulting from them ; and in the unity produced 
by tbeaclr, it acquires the idea of the whole gai«ten# if 
tk» objeejbs which produce tlie knpiPAfsjma aftwrd «dao the 

KANT. 2^ 

ip^ttur of the »4i^a9» tb^o t^0 ideM nre << ^liipjrie */' but if 

4^11 fi^^Pts only ^»fQ)(i U^ fprm^ of the thought the Ui«ar 

4ur^ " ^ priarif'' 

. Judgaieot3 are divi4^4 in%o two species; anafytie tfnd 

^fnf^eti^. An a/2«(yf2c JM^gfnent is tbat in wfaich the attrU 

biyte is the npere df velopem^Qt of ibd subject, and is found 

by (he siipple analysis ot' the pereeptton ^ as, a triangle hat 

t)ifee si^es* A synt/^etic^^t judgment is that in which the 

attribute is connected with the Subject by a cause or basii 

^^ from the faculty of ktiowledge, which renders thif 

eonneptioo necessary ; as, iron is heavy ; wood is combus* 

fciblep the three Asgles of a plaue triangle are equal tor 

twa right apgles. 

The fofvns of the understanding are, in this system, quan^^ 
iftyy quality, relation, modality. Saenli/y is distingpished 
iptp ^ener^l,^ particular, and individual; puifity, into af^ 
4rf9i^MW» iies^l^)^ infinite; relattan^ into categoric, hypo- 
ljietic» iied qisjonouve; and modaliiyy into problematic^' 
<}erta<itb aud neoe^sarj* M. Kant adds likewise to the pro-' 
pertiif^ of the four principal forms of the understanding ^ 
tftjpilf^ of categories, or ftindansental ideas, ^' a priqri.'* 
. Pure, reaaotv i^ the faeuhy of tracing oar knowledge '^ a 
pr4oii»*' to si^ligeet it to principles, to trace it from its' tie* 
<^asary cpoditiopsi till it bevemirety without condition, and 
iQ caiepJie^ Moity. The great work of Kant is divided into 
several pv^rts, under the titles, ^^ Of Esthetic transcen- 
dental ;" *^ Of transcendental L<ogie ;'* ^* Of the pure 
Ideas of the Understanding;'* ^< Of the transcendental 
Judgfoept ;" ^^ Of the Paralogism of pure Reason,^ &c. 
We cwQOt, from the nature of our work, discuss alt the 
parts of the system ; but may observe, that the author con- 
l^da that we know objects only by the manner in which 
tbejT aS^ot lu ; and as the impressions which they make 
iipon us are ool^ certain apparitions or phenomena, it is 
ip|x>SBible for us to know what an object is in itself. Hence 
the system of Kant has been compared with that of Berke- 
ley* which maietaioa that sensations are only appearaneesy 
ai^d thikt there is ne truth, only in our r^ison. But Kant 
4ee4 nqt. go to this length* According to his theory, the un« 
dersteniting^ when it coneiders the apparitions or pheno- 
^eea, iK?km>vledges the exialence of the objects themsel ves, 
aiMPiDliehas^lh^ sierve &r the bases of those apparitions ; 
itbough we :liMW Mtbing of their reality, and though we 
eiA hi^'M oMtiiaqr: hot in esperieii^e. ^ 

4«iR K A N T. 


. Trutbi according to our author, consists in the agreement 
of our notions with the objects, in such a manner as that all 
.men are obliged to form the same judgment : belief con* 
Asts in holding a thing to be true, in consequence of a 
persuasion which is entirely personal^ and has not its basis 
in an object submitted to experience. There is a belief of . 
dj^ctrine, as, that '^ there are inhabitants in the planets/' 
which is not the same as moral belief; because in moral 
belief there is something necessary. The ordinary mode 
of teaching the existence of God belongs to the belief of 
doctrine ; and it is the same with regard to the immortality 
of the soul ; nevertheless, . the author was a firm believer 
in the existence of God, and a future state ; because, 
said he, ^^ 'this. persuasion renders immovable my moral 
principles-— principles which I cannot reject, without 
xendering. myself contemptible in my own eyes. I wish 
for happiness, but I do not wish for it without morality ; 
9iid as it depends oh nature, I cannot wish it with this 
condition, except by believing that nature depends on 
a Being who causes this connection between morality 
and happiness. This- supposition is founded on the want 
or necessity of my reason, and not on my duty. We 
have, however,"' says Kant, ^^ no certainty in our know- 
ledge of God ; because certainty cannot exist, except 
when it is founded on an object of experience. The pbilo* 
sopher acknowledges that pure reason is too weak to prove 
the existence of a being beyond the reach of our senses. 
The necessity of believing in God is, therefore, only sub- 
jective, although necessary and general for all those be- 
ings who conform to their duty. The proofs of natural 
theology, taken from the order and beauty of the universe, 
are proofs only v in appearance. They resolve themselves 
into a bias of our reason to suppose an infinite Intelligence, 
%he author of all that is possible ; but from this bias it does 
not follow that there really is such an aulhor. To say^ 
that whatever exists must have a cause, is a maxim '* a 
priori ;"' but it is a maxim applicable only to experience : 
for we know not how. to subject to the laws of our percep- 
tions that which is absolutely inde.pendent of them. It is' 
impossible to know that God exists ; but we can compre*^ 
hetid how it is possible to act morally on the supposition of 
the existence of an intelligent Creator, -^ an existence 
which practicaji reason forces theoretical reason to adopt. 
This proof not only persuades, but ev^a aotsoQ the coti-f 

KANT, 26*: 

Victioo, in proportion as tbe inotiv!e8 of .our actions are 
conformable to the law of morality. Religion onght to be 
the means of virtue^ and not its object Man has not in 
himself the idea of religion, as he has. that of virtue* The 
latter has its principle. in the mind : it exists in itself, and 
not as the means ofbappiness ; and it may be taught with*, 
out the idea of God, for tbe pure law of, morality is ** a 
priori." He who does, good by inciination, does not act' 
morally. There are compassionate minds, which. feel an* 
internal pleasure in communicating joy around them, and 
who thus enjoy the satisfaction of others ; but their actions^ 
bbwever just, however good, have no moral merits and 
may be compared to other inclinations ; — to that of bonour, 
for example, which, wbile it meets with that which is just 
and useful, is worthy of praise and encouragement, but 
i^ot bf any high degree of esteem. According to Kant, we 
ought not even to do good, either for the pleasure which 
we feel in doing it, or in order to be happy, or to render - 
others happy ; for any one of these motives would be em* 
piric, and injure the purity of our morals. We ought to: 
act after the maxims derived ^' a priori,^' from the faculty 
of knowledge, which carry with them the idea of neces- 
sity, and are independent of all experience ; after the 
maxims which, it is to be. wished, could be erected into 
general laws for all beings endowed with reason. 

If this, says a judicious writer, be a correct view of the 
object and the results of the Critical Philosophy, we con- 
fess ourselves unable to discover any motive which should 
induce our countrymen, in their researches after trutli, to 
prefer the dark lantern of Kant to the luminous torch of 
Bacon. The metaphysical reader will perceive, that, iti 
this abstract, there is little which is new except the 
phraseology, that what is new is either unintelligible or 
untenable, and that his opinions on the existence of tbe ' 
Supreme Being have a manifest tendency to atheism* 
With these sentiments of Kant's philosophy, we hear with- 
out surprize or regret that it is already much neglected in 
Germany, and will probably soon fall into utter oblivion.* 

KASTNER (Abraham Gothelf), an eminent matbe- 
matician, and professor of mathematics at Gottingen, was 
bpm at Leipsic, Sept. 27, 1719. He had part of his edu- 

1 Dr. Gleig'8 Supplement to tfie EncyclopsBdia Britaonics, a reiy elaboratt 
^nd yalual^le article.— 'Rees's CyclopsMii?* 

26S K A S T N £ R. 

cation at homes tmder his father and uncW, both of whonr 
were lectiimr^ on jurispradence, and men of general lite- 
rature. In 1731 he attended the philosophical iectnres of 
the celebrated Winkler, and next year studied natheinatics 
under G. F. Itiohter, and afterwards under llausea ; hvA 
practical astronomy being at that period very little encou* 
raged at Leipric, h^ laboored for some yeaiB under great 
dificolties for want of instruments, and does not appear 
to have made any great progress until, in 1742, he formed 
ao acqiiaiataHce with J. C. Baomann, and by degrees 
acquired such helps as enabled him to make several obser- 
vatiens. Heinsius was his first preceptor in ajgebra ; and^ 
19 17M, he was inrited to Gottingen, to be professor of 
mathematios and moral philosophy, and afterwards became 
secretary of the royal society, and had the care of the 
obserratory on the resignation of Lowita in 176S; but, 
notwithstanding his talents in astronomy and geography^ 
the services he rendered to ^mathematical sciences in 
general are more likely to convey his naane . to postertiy. 
He exerted himself with the most celebrated geometers of 
Germany, Segner, and Karsten, to restore to geometry ita 
ancient rights, • and to introduce more precision and accu* 
racy of demonstratipn into the whole of mathematical 
analysis. The doctrine of binomials ; that of the higher 
equations ; the laws of the equilibrium of t¥9o forces on the 
lever, and their composition ; are some of the most im- 
portant points in the doctrine of mathematical analysis and 
mathematics, which KaUtner illustrated and explained in 
such a manner as to excel all his predecessors. Germany 
is in particular indebted to him for his classical works on 
every part of the pure and practical mathematics. They 
unite that solidity peculiar to the old Grecian geometry 
witb great brevity and clearness, and a fund of erudition, 
by which Kistner has greatly contributed to promote the 
study and knowledge of the mathematics. Ksbtner^s talents, 
however, were not confined to mathematics : his poetical 
and humorous works, as well as his epigrams, are a proof 
of the extent of his genius ; especially as these talents 
seldom fall to the lot of a mathematiciao. How KastQer 
acquired a taste for these pursuits, we are told by himself 
in one of his letters. In the ^arly part of his life he 
resided at Leipsic, among friends who were neither mathe- 
maticians nor acquainted with the sciences ; he then, as he 
tells us, contracted ^< the bad habit of laughing at others ;*' 

K A S T N £ R. SK9 

but he used always to i ay, Hanc veniam doTims pitinho^ 

' K&stfiei' died at Got^ingen, June ^130, 1800/ Betifdtfl 
works on the pure and prftctioal tnathetnatios, We 9it6 in4 
debted to Kibtaer for a history of the matbeiMAties, fmttt 
the refvival of literature to the end of the ^i^teenth cefn^ 
tury. :Y6l I. contains arithmetic, algc^hl, She elements tf 
geometry, trigonometry, and practical geometry, aAd wtti 
{)ablisbed at Gottingeo, 1796, and art appendix in lf97« 
Vol. II. which appeared art the same time^ ^ emhrtioes pe^-^ 
apective geometricial analysis, and the higher georttel^y, 
mechanics, optics^ aild astronoiliy.^ 

KAUFFMAN (Mary Angelica), a female artist, w^ 

known in this country, was born in 1740, at Coh'e, tfcfer 

capital of -the Grison% and received tbe^ eiem^ntd' of art 

from her fathet, who, on some surprising pi^6ofe 6f h^ 

early Capacity, at the age 6f fourteen), conducted- hef to 

Miko^ and, after some years* practice there and elsewbifrW^^. 

to Robie, where her talent^ cbarftis, accSoniplishtnent^, dftd 

graces, soon rendered her an object of general adminltioh : 

in 1764 she removed to Venice, and in the following year 

accbmpwiied lady Wentwortb, the wiH^ of the Briti^ teA^ 

4ent, to Enghnd. Here, cnjoyinfg royal favour, the i«W- 

tress of public taste, loved, esteemed, perhftp^ ebvidd 'by 

artists, decorated with academic honours, opulent Hftd 

happy, she sunk her own name in that df sir A. ZUdChi, a 

Venetian airtist, whom she married^, Sfnd, after a residetf e^ 

of seventeen years, returned, through her native pkide, to 

Italy, andserttled at Rome; where, after a new career of 

iuccess^ eoUrted, employed, and rewarded, by monarehs, 

prmces, and the most distinguished travellers, she died in 

IS07, of gradual decay, resigned, regretted, sind honot^- 

ed by splendid obsequies. 

Mr. Fuscli, who was honoui'ed by the* friendship of Ata* 
getica, and cfaeririies her memory, say^, that be *' bas n6 

* Iq the Cyclopaedia, we are toldt kindness, but treated berrfnry iU^ At 

that after some years residence here, last, however, by a payment mode to 

iSie wet tmhiiippily dee«ived by A fa(ot'> him of 300/. he wa!i induced i6 rettirii 

nsM of a Germaa county whoj. cofDiag to Oieriiiai^, and^pruikijfted ttBte# t6 

to England, persoo^Lted his master, molest her uny more. He kept- bit 

eoiltriVed to be pres^ted^ at court, add engagement ; and the lady not' liearing 

ibrsuAded Angeiicar to marry hilML The of Hitt for Seireli^yeilrs) ai^eeneltiAli^ 

cheat was soon discovered, and the him dead, then married an Italiam 

rascal bad not the humanity to endea- painter of the nasve of 2^gebi, 
Vttiif to sooth ber disappointment by . 

* Tillocb*s Philosophical Magazine, toK IX. 

tlQ K A U F F M A N. 

yfiA to contradict those who make success the statidftrd df . 
genius^ and as their heroine equalled the greatest- names-' 
ill the firsts'* suppose that she was on a level with thein in , 
powers. Angelica pleased, and deserved to please, the age 
i^D which she lived, and the race for which she wrought. 
The Germans, with as much patriotism at least as judg- 
9^nt, have styled her the Paintress of Minds (Seelen Mah« . 
ierin) : nor can this be wondered at from a nation, who, 
in-A. IL.Mengs, flatter themselves to possess an artist equal 
to Raffaello. The male and female characters of Ange-* 
Ijca never vary in form, features, and expression, fr^m^ 
the favourite ideal she had composed in her mind. Her 
heroes are all, the man to whom she thought she could have 
submitted, though him perhaps she never found ; and to' 
bis fancied manner of acting and feeling, she, of course, 
submitted the passions of the subject. Her heroines are! 
herself; and[ wbibt suavity of countenance and alluring 
graces shall be able to divert the general eye from the 
sterner demands of character and expression, can never 
fail to please*'^ 

. Angelica painted the lighter scenes of poetry with a 
grace and taste entirely her own ; and happily formed to 
meet that of an engraver whose labours highly contributed 
to the growth and perpetuity of her fame. Bartolozzi was 
the man, who, enjoying at the same time, youth, health, 
and ingenuity,, almost entirely devoted his talents between 
Angelica and Cipriani. The three were endowed with con* 
genial feelings in arts ; which, if not of the highest class, 
were certainly entitled to rank among the most agreeable.'^' 
KAYE, KEYE, CAY, or CAIUS (John), a learned 
English physician and co-founder of Gonvil and Caius 
cpUege, Cambridge, the son of Robert Kaye, of a Norfolk 
family, was born at Norwich, Oct. 6, 1510. After having 
received his school education at Norwich, he was admitted 
very young of Gonvil-hall, of which he became fellow. 
While here, among other proofs of literary application, he 
informs us that at the age of twenty-one, he translated out 
of Greek into Latin, Nicephorus Callistus^s treatise of 
** Confession in prayer,** another of Chrysostom, on the 
^* manner of prayer;** and out of Latin into JEnglish, Eras« 
mus's paraphrase on Jude. He also epitomized bis bool^ 

t Piikmgtoo, by Fuseli, in art. Zaochi.— Qent. Mas- ▼oU J^XXyiU.^Mfpf 
ntBan, toI. III. aod IV.— Reel's Cydopsdia. 

KAY E. 271 

•^Dc Vera ThedlogW* The study of divtaity mj^i pi 
bably bare engaged bis attention at this time) but we find 
tbat when he went afterwards, according to the cudtom of 
the age> to Italy, he studied physic under the' learned 
Mpntanus, and soon became himself so eminent in that 
faculty, as to read lectures in the university of Padua for 
some years. We also find him reading lectures on Aris- 
totle at that university about 1542, but he took his cfector's 
degree \at Bononia. In 1543 he travelled through 'the 
greatest part ,of Italy, Germany, and France,' and on his 
return to England, commenced M. D. at Cambridge, and 
practised both at Shrewsbury and Norwich with such suc^ 
cess, as to be considered oae of the \ ablest physicians in 
JEngland. It was doubtless this high reputation which pro* 
cured him the honour of being successively physician to 
Edward VI. queen Mary, and queen Elizabeth. 
' In 1547, he was admitted fellow of the college of phy- 
sicians ia London, of which he held all the higher offices, 
of censor, president, &c. and upon every occasion shewed 
himself a zealous defender of the college's rights and 
privileges, and a strict observer of her statutes, never, even 
in advanced life, absenting^ himself from the coniitia, or 
meetings,, without a dispensation. He also compiled the 
annals of the college from 1555 to 1572, entering evef:y 
memorable transaction in its due time and order. In 1557^ 
being in great favour with queen Mary,- and,^ it is said, 
almost an oracle in her opinion, he determined to employ 
this influence in behalf of literature in general, and ac^-* 
co(;dingly obtained a licence to advance GonviUfaall, in 
which he had been educated, into a college. As yet it 
was not a corporation, or body politic ; but, by Caius's in-^ 
terest at court, it was now incorporated by the name of 
Gonvil and Caius College, which he endowed :widi con* 
siderable estates, purchased by him , on the dissoliitidn of 
the monasteries, for the maintenance of an additional num« 
ber of fellows and scholars. He also built, at his-own ex* 
pence, the new square called Caius Court. The first sta- 
tutes of this new foundation were drawn up by him, and 
that he might have the better opportunity of consuhing its 
interest, be accepted, and retained, the mastership, almost 
as loiig as he lived. Some short time before his. decease 
he caused another master to be appointed in his room, biit 
continued in college as a fellow-commoner, assisting daily 
at divine service in a private seat in the chupel, which he 


K At % 

had bttik f9t UamOL Her* ;be didi July 2f , 1 573,^ ^nA 
ins buried in the cotlege-cbepal^ mA ibe sb^Tt efikapink 
** Foi Caiits. Vivii post fimeni virtas/* 

Caius's feligtous principteft bikte been dMpetecL IM 
anott probable conjecture is, tbat be bAd a i^ret mdiiul^ 
tioa to tbe primsiples of hi» early yeal^^ but confo/ttM^^ 
at Itfast in outward pbsen^nees, to the ref6muitk)b.i* Mi 
latter days* Of bis learning tbere is no difierettcc} i^i^ 
•ion. It was various and ejrtcasive ; and his bnowleidg^ of 
the Greek language^ particolaHy^ gave hiifr a sajMridtit]^ 
bver BKMa of his oonienporftriesy the study of that' ten** 
guage in this ' country being then in \t» infancy. His teal 
for tbe ialeresis of learning appears from his niauificett<id 
to bis alma aiater» and the same motive led faim in 155YS6 
erect a monument in St< Paul's cathedral to the edebriitedf 
Linacre* Ak an author, be wrote much ; but some of hii 
wofks have not been pubUsbed. H^ retis^, cmrre^tied, 
and translated several of Galen's works, piHnted at difieietkt 
tianes abroad. He published also, I. *< Hippocrat^fs Ai 
Medicamentis,*' fi^t discovered in MS. by him ; also ^''di^ 
imtione Yietus,'' 9vo. 2. <« De medendi metbodb/* B$M^ 
l:i4>4, Lood.l55e, 8vo. 3. '<De Ephemera Brtcatittica^^ 
or an account of tbe sweating sickness in England, hMdl 
\i56^ and reprinted so lately as 1721. 4. <<De Tbermi* 
Britaooicis." 5. << Of some rare Plante add Animab,*^ 
Londi i570« 6. <<De Canibus Britannicis,'* Lond. 157&, 
wA kiserted entire in Pennant's ** British Zoology.** ti 
<^ De proounciatione Griecd et Latinae iiugaae,** Lcuhd; 
U^t^f with several other works, a history of bis college, 
Cia stilt in manuscript *. One only of his works we r^« 
serve for a more particular notice. This was bi^ Hiitor^ 
of tbe university of Cambridge, occasioried by the appig^i 
ance of a work written by the subj^te of our neitt Aiii6tet 
ui which it was asserted that Ottotd wto the m6st MdtMl 

-» ThirtitoSDifidenM AOcally M 
nfioverinn Uie proper titlat aud dates 
of books of the sixteenth century ; and 
I^M, Pittk and ereii tanner, often 

S'w m$ Mfiftrate pnUtcafeioitt* vlua 
elong to a collection. We are not 
iute that ill the above litt we hAve not 
laUea into the latne 6rror ; but we ean 
refer the reader to a very aearce vo^ 
lUUe, in which {he -best oi Carat's 
tticts are to be found, and hi which 
they were collected by the author. It 

is MIltM, « J. 0ail BritiriHii t>fi«M 
aliqiDiotet VefMonMt partiia jfsr Mdijl 
partim recognita atque aucta.". Lo^ 
vaine, 1556, 8^0. To t»is editi6& ii 
imeAsted a- prim of Dr; Oalts^ HiB^ 
rately cut in wood, with «1m|^ heafrdg 
according to the custom of the age. 
Dp. Jebb*s volmAe of Cfaias^s ti^6t* ilir< 
oMes, « De Oadibuei*' ** De far|iS 
AnioBelibus ;"^ <* De librkr proprSit ;' 
and *« De pnmoncitttidiie Of. ^ toL^ 


K A.Y E. ^9 

9aAw0nii^9 Ib^ndtd by apme Greek pbilosopheris ib^ C4in« 
{Htfmnii of Bruttt«» und restored by king Airred in $7Q^ 
cooaequendy crfder tbiin Cambridge. Pr. Caiii4) hQweyer» 
oompleiiely defeated his antagonist by going farther back 141 
eooient Jbiatory, and aaterting, thai Cambridge was founded 
fay Centaber, 394 year* before Christ,. end consequently 
snw 1S67 years older than Oxford ! Strype says ^nt Geiuf 
inMiahed. this work (io U68» iMra) attbeiQOtion of arcb^ 
biflkop Parker. It is to be regretted that either sbotild 
liave eesbarked in so ridiouloos a oontroversy. ' 

KAY, or CAIU8 (Thowas), the antagonist of Dr* Caitis 
jn die a^qoicy of the univeraitiesf was bom, as Wood eonr 
jeefcures, in Lioookisbire, but, acoording to Bkmiefield^ 
fNas/of a Yorkahire family. He was, however, educated a^ 
Vttiverisity college, Oxford, where he entered about ibe 
fear tsas* In I5d5, he was ^oted fellow ef All 8ooli» 
where he took bia degrees in arts,, and at thai time was 
eateemed an excelleot Latin scholar, GreeiaOf and poet 
ib 1534, be was afianimonsly chosen registrar of the i>Qi«- 
asersity ; bat» in 1538, waa deprived of this office for negU<* 
|;Moe. Soon after thie accession of queen Elisabeth^ he 
wsm oade prebendary of Saltabury. In IS^U be waa 
eleeted maeter of Uaiversity eolbge, to which be waa 
WWwatds a eonsiderable benefacuw; and^ in 15«S, he 
4ras instituted to the rectory ef Tredingtoa ia Worcester*- 
4hi0e. He died in his college, in. 1572, and was buried in 
tke chiifcb of St. Peter's in the East. He was well versed 
iiifsacredand pro£sne learnings but, according to 8aitfa| 
negfigeiit and cavelesft in some partt of biaoeiiduct. He 
transbkted Enamos^a ^* Paraphrase on St. Mark/* by com^ 
eiand of qneeo Catherine Parr, Load. 154^; and likewise 
made translatipna frem. the Greek of Aristotle, Eortpidea, 
&a. bat which do not appear to ha^ebeea printed. Wha^ 
ppeaervea.bis aienMvy is his vindieativo^f the antiquity of 
Oxford, mentioned in the preceding article, entitled, 
^^ Aasevtie antiqiiitaiia Oaoniensis aeadi^niiB,*' printed with 
Da. JohnCaina*a aaswer, 1568, 1574, and again by He^me 
S vxds. 9vo, 1790* Mr. Smit^^ in bis history of Uoiverr 
aiiy College, ha» nearly answmd Caius^a ai^pmenu iw^ 
apecting Alfred. * 

> Biw. Brit—Stnrpe'i PvIb^j^ )99^201, «57, 380.— P^k's J^fiaMu « 
« Ath. Ox. ToL I.^SAith'j MijB»U of Qnlferiity Colkre, p. ISt. 


474 K E A C H. 

KEACH (Benjamin), a Baptist divine of conmdferable 
note in his day, and some of whose writings are still poptfi 
lar, was born Feb. 29, 1640,' at Stokehaman in Bqdcing- 
barh^hire : be appears to have had no regular education^ 
owing to the poverty of his fjarents, and for some time 
worked at a trade. He read rnuch^ however^ in the reti* 
gious controversies of the times, and ent^taining doabti 
of the validity of infant baptism^ was hinisdf re- baptised 
by immersion, when in his fifteenth year, and joined him* 
self to a congregation of Baptists. Between this and his 
eighteenth year, he probably studied witb' a' view to the 
ministry, as at that latter period, he became a preacher, 
and some time after his settlement in London, attached 
himself to the particular or Calvinistic Baptists. After 
the restoration, he frequently was involved in prosecutions, 
owing to the bold avowal of his sentiments, especially in a 
little tract called «< The Child's Instructor," in whi«h he 
asserted that infants ought not to be baptised; tfaait laymen,^ 
having abilities, might 'preadi the gospel, tce^* .For this 
he was tried at Aylesbury assizes, Oct 8, 1664, andsen- 
tenced to imprisoi^ment and pillory, the latter of which 
was exiecilted:at the market-place of Winslow, where be 
was then- a preacher. In 1668 be was ehoaen pastcnr of a 
congreg«itiou oip Baptists in Goat^yard passage, Hortiey^ 
down, Southwark. In 1674 ^nd soma following yearsy be 
bad a controversy, ooncerning his particular tenets,, with 
Baxter, Burkttt, Kiavei, and others, and with someof hi^ 
own persuasion, coiiceming certain minute points of- dis^ 
cipline. He was in all his opinions sincere, and accoanted 
a man of great. piety, and of very considerable knowledge, 
£onsidering tbd want of early education and oppottunitiea. 
He died July 18, 1704, and was interred in the bufiaU 
ground beloi^ing to :tb0 Baptists, in the Park Sk>iitbwavlc. 
lie published* a great many tracts, some controversial and 
some practical. His <* Travels o£ True Godliness," and 
^< Travels of Ungodliness,'' vrritten in the manneriof Bont* 
yan, have passed tUrongh ipany editions, and are still pitf*. 
pillar;, but bis. ablest worlds are his }^ Key tox»pen Scrip- 
ture Metaphors,'', first puUisfaed in I6d2;. and hit> ^ Ex^ 
position of the Parables," 1704, both in fblio.i . 

KEATE (Gborge), a very agreeable English writer, vvas 
descende^l from sir .George Hungerford, his great grietnd- 

" Crosby's Hist, of the Baptists.— Wilson's Hist, of JOissenHnf Chnrohet^ 

K E A T E. 219: 

ftitber, by lady Fraaces Dueie, only dniigbter of Fraoci:)' 
lord Seymour, . barofl of Trowbridge. He was bom, as. 
may be conjectured, about 1729 or 1730, and received bi»-. 
education at Kiogston school, under tbe rev. Mr. Woode- 
son. From thence be went to Geneva, vbere be. resided, 
some yeairs ; and during bis stay therei became acquainted-. 
vf%th V^oltaire, with wh^ be continued to correspond many* 
years after he returned to Englaud* After fiiiisbing tbe. 
tour of Europe, be settled as a student in tbe Inner Tern-, 
ple^ was called to tbe bar, and sometimes attended Wester r 
mioster-liaU ; though be did not meet with encouragement/ 
enough tp induce his perseverance in his profes^ioni noi? 
indeed doe? it se^m probable that he bad sufficient appli-r 
cati<m for it. His first performance was '^Ancient and 
Modern Rome,*' a poem, written at Rome in 1755, .and. 
pubii^ed in 1760, with merited applause* Soon after, be. 
printed ^* A short Account of the Ancient History, present* 
Government, and Laws of tbe Republic of Geneva." . This 
work be dedicated to his friend Voltaire. .In 1762 hei 
produced an ^^ Epistle from lady Jane Gray to lord Guild- 
ford Dudley ;'' and in 1763 ^< Tbe Alps," a poem, whichi: 
for truth of description, elegance of versigcation, and vi-) 
gour of imagination, greatly surpasses all his other poeti-; 
cxd. productions, la. 1764 he produced '^ Netley Abbey;** 
and io 1 765, the ^^ Temple. Student, an Epistle to a Friend," 
ini.wbioh be agreeably rallies his own want of application in 
theL study of tb^e. law, and intimates bis irresistible penchant 
for the belles lettres.. In 1769. be married miss Hudson^ 
of Waolip, Leicestershire. Some months before which, he 
bad published '^ Ferney," an epistle to Mons. de Voltaire, in 
which be introduced a fine eulogium on Shakspeare, which, 
procured him, soon after, the compliment, from the mayor 
apd burgesses of Stratford, of a standisb, mounted with siU 
ver, made out of the • mulberry-tree planted by tbatillus* 
trious.bard. In- 1773 be published ^< The Monument in 
Arcadif^," a dramatic poem, founded on a well-known pic- 
tuj^e of Poussin; and in 1779, ^ Sketches frbm Nature,* 
taken> and coloured in a Journey to Margate," 2 vqIs. . 
13mo, an imitatioQ of Sterne's '* Sentimental Journey."-^* 
In. 1781 be collected, his poetical works in two volumes, 
with a dedication to. Dr. Heberdec\, including a number of 
new. pieces never before printed,, and an ]excellent por* 
trait of himself. , Of these pieces^ one was ^* The Helve- 
tiad)" afragnoent, written at Geneva^ in 1756, He bad. 

T 2 

27t K £ A T £. 

iiitei>d6d to eotnpofte a poem of tome long^, on tbi^ 
vofojeet of the emancipation of Swit2etland from tbe ep^ 
pre«ston of the house of Austria, and bad even iettled the 
plan of bis work, when he acquainted M. Voltaire with bia 
iotentiOQi wbo advised him rather to employ hit time on 
tUljects more likely to interest the public attention ; 
f< For/* said be» << should you devote yourself to tbe eom^* 
pletioa of your present design, the S^iss would be mtMb 
obliged to yoo^ without being able to read yoti, and die 
rest of the wdrld would care little aboat the matter.^ 
Whatever justice there was in this remark, Mr. K- reliti* 
^uished his plan, and never resumed it afterwards. In 
1781, he published an ** Epistle to Atigelica Kaoffman." 

A few years after he became engaged in a long and velr- 
atioua lawsuit, in consequence of the neglect (to say the 
leaat of it) of an arehitect who professed himself to be bis 
friend ; the particulars of which it is of no importance to 
detail. At the conclusion of the business be shewed that- 
his good humour bad not forsaken him : and in 17H7 he 
gave to the public the priiicipal circumstances of his cstte 
in a performance entitled *' The Distressed Poet, a serio- 
eomic Poem, in three cantos,** 4to, with some pleasantry, 
and without any acrimony. 

In the next year, 1788, tbe last of his productions ajfi-- 
peered; and the composition was very honourable to his 
rufents and bis liberality. In 1782, the Antelope packet 
was shipwrecked on tbe Pelew Islands, where the com- 
mander, ci^tain Wilson, and his crew lived some time bW 
fore th^ could get oif* The circumstances attending this 
extraordinary deliverance having been communicated to'Mr. 
Keate, he offered to draw up the narrative of them for tbe 
advantage of his friend captain Wilson. This he executed 
in <^A{i Account of the Pelew Islands, sttoated in tl^e 
westorn part of the Pacific ocean ; composed from the 
journals and communications of captain Henry Wilson ahd 
some of his officers, who in August 17S3 were there ^h)p- 
wrecked, in the Antelope, 4 packet belongingtothe honolir- 
able East India Company," 4to, a work written \iirith gviat 
elegance, compiled with much care, and which, ifeml^U 
lisbed (as it certainly appears to be) with facts better -eaU 
culated to have found a place in a novel than a igeAirine 
narrative, must be ascribed to the mls-infermatien^of 
those who wef^ actors in the aceue^. ai^d Xfixi9t first ha/ve 
deceived before they obtained credit. Mr. Keate (who 

K £ A, T £, M7 

» ■ 

undertook ^e task oo.tbe moAt disinterested principte, a^d 
Uerived 190 . advaQtai^e whatever from the worU) «m tM 
ilprcliy jL moralist tO! bad any band in the impogitioff* 
, : Brides tbe.pie^e^ already men timed, Mr. Keate waf 
tibe aiitbqr of. many prologues and epilogues^ apdieit at 
IVIr» Newcomb*« school at Hackney ; and of other ocea- 
' siociai .verses in. the literary journals, not, however/ of aaf- 
fideot importance to be enumerated. He bad abo 
4^dapted bis friend Voltaire's ** Semiramis*' to the stag^ ; 
but this was attperseded, in 1 777p at Drury'-laoei, by cap* 
tMn Ayi^oiigh's traosUtionv 

Mn Keate's life passed without any vicissitttdes of for* 

tune ; be^ iaberited an ample estate, which be did not at* 

tempt to increase otberwit^e than by those attentions whieb 

.piHidirnce duotated in the management of it He was bos- 

;pirable aod beneficentt and possessed the good will 4( 

.mankind ill a very eminent degree. For the last yeaver 

t%WQ, hU health visibly declined ; but on the day be died» 

^he appeac^ to be somewhat mended- His death wasaed- 

den, on June 27, 1797, He left one daughter, msMnried 

ip .,^796 to John Hendersoffi) esq. of the Adelpbl His 

ivid9w died in 1 aoo. At the time of his death, Mr. Keate 

was a bencher of the Temple, and a very old member ef 

ibe royal and antiquary societies, of both which be bftd 

' been frequeruly elected one of the council.^ 

KEATING (Geoffuy), an Irish historian, was been 

in the province of Munster, of English ancestry, md 

^.flourisheid . in the earlier part of the seventeenth century. 

. He was educated with a view to the Roman catholic cbtireb, 

.and having received at a foreign universit|r the degree #f 

O. D« be returned to bis native country, and became a ce* 

*<lebrated preacher. Being well versed in the ancient Irish 

ianguage, he collected the remains of the early histoiy 

and antiquities, of the island, and formed them into a i^* 

.gular narrative. This work, which he finished about the 

flime of the. accession of Charles I. commences from the 

.firai.plaDtiiig. of Ireland, after the deluge, and goes on to 

.the seventeenth year of king Henry II. giving an accowt' 

4»f the Jives «nd reigns of one hundred and seventy^^four 

kiiiga of the Milesian race, replete with 6etitious person- 

^agesimd fabulous narratives, which, however,^ it has been 

>aai4r 1^6 giy^ *9 ^^^^9 and does not impose tbem^oo bis 

: ' Qenileiiuiii>i ttS ffawpurss Mafssianfifr lYS'li^iasiwlt'^ ^9^J9r* 


Iteadera as true history. The work remained in MS. in the 

* original language, till it was translated into English "by 
Dermot O'Connor, and published in London in 1723; but 
a better edition appeared in 1738^ with plates of the arms 
of the principal Irish families, and an appendix, not in the 
former, respecting the ancient names of places. Keating 

' died about the middle of the seventeenth century, f3»y as 

* isome thinb, much earlier, about 1625. He wrote some 
pieces of the religious cast, and two poems^ one, an 

' ^' Elegy on the Death ^f the Lord Oecies,*' the other a 
burlesque on his servant Simon, whom he compares with 

' the ancient heroes.^ 
< KEBLE (Joseph), an English lawyer, was the eon oi a 

' lawyer of eminence, during Cromwell^s usurpation, and 
born in London, 1 632. After^ a proper preparation, he wils 
sent to Jesus -college, Oxford ; whence he shortly removed 

' to All-souls, of^ which he was made fellow by the parlta- 

< ment visitors in 1648. He took the degree of LL. Bt in 
1644 ; and, not long after, was admitted student at Gray^s 
inn, London, and became a barrister about 1658. The 
following year he went to Paris. After the restoration, he 
attended the King's bench bar with extraordinary tnssi- 
duity, continuing there as long as the court sat, in all the 
terms from 1661 to 1710, but was hacdly ever known to 
be retained in any cause, or even to make a motion. He 

('died suddenly, under the gute-way of GrayVinn, Aug. 

• 1710, just as he was. going to take the air in a coach. He 

• was a man of incredible industry, for besides having pub- 
lished - several books in his life-time, be left above 100 
large foHos, and more than 50 thick 4tbsin MS. twenty of 
which are in the library of Grliy^s-inn. Writing must have 
been hi» delight as well as employment, and hecaaie so 
habitual, that be not only reported, the law cases at the 
KingVbenoh, Westminster, but all the sermons at Gray's- 
inn chapel,' both fonenoon and afternoon, which amounted i^t 
last «to above 4000. This was the ino<ib of tbe'Umes when 
he was young ; and there is a -mechanism in .some natures^ 
which makes them fond of proceeding as they have set out. 
He appears to have been a man of a singular turn in* other 
respects, yetregtilar in his conduct^ and very benevolent. 

The &rst work he undertook for the public was a new 
table^ with many new references^ to the statute-bookj in 

I llam'f edilfon of .W»r8*i iidafnl^wvlforari. 

K E BL E. .«7d 

i^-Tii ' 2; '^ Ail ExpIaDation of the Laws against Recii* 
sanlis^ &c. abridged," 16dl^ 8vq. 3. ^^ An Assistance to 
Juaiices of the Peace, for the easier Performance of their 
DiMy," 1683, folio; licensed by alt the judges. 4. " Re- 
ports taken at the King's«beAch at Westminster, from the 
12th to the 30th year of the Beign of our late Sovereign 
Lord Kmg Charles 11/' 1685, 3 vols, folio. This work 
Was ako lieensed by the judges ; but not being digested iii^ 
tfape ordinary method- of such collections, and having no 
table of references, it was not sp well received as was ex- 
pected ; and the credit of it being once sunk, cotild . not 
.be retrieved, though the table was added in 1696.. Indeed, 
MS a reporter he does not stand high in the opinion of the 
profession. ~S* Two essays, one '^On Human Nature, or the 
Creation of Mankind ;" the other, ^* On Human Actions.^ 
These were pamphlets.' ' 

KECKERMAN (BartholO(M£W), a very learned man, 
was born at Dantzio, in Prussia, 1571. He received the 
^rst rudiments of learning Onder James Fabricius, so dis- 
tinguished by his zeal against Paputs, Anabaptists, and 
other heretics^ and in 1589, was sent to the university of 
Wirtemberg, where he studied philosophy and divinity. 
Two years after, he removed to the university of Leipsic ; 
whenitte, after half a. year's stay, he went in 1592, to 
that of Headetberg. Here he took a master's degree, 
and was so highly esteemed by the governors of the uni- 
versity, that be was first made a tutor and afterwards He* 
brew professor there. In 1597, the senate of Dantzic, 
pleased with the reputation and merit of their countryman, 
sent him a formal and honourable invitation, by letter, to 
come and take upon faim part of the management of tfaetr 
academy, which be at first refused, but on a second invi* 
tation, in 1601, consented, after having first received the 
degree of D. D. at Heidelberg. As soon as he was settled 
at, Daiitzic, he proposed to lead the youth through the 
▼ery penetralia of philosophy, by a newer and moire com^ 
pendious method than had hitherto been found o^t,.ac«' 
cording to which they might, within the compass of thred 
years, finish a complete course. For this purpose he pur* 
aaed the scheme he had begun at Heidelberg, and drew 
up a great number of books and systems upon all sorts of 
objects; logic, rhetoric, osconomics, ethics, politics, phy^ 

I Biog. Brit.«<nKtdioli't BoiiyeT.«-Bffidgaiaii*« Les*l Bibliosrapby. 

fl» K E C K K R M A N. 

^CS) mMapbyskB, geognpfay, aitfonimiy, fit/: «fid mthli 
a&diutiious manner he went on titri609y wbes^ fairly wxti 
'tet inritbcoBBmnt attention to tbe businefs of teachings he 
4Mi at the early age of thtrty-eigbL Hii wc^rkft wens 
t^Uitbed at Geneva in 1614^ ^ vols. foi. Tbe nost tw- 
JwaUearfe bis syatetnatic treatises on rfaetohe; but tte^ 
Hnrert ail for some time Used in teathsng^ and afterwarai 
fiiUaged by odielr compilers^ withont aekiiowledguent. ' • 
; K£ENE (Edm0SI]>), lui English prelate^ bom In 1711^, 
wm the younger son of Cbarles Keene, of Lyatiy in 'Nor«> 
Aik, «sq« siMaetime mayor of that town, whose eldest aon 
;#as sir Behjsmin Keene, many yearn ambassador <at Afsw 
dtid) aaid K. B. who died D^c. 15, 1757^ leaving bisfotttiM 
to:tlie Sttbjett of this article. Mr. Edmnnd Kuseiie was 
ftm ed«eat?ed at the Charter^bouse. and afterwards «t Caiua 
college, Cambridge, where be was admitsed in IT30. In 
list be was appointed one of Ms majeifty's preacfaen at 
Wihiteball chapel, and made fellow of Peterhonse in 17S9. 
In 1740. be was made chaplain to a regiment of marines; 
^d, tti'tbesame year, by the interest of bis brotber with 
iir ^Robert Walpole, he succeeded bishop Bntier in tint 
jvaltiafaie irectory of Stanhope, in the bishc^ric of DnrfMim. 
Ilk 174^, be preached and published a sermon at Newtastle, 
^ tbe anniversary meeting of the society for the relief of 
ibB iddows and orphans of clergytiien ; and, in December 
foUowing^ on the death of Dr. Whattey, he was chosen 
flMtttet «f PeteSrhousew In I7<$0, bemg vice^chancelkN'y 
isader tfae'auspiais of the latie duke of Neapcasdc^ he ve^ 
itied the ooncludnig paragraph in his speech <« being 
sdected, <<Kec taidnm nectimidum babebitisprcvanceHa^N 
tisMfei,** by {MTOttOting, with great aeal and success^ the re* 
gotaiiioiis Hbr improviDg the discipline of the university*; 
This exposed bim to much obloquy from the yoimger part 
bf it, particulariy in the faimous ^* Fmgment^*' and ^^ Tbe 
Key to the Fragoienty * by Dr. Kii^, in whith i>f, Keene 
was rishculed (in prose) uvider the name of M'un, and: in 
that of the ^^ Capitade*' (in verse), under that of Aomes^ 
btftut tbenaiiie tinie his care and attention to the itMresfts 
and cbai9K:ier of tbe university jiisi4y endeared Mm to Ms. 
fseat patron, so that in Jan. lT5d, soon after the expiim^ 
lion of his oAee, which he held for two years, be was no« 
W»|ted to the see uf Cheater^ vacamt by «he death <if b^^^ 

\ |jfekHirJMftsi».*-*'Mimk^*4>»ff. Diet. 

K E E K E, -sr»i 

"^ploe, and was consecrated in Cly-bouse cbftpel on Palm 
Sunday, March M. With this he heid in commendam his 
Mctoiryi and, for two years^ his headship, when he was 
wscceeded, much to his satisfaction, by Dr. Law* In May 
following his lordahip murried the only daughter of Lan- 
*«eIot Andrews, esq. of Edmonton, formerly an eminent 
JlMo^draper in Cheapstde, a lady of considerable fortune, 
and a descendant of the family of bishop Andrews. She 
4ied March 24,177€. In 1770, on the death of bishop 
iMawson, be was translated ' to the valuable see of Ely. 
^R<^c#mng large <HiapidaftionS| bis lordship procured an act 
4f parliament for aiienaltng ilie old palace in Holbom, and 
Iraikhnga new one, by which the see has been freed from 
m great incumbrance, and obtained some increase ako of 
annual revenue* ** The bishopric,*' it has beefn humorous]^ 
observed, ^< though stripped of the strawberries which 
Shakspeare commemorates to have been so noted in Hot- 
born, hast in lieu of them^ what may very well console "a 
man not over-scrupulous in his appetites, yt2. a new maii- 
aion of Portland stone in Dover-street, and a revenue of 
WOOL a year, to keep it warm and in gootd repute." Bishop 
Keene soon foUowed his friend Dr. Caryl, <<whom,'* he 
sakl, ** he had long known and regarded, and who, though 
he had a few more years over him, he did not think would 
bave gone before him.** He died July 6, 17S1, in tbfe 
•iicty-eighth year of his age, and was buried at his owh 
demre in bishop West's chapel, Ely cathedral, where is 'a 
abort epitaph drawn ap by himself. '* Bishop Keene,** it 
is observed by bishop Newton, ** succeeded to Ely, to his 
beart*s desire, and happy it was that he did so ; for, few 
could 'have borne the expence, or have displayed the tasti^ 
and magmficence, which he has done, having a liberal for^ 
tune as ^e\V as a liberal mind, and really meriting the ap<* 
pellation of a builder of palaces. For, he built a nev^ 
palace at Chester; he built a new Ely^^house in London ; 
and, in a great aneature, a new palace at Ely; leaving 
only the outer walls standing, he formed a hew inside, and 
thereby converted it into one of the best episcopal houses, 
if not the veiy best, in the kingdom, fle had indeed re« 
oetvied the money which arose from the sale of old Ely?* 
houses and also what was paid by the e:seeutors of his pre« 
dece«»or Tor dilapidations, which, all together, amounted 
to about 11,000/.; but yet he expended some thousands 
more of his own upon the buildings, and new houses re- 

48i :.K.E E.N,E. 

.quire new furniture.*' It is cbieily on account of this taste 
and munificence that he, deserves notice, as he is not 
known in the literary world, unlef»s by five occasional ser* 
mons of no disUoguisbed merit. ' 

KEILL (John), an eminent mathematician and philo- 
.sopber^ was born Dec 1, 1671, at Edinburgh, yvhero he 
received the Brst rudiments of learning ; and, being Va- 
cated in that university^ continued there till he took the 
degree of M. A. His genius leading him to the mathemai- 
tics, he atudied that science very successfully under David 
• Gregory the professor there, who was .one of the first that 
bad embraced the Newtonian philosophy; aod, in 1694) 
he followed his tutor to Oxford, where^ beii»g admitted of 
Baliol, he obtained one of the Scotch exbtbitioms in that 
eoUeg^. He is said to have been the first who taught 
Kewton's principles by the experiments on which they are 
grounded, which, he was enabled to do by an apparatus of 
instruments of his own providing; and the lectures he de- 
livered in his chambers upon natural and experimental 
philosophy, procured him very great reputation. The first 
public specimen he gave of his skill in mathematical and 
philosophical knowledge, was his ^' Examination of Bur- 
net's Theory of the Earth,'' which appeared in 1698, and 
viras universally, applauded by the men of scieuee, and al« 
lowed to be decisive agsiinst the doctor's '^ Theory,'^ To 
this piece he subjoined ^^ Remarks upon Whiston's New 
Theory of the Earth ;" and these tbeories, being defended 
by their respective inventors, drew from KeitI, in I&99, 
another performance entitled '^ An Examination of the 
Reflections of the Theory of the Earth, together with ^ a 
.Defence of the Remarks 6n Mr. Whiston's New Theory'." 
Dr. Burnet was a man of great humanity^ moderation, and 
candour; was therefore supposed that«Keill had 
treated him too roughly, considering the great disparity of 
years between them. Keill, however, left the doctor in 
possession of that which has since bee^ thought the great 
characteristic and excellence of bis work : and, though he 
disclaimed him as a philosopher, yet allowed him to be a 
man of a fine imagination. ^^ Perhaps," saya be, ^* many 
of his readers will be sorry to be undeceived about his 
Theory ; for, as I believe never any book was fuller of 
mistakes .and errors in philosophy, so none ever abounded 

t Bentham's Ely. — ^Nichols's Bowyer.^Bisbop Kewton*s Life, 

, K £ I L L. 285 

. Hkh more beautiful scenes and surprizing icmges of nature. 
But 1 write only to those who might expect to find a true 
^ philosophy in it : they who read it as an ingenious romance 
will still be pleased with their entertainment.'' 

The foUowing year Dr. MilUngton, Sedleian prc^essor 
,of natural philosophy in Oxford, who had been appointed 
physician in ordinary to king William, siibstituted Keill as 
^ bis deputy, to read lectures in the public schools. This 
t office he discharged with great reputation ; and the term 
of ..ef^oying the Scotch exhibition at Baliol^coUege, wtth^ 
:Qttt taking orders, now expiring^ he accepted an invitation 
.;from Dr. Aldricb^ dean of Christ-church, to reside there. 
.In 1701 he published bis celebrated treatise, the substance 
..of .several lectures on the new philosophy, entitled ^Mn- 
troductio ad veram physicam," which is supposed to be the 
; best and most usefulof alLbis performanoes. In the pre- 
bce be insinuates the little progress that Sir Isaac Newton's 
^^ Prinpipia" had made in the world ; and says, that 
*^ though the mechaoieal philosophy was then in repute, 
; yet, in most of' the writings upon this subject, scarce any 
. thing was to be found but the name." Tne first edition 
. of this book contained only fourteen lectures ; but to the 
second, in 1703, he added two more. About 50 years 
ago, when the Newtonian philosophy began to be .esta- 
blished in France, this piece was in great esteem there, 
being considered as the best inlroductton to the '^ Prin- 
cipia;" and a new edition in English was printed at Lon- 
don in 17;i^6, 9t the ii^stance of M. Maupertuis, who was 
then in England, and subjoined to it a new hypothesis of 
bis f>wn, concerning the ring of the planet Saturn. 

In Feb. 1701 he was admitted a fellow of the royal 

' ^K^ciety; and, in 1708, published, in the '^ I^iiloBophical 

.Transactions," a paper ^^Of the Laws of Attraction, and 

its Physical Principles." At the same time, being offended 

at a passage in the ^^ Acta Erudltonim" at Leipsic, in 

which Sir Jsaac Newton's claim to the first invention of the 

method of flu3(ions was called in question, he commnni« 

pated to the royal society another paper, in which he 

asserted tb^ justice of that claim. In 1709 he was ap- 

-.pointed treasarer to the Palatines, and in that station 

attended them in their passage to New England ; and, 

soon after his return in 1710, was chosen 9avilian professor 

of astronomy at Oxford. In 1711, being attacked by 

Jpeibnitz, he entered the lists against that mathematician^ 


484 K E ILL. 

in tbe dispate about Ae inventbn ef ftQiioni/ L^Uilrtfej, 
vrote a letter to Or. Hans Sloans then ^e^mwy to the 
royal sooiety, dated Mardi4i 17ll| in which faereqiliiriKt 
Keill, in eflPect^ lo give him taiisiattik)!! for tbe in^ory he 
had done him in his paper relating to the passage in the 
^^Acta £rudi«omm*' at Leipsic. He protested, that be 
was fisr from assuming to himself Sir Isaac Newton's tiid* 
thod of Aoxioos ; and desired, therefore, that Keill might 
.be obliged to retract his fidse assertion. Ketlt desired, on 
the other band^ that he might be permitted to justify what 
he had. asserted; whiob he performed to the approbation 
of Sir Isaac, and other members of tbe society; and « 
copy of his defcfnce was sent to Leibnita, who, in a secomd 
letter, remonstrated still more loodly agaiMt Kettles wa^tt 
•of eandoor an^d sincerity ; adding, that it was not fit ktr one 
<tf hia age and experience to enter inio 4t dispute with an 
upstart, who acted without afiy authority ifoifi Sir Isaac 
Newton; and desiring that tbe royal society would enjoin 
Jimi silence. Upon this, a special comanitletf was appointed; 
who, after examining the foots, concluded tbeilr report ^ith' 
^^ recfconing Mr. Newton the inirentor of fiuxlont ; and that 
IMr. Keili, in asserting the same, had been no ways injurious 
to Mr. Leibnitz.'* In the mean time, KetH behaved btUi* 
aelf with great firmnem and spirit ; whieh he Am sbe#4^ 
jrfterwards in a Latin epistle, written in 1720, to BernoiilK, 
mathematical professor at Basil, on account of the same 
visage shewn to Sir Isaac Newton; in tbe titie-page ^ 
which he put the arms of Scotland, vis. u thistle, wit£ thifs 
motto, ^'Nemo me impane lacessit" The particulars of 
the contest are recorded in Colltns's '' Commercium Epitf* 
tdicum.'* ' -- 

. About 1711, several objections were urged against^Sirlsaao 
N^wton^ philosophy, in support of 'Ocs Cartes's notions 
of a plenum ; which occasioned Keill to draw up a paper,- 
which was published in the ^^ Philosophical Transactions,^- 
** On the Rarity of Matter, and tbe Tenuity of its Compo 
sitioo," in which he points out various phenomena, which 
cannot be explained upon the supposition of a plenum. 
But, while he was engi^ed in this controverrjr, queen Anne 
was pteas^ to appoint him her decipher(er; a post ftnr 
which be was, it seems, very fit. His sagacity was^ sueb^ 
ibat,^ though a decipherer is alwayv'supposed to be mode^ 
rately skilled in tbe language in which ^e paper given htm 
to decipher is written ;' yet he is said once to have deci- 

h '• 

piMired t paper ivritten fai Swedish^ without knowing a word* 
of. tb« language. In 1719» the iroirersity conferred on 
bioi ibe degr^ of M. D. at t|w pablic act ; and, two years 
after, he publitbed an edition of Commandinus^s ** £uclld,'* 
with additioM;of hiatywo, of two tracts on Trigonometry^ 
and the nature of Logarithms* In 1717 be was married to 
smyielady, who recommended herself to him, it is said^ 
pucely by her personal accomplishments. The fscetioua 
Mr. Alsop wrote some lines on this occasion (Gent. Magj 
^folXXXVIIL S38), which intimate that, Keiil bad been 
a man ^f gallantry in his youth ; and this appean, indeed^ 
to be conArmed by the writer of bis life an the Biograpbia 
BrUaimica. In 1718 he published bis ^Mntroductio ad 
veram Astronomiam i^' which treatise was afterwards, at the 
se^esi of the duchess of Chandos, translated by himself 
iiiio English ; and, .with several emendations, published in 
1721, under ^e title of ^* An Introduction to the true 
Astronomy^ or. Astronomical Leotores read in the Astrow 
nomical Soboois of the University of Oxford.** This was^ 
bis last gift to the public ; for he was seized this summer 
with a violait ferer, which pat an end to hi$^ life Sept. I, 
t721| when he was not quite fifty yiears old.^ 
. K£IIJL <Jijits),'an eminent physician of the mathe-- 
matioal sect, and brother to the preceding, was born in 
Scotland Marqb 27, 1 673. . Having receiv^ the early part' 
of his education in his native country^ he went abroad with' 
the view of cempietiog at in the schools of celebrity on the 
cootineDt; and obtained such a degree of knowledge as 
distiugoisbed him soon after his return to England. He 
bad. early, applied to dissections, land pursued the study' 
o£ anatomy, under Doverney, at Paris ; whence he was* 
enabled to give anatomical lectures, with great repatation, 
in both the English univenities. He was honoured witk 
the degree of M. D^ by the university of Cambridgeb^ 
)n 1703 he settled at Northampton, and began the prae«( 
tiee of his profesmon, in which he attained- considerable 
faoflue and success. In 1706 be ,. published a paper in the 
Philosophical Transactions, No. 306, containing ** an ac-; 
ooumt of the death and dissection of John Bayles, of that 
town^ reputed to have been 130 years old." The circum- 
stiancea which he detailed very much resembled those that 
wece observed by the celebrated Harvey in the dissection o€ 

* Bi9f* Brit.«--i08n. Diet.^Msrtin'i Biof* PfcHosoi^ics. 


486 K E I L L; 

old Parr. Dr. Keill/ like his brother John, wasw^U skiUeid: 
in maibematical learning, which he applied to the expJanan-. 
tion of the. laws of the animal economy. His first pufai^ 
lication was a compendium of anatomy, for the use of theN^ 
pupils who attended his lectures, and was entitled *^ Tbe^* 
Anatomy of the Human Body abridged/' Lond. 169^ 
12mo, and was taken chiefly from Cowper ; it went through - 
many editions. In the year 1 708, he gave tl^ world a pcooQ 
of his mathematical skill, in ^^ An Account of Animal 
Secretion, the quantity of blood in the humiaii body, and' , 
muscular motion,'* London, Svo. This work was reprinted, 
ki 1717, with^ the addition of an essay, '^ cooceming the 
force of the heart in driving the blood through the whole, 
body," and under the title of <* Essays on several parts of 
the Animal GElconomy." He likewise published the same 
treatise in Latin, with the addition of a ^^ Medicina Statica 
Britannica." The essay concerning the force of the hieart 
drew him into a controversy with Dr. Jurin, which was 
carried on in several papers, printed in the Philosophical' 
Transactions of the royal society, of which Dr. Keili had 
been elected a member ; and was continued to the time of 
the death of the latter, which took place at Northampton, 
July 16, 16 1 9, in the vigour of his age. He had for some 
time laboured under a very painful disorder, viz. a c^neer 
in the roof of his mouth, to which he had applied the can-' 
tery with his own hands, in order, if possible, to procure 
some relief, but in vain. He wius buried at St Giles'^i- 
church at Northampton. An handsome m^onumept and in-^ 
scription were placed over him by his brother, John JKeili,' 
to whom be left his estate, being never married.; but who. 
survived him, as we have seen, little more than two yeara^' 
KEITH (James), field-marshal in the king of ^Prussiar's*- 
service, was born in 1696, and was the younger son of 
William Keith, earl marshal of Scotland. He had his 
grammar*learning under Thomas Kuddiman, author of the^ 
^^ Rudiments ;" bis academical, under bishop Keith a&d- 
William Meston, in the college of Aberdeen. He was de*- 
signed by his friends for the profession of the law; but the, 
bent of bis genius inclined him to arms, with which .%bey. 
wisely complied. His first military services were employed- 
while a youth of eighteen, in the rebellion of 171$. > ]n> 
this unhappy contest, through the instigation ^of the ooiiii«' 

t Biog. Brit-*^ett, Dtct.r^Mqvtiii'fr Bio;;' Phil. -^R^ei^s CyddpsBtfia. 

KEITH. 299 

tess his mother^ who w^s a Roman catholic, he joined the 
Pretender's party, and was at the battle of Sherilfuiuir, in 
wfatcfa he was wounded, yet able to make his escape to 
France. Here be applied to those branches of education^ 
which are necessary to accomplish a soldier. He studied 
-mathematics under M. de Maupe^tuis ; and made such 
proficiency, that he was, by his recommendation, admitted 
a fellow of the royal academy of sciences at Paris. He 
afterwards travelled through Italy, Switzerland, and Portu«* 
gal ; with unconunon curiosity examined the several pro« 
factions in architecture, painting, and sculpture; and sur* 
▼eyed the different fields where famous battles bad been 
fought . In 1717, he had an opportunity of forming an ac- 
quaintlince with Peter, czar of Muscovy, at Parisj who in- 
vited him to enter into the Russian service. This offer he 
declined, because the. emperor was at that time at war 
with the )Eing of Sweden, whose character Keith held in 
great veneration. He then left Paris, and went to Madrid ; 
where, by the interest of the duke of Lyria, he obtained a 
commission in ,the Irish brigades, then commanded by the. 
duke of Ormond. He afterwards accompanied the duke of 
Lyria, when he was sent ambassador extraordinary to Rus- 
sia, and was recommended by him to the sei:vice of the 
czarina, who promoted him to the rank of lieutenant-gene- 
ral, and invested him with the order of the black eagle. 

The Turks at this time invaded the Ukrain on the side 
of Russia, and the empress sent two numerous armies to 
repel the invaders ; one of which marched for Oczakow, 
under the command of count Munich, which place was in« 
vested and taken by the valour and conduct qf Keith, to 
whom the success was chiefly attributed. In the war with 
the. Swedes, he had a command under marshal Lacey, at 
ti:e battle of Willmanstrand ; which he gaiued by fetching 
a compass about a hill, and attacking the Swedes in flank, 
at a time when victory seemed to declare in their favour. 
He likewise, by a stratagem, retook from them the isles of 
Aland in the Baltic, wbich they had seized by treachery. 
Afterwards he had po inconsiderab!*^ share in the bringing 
about that extraordinary revolution, which raised the em* 
press Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter, to the throne. He . 
served the Russians in peace also by several embassies : 
but, finding the honours of that country no better than a 
splendid servitude, and not meeting with those rewards 
which his long and faithful services deserved, he left that 

269 KEITH. 

court for Ihat of Prassisi where merit wa9 better knowfi^ 
aod better rewarded. 

Tbe king of Prussia received bion widi all possible marks 
of honour, made him governor of Berlin^ and field marshal 
of the Prussian armies ; to which places be annexed addi* 
tional claries. He likewise distinguished him so &r by 
his confidence, as to travel with him in disguise over a 
great part of Germany, Poland, and Hangaiy. In busi- 
riess, he made him his chief counsellor ; in his diversion^ 
his constant companion. The king was much pleased with 
an amusement, which the marshal invented, in imitation of 
the game of chess. The marshal ordered several thousand 
small statues of mto in armour to be cast by a founder: 
these he would set opposite to each other, and range them 
in battalia, in the same manner as if he had been drawing 
up an army : he would bring out a party from the wings 
PI* centre, and shew the advantage or disadvantage result- 
ing from the several, draughts which he made. In this 
manner the king and the marshal often'^amused themselves, 
and at the same time improved their military knowledge. 

This brave and experienced general, after baiving greatly 
distinguished himself in the later memorable wars of that 
iUustrioiis monarch, was killed in the unfortunate affitir of 
Hohkerchen, Oct. 14, 1758, and was buried in the church 
of that place, the enemy joining in paying respect to bis 
virtues. His character may be g^ven in the few but com- 
pretiensive words of his brother, the late lord mardial of 
Sootlaody who on being applied to by M. Formey, who 
wished to write his eloge, answered, '^ Probus vixit, fortis 

KELLER (James), or in Latin Cellarius, was bora 
in 1568, at Seckingen. ' He entered the Jesuits' order in 
1588, was appointed rector of the college at Ratisboli, 
afterwards of that at Munich, and was for a long time con- 
fessor to prince Albert of Bavaria, and the princess his wifo. 
The elector Maximilian had a particular esteem for him, 
and frequently employed him in affairs of the utmost tm» 
portance. Keller disputed publicly with James KailbruUi^ 
ner, the duke of Neuburg's most celebrated minister, on 
the accusation brought against the Lutheran ministers, of 
having corrupted several passages quoted from the Fadiers,. 
in a German work entitled ** Papatus AcathoUcos }^ their 

} 9AeiDoirs of Field Jtoshal Kelth^ lt99$ 9fO. . . 



» ♦ 

KELLER. \ . Mt 

dUput^ was held at N.6ubargy 1615. Father Keller died 
at Munich, February 23, 1631, aged sixty«4three, It^atm^ 
9C!ine controversial works, and several political k>nes^ .coaf 
ceming the affairs of Germany, in which he- >&e(ylienily 
conceals himself under the names of Ftabtus Hercynianus^ 
Aurimontius, Didacua Tafias, &c. His book against 
France, entitled '^Mysteria Polttica," 1625^ 4to, .was burnt 
by a sentence of the Cbatdet, censured iu'ibbe Sorfafonne«. 
and condemned by. the French clergy. It is acbU^ctioifc 
of eight letters respecting the alliance of France with£ng-» 
land, Venice, Holland, and Transylvania. The ** Ganea 
Turturis," in answer to the learned Gravina's Song jqiS xhe 
Turtle, is attributed to Keller.* 

KELLEY, alias TALBOT (EdwaKD)^ a famous English 
alchymist, or, as some hare called bfni, a necromancer, was 
born at Worcester in 1555, and educated at .GlQucester^r 
hall, Oxford. Wood says, that When his nativity was 
.calculated, it appeared that b^ was to be a man of most 
acute wit, and great propensity to philosophical 'studiea 
and mysteries of nature. He belied this prophecy,^ how* 
ever, both in the.progress and iteormtnation ttf ^his life ; for, 
leaving Oicford abruptly, and rambling 'a'bout th^ kingdonr, 
iie was guilty of some crinfie in Lan'casbice, for Which 'his 
ears were cut off at Lancaster ; but what -ctihie this was 
we are not informed. He became afterwards an associate 
with the famous Dr. Dee, travelled into foreign countries 
with him, and was his reporter of what pass^d^ between 
him and the spirits with whom the doctor held ihtelligence, 
and who wrote down the nonsense * Kelley pretended to 
have heard. Of their journey with Laski, a Poliiih noble- 
man, we have already given an account in the life of 
Dr. Dee. We farther learn from Ashmdle, if such !ufor<* 
mation can be called learning, that Kelley and Dee had 
the good fortune to find a large quantity of the elixir, or 
philosopher's stone, in the ruins of Glastonbury abbey ; 
which elixir was so surprisingly rich, ti^at they lost a great 
deal in making .projections, befove 'they discovered the 
iforce of its virtue. This author adds, that, at Trebona ifi 
Bohemia, Kelley tried a grain of this elixir upon an ounce 
and a quarter of common mercury, which was presently 
transmuted into almost an ounce of fine gold. At aiibther 
timehe tried his art upon a piece of metal, cut 6ivt of a 

* Gen. Diet.— Moreri.-rDict. Hi«t* de L*ATO«at. 

Vol. XIX. U 

S»0 K £ L L E r. 

warmiog-pan; whichi without handling it, or melting th^ 
metal, was turned into very good silver, only by warming it 
at a fire. Cervantes has given us nothing more absurd in 
the phrenzy of Don Quixote. This warming-pan, how- 
ever, and the piece taken out of it, were sent to qoeen 
Elizabeth by her ambassador, then residing at Prague. 
Kelley, afterwards behaving indiscreetly, was imprisoned 
by the emperor Kodolphus 11. by whom he had been 
Iniiglitad ; and, endeavouring to knake his escape out of 
the window, fell down and bruised himself so severely that 
be diedsoon after, in 1595. His works are, ** A Poem of 
CbenHstry,** and ^* A Poem of the Philosopher's Stone ;" 
both inserted in the ^^Theatrum Cfaymicum Britannicum,^' 
J 652; <* De Lapide Philosophorum,*' Hamb. 1676, Svo; but 
it is questioned whether he was the author of this. He was, 
however, certainly the author of several discourses in *' A true 
■and faithful Relation of what passed for many Years between 
Pr. John Dee «nd some Spirits,'* &c. Lond. ] 659, folio, 
published by Dr. Meric Casaubon. There are ** Fragmenta 
aliquot, edita a Combacio," Geismar, 1647, 12mo; also 
^f £d. Kelleii epistola ad Edvardum Dyer," and other little 
things of Kdley, in MS» in Biblioth. Ashmol. Oxon.* 

KELLISON (Matthew), an English Roman catholic 
of considerable eminence as a controversial writer, was 
bom in Northamptonshire, about 1560, and brought up 
in lord Vaux's famMy> whence he was sent for education to 
:the English colleges at Doway and Rheims, and after- 
wards, in 1 582, to Rome, where he remained about seven 
years, and acquired the reputation of a very able divine. 
In 1589, he was invited to Rbeims to lecture on divinity, 
»nd, proceeding in his academical degrees, was created 
D, D. and, in 1606, had the dignity of rectcn' magnificusj 
or chancellor of the university, conferred upon him. After 
'being public professor at Rheims for twelve years, he re- 
rturned to Doway in 1613, and a few months after was de- 
clared president of the college, by a patent from Rome, 
lii this office he conducted himself with great reputation, 
^md ably promoted the interests of the college. He diet! 
Jan. £i, 1641. Among his works are,* 1. ^^ Survey of the 
new reKgion," Doway, 1603, 8vo. 2. *< A reply to Sut- 
tcliffe's aiiswer to the Survey of the new religion," Rheims, 
. .1608, 8vo. 3. <^ Oratio coram Henrico IV. rege Chris- 

I Atb. Ox. ToU I.<^We«Ter'f Fancral BlQDaBi^iitf. 

K E L L I SO N. 291 

tianissiaio." 4. ^^ The Gagg . of the reformed gospel.^' 
ThU) the catholics teli us, was the cause of the conversioa 
of many protestants. It was answered, however, by. Mon- 
tague, afterwards bishop of Chichester, in a tract called 
** The new Gagger, or Gagger gagged,'^ 1624-. Montagile 
and he happened to coincide in so many points that the 
former was involved with some of bis brethren in a contro« 
versy, they thinking him too favourable to the popiiftli 
cause. 5. *^ Examen reformationis, praesertim Calvints- 
tics,'* 8vo, Doway, 16^16. 6. << The right and jurisdie-* 
tion of the prince and prelate,** 1617, 1621, 8vo. This 
be is said to have written in his own defence, having been 
represented at Rome as a favourer of the oath of alle- 
giance. In the mean time the work was represented to 
king James L as allowing of the deposing poWer, and of 
murdering excommunicated princes, and his majesty thought 
proper to inquire more narrowly into the matter ; the ' re* 
suit of which was, that Dr, Kellison held no such opinions, 
and bad explained his ideas of the oath of allegiance with 
as much caution as could have been expected. 7* ^^ A 
treatise of the hierarchy of the church : i^inst the anar- 
chy of Calviuj" 1629, 8vo. In this treatise, he had the 
misfortune to differ from the opinion of his own church in 
some respect His object was, to prove the necessity of 
episcopal government in national churches; and he par- 
ticularly pointed at the state of the catholics in* England, 
who were without such a government. Some imagined th^t 
the book would be censured at Rome, because it seemed 
indirectly to reflect upon the pope, who had not provided 
England with bishops to govern the papists there, al- 
"^though frequently applied to for that favour; and because 
it seemed to represent the regulars as no part of the eccle- 
siastical hierarchy, and consequently not over- zealous in 
supporting the dignity of the episcopal order. The court 
of Rome, however, took no cognisance of the matter; but 
others attacked Dr. Kellison*s work with great fury. The 
controversy increasing, the bishops and clergy of France 
espoused his cause, and condemned several of the produc- 
tions of .his' antagonists, in, which they had attacked the 
hierarchy of the church. Dr. Kellison*s other works were, 
8. " A brief and necessary Instruction for the Catholics of 
England, touching their pastor,** 1631. 9, '< Comment 
in tertiam partem Summae Sancti Thomce,** 1632, fol. 
10. <<A Letter to king James I.** in MS. SutcliflPe and 

u 2 

iSt IC E L L Y. 

Montague were liis principal antagonists kmong tlie pro- 
testants. ' 

KELLY (Hugh), Iel dramatic and miscellaneous writer, 
a native of Ireland, was born on the banks of the take 
of Killarney, in 1739. His father was a gentleman 
of good family in that country, whose fortune being re- 
duced by a series of misfortunes, he was obliged to repair 
to Dublin, in order to endeavour to support himself by his 
personal industry. He gave our author, however, some 
school educatioti ; but the narrowness of his finances would 
not perinit him to indulge his son^s natural propensit}^ io 
study, by placing him in the higher schools of Dublin. He 
was therefore bound apprentice to a stay-iiiaker, an em- 
ployment but ill suited to his inclination; yet continued 
with his master till the expiration of his apprenticeship, 
and then s^t out for London, in 1760, in order to procure 
a livelihood by his business. This, however, he found very 
difficult, and was soon reduced to the utmost distress for 
the means of subsistence. In this forlorn situation, a 
stranger, and friendless, be used sometimes to endeavour 
to forget his misfortunes, and passed some of his heavy hours 
at a public-house in Russel-street, Covent-garden, much 
resorted to by the younger players. Having an uncommon 
share of jgood-humour^ and being lively, cheerful, and en- 
.gaging in his behaviour, he soon attracted the notice, not 
only of these minor wits, but of a set of lionest tradesmen 
wbo'frequented that house every evening, and who were 
much entertained with his conversation. In a little tinie 
Mr. Kelly became so well acquainted with the characters 
of the club, that he was enabled to give a humorous descrip- 
tiou of them in one of the daily papers ; and the likenesses 
were so well executed as to draw their attention, and excite 
their curiosity to discover tl^e author. Their suspicions 
soon fixed on Mr. Kelly, and from that time he became 
distinguished among them as a man of parts and consider-* 

One of the members of the society, in particular, an 
attorney of some reputation in his profession, being much 
pleased with Mr. Kelly^s company, made particular inquiry 
. into his history, and thinking him worthy of a better situ- 
ation, invited him to' his house, and employed him in 
copying and transcribing, an occupation which Mr. Kelly 

* Poda'S Church Hist. vol. ni.-*^Pitt.— Fuller's WorUiies. 

K E L ^- r. |?8 

prosecuted with so ini|c^ assiduity^ th^t h^ e,arQed about 

tivee guineas a week ; an incoQfie whicb^ cbinpared to 

what he had been hitherto, able to procure, might be 

deemed ainuent. But this employmentj| though profitable^ 

could not long be agreeable to a man of his lively turn 9? 

mind. From his accidental acquaintance with sonieKook- 

sellers^ he, in 1762, became the editor of the '^Ladys 

Museum," the " Court Magazine," and o^her. periodical 

publications, in which he vifrotq sq o^any original esss^ys, 

aqd pieces of poetry, that his iam^ \yas quickly spread^ 

and ne now found himself fully employed in various 

branches of periodical literature ; ii^ the proseci^tion of 

which he exerted himself with the most unwearied in* 

dustry, being then lately m.arried, and having an increasing 

family, whose sole dependence was upon his personal 


About tt)is time he began to write many political! paoi- 
phl^ts, and fimong the re§^ ^* A Vindication of Mr. Fitt's 
Administration," which lord Chesterfield makes honourable 
mention of in the second volume of his letters. Letter 178. 
Iq 1767, the "Babbler" appeared in two pocket volumes, 
which bad at first been inserted in " Ovt^en^s Weekly Chro- 
nicle" in single papers : as did the *^ Memoirs of a Magi 
dalene," uhdfi^r the titl^ of " Louisa Mildmay." AJbout 
this time also, perceiving t^t ChurchilPs reputation had 
been much rfii'sed by his critipi^fn of the st^ige in tb^ 
** Jlosciad," Mr. Kelly produced his ^'Thespis," by much 
the most spirited of bis poetic compositions, in ^hich lie 
dealt about his satire and panegyric with great freedom ani^ ' 
^cutenei^s. It is somewhat singular, that while Mr. |CeIly 
was making this severe attack upon the merits of the lead- 
ing perfornier^ at our theatres, which had so ^re^t an effect 
upon the feelings of Mrs. Barry and Mrs. Cliv.e. that they 
both for some time refused to perform in any of his pieces, 
|ip was actually writing for the $tage'; for, in 176^^ his 
comedy of " False Delicacy" macle its appearance, and 
yi'as received with such universal applause, as at oncp 
established his reputation as .a dramatic writer, and pro- 
cured him a distinguished rank among the wit9 of the ag^» 
The sale of this comedy was exceedingly rapid and greg^t, 
and it \vas repeatedly performed throughput Britain 'an<i 
Ireland, to crowded audiences. Nor was its reputatioa 
conBned to the British dominions } it was translated into 
JBopt of tbfi moflprn laqgua^es, vijs. into Portuguese, by 

2»4 K E L L V. 

command of the marquis de Pombal, and acted with great 
applause at the public theatre at Lisbon; into French by 
the ceiel>rated madame Ricoboni ; into the same language 
by another hand, at the Hague ; into Italian at Paris, where 
it was acted at the Theatre de la Comedlie Italienne ; and 
into German. 

The success of this play induced Mr. Kelly to continue 
to write for the stage; and he soon produced another 
comedy, entitled " A' Word to \he Wise/* which, on a 
report then current, that he ws^ employed to write in de* 
fence of thp measures of administration, met with a very 
illiberal reception ; tor, by a party who had previously de- 
termined on its fate, after an uncommon uproar, it was 

• * •"'( •• a<f',- 

most undeservedly driven from the theatre, uf this treat- 
ipent he severely complains in an ^' Address to the Public," 
prefixed to an edition of that play, soon after published 
l>y subscription,' before which above a thousand names ap- 
pear as his encouragers ; and though the pride of the poet 
was hurt, his fortune was improved, and his friends were 
considerably increased. 

The ill fat^ 6f th^ « Word to tjie Wise" past no damp 
on the ardoqr of our poet in the prosecution of theatric 
fame ; and 2^ his friends were strongly of opinion, that his 
genius excelled in the sentimental and pathetic, He was 
persuaded to make a trial of it in tragedy, and soon afcer 
presented the public with ** Clementina.'* In 1*774, under 
the'patronage of justice Addington, who kindly helped to 
conceal th6 name of the real author, by lending bis own to 
that performance, he produced his ** School for Wives.'' 
' JBy this n^anceuvre he completely deceived the critics, who 
Ipiad not vet forgot their resentment; for the play was 
prepared ror the stage, and represented, without the least 
discover^ of bis relation to it ; though they pretended to 
he perfectly well acquainted with Mr. Kelly's style and 
;pianner of writing. Ifowever,, after the character ' of the 
play was fully estaljilisbed, and any farther concealment 
became unnecessary, Mr. Addington very genteelly, in a 
public advertisement, resigned his borrowed plumes, and 
the real author was invested with that share of reputation 
io which he was entitled. ' 

But, whilst Kelly was employed 1n these theatric put^ 
suits, he was too' wise to depend solely on theii^ precai^ious 
success for the support of his family. He had, therefore, 
some years before this period, resolved to study' the law. 

KELLY. 295 

bad become a member of the society of the Middle Tern* 
ple^ and was called to the bar so early ai 1774. His pro-* 
ficiency in that science was such as afforded the most pro- 
mising hopes that, had he lived, he would in a little time 
have made a distinguished figure in that profession. 

His next production was the faroe of a ^f Rpmance of aa 
Hour,*' which made its appearance about this time. This 
performance, though borirowed from Marmontel, he so 
perfectly naturalised, that it bears every mark of an opgi. 
nal. The comedy of ^^ The Man of Reason*' followed this 
piece of genuine humour, but was attended with less suc- 
Cfsss than any of his former productions. This was his last 
attempt, for the sedentary life, to which his constant 
labour subjected him, injured his health; and early in 1777 
an abscess, formed in his side, after a few days illnessi put 
a period to his life February 3d, at his house in Gough* 
square, in the 38th year of his age. He left behind him;a 
widow and five children, of the last of which she was de« 
livered about a month after his death. Very soon after his 
death, his comedy of " A Word to the Wise^' was revived 
for the benefit of his wife and family, and introduced %y 
an elegant 3nd pathetic prologue written by Dr. Johnson^ 
which was heard with the most respectful attention. About 
the same time an edition of his work^ was jjublished in ito, 
with a life of the author. > 

KELLY (JoIhn), a learned English clergyman, was boim 
Nov. 1, 1750, at Douglas, in the Isle of Man, Descended 
from a line of forefathers who had from time immen^prial 
possessed a small freehold near that town,, called Aalcaer, 
which devolved on the doctor, he was placed, un^er^e 
tuiton of the rev. Philip Moore, master of the free gn^* 
mar*school of Douglas, where he became speedily distin- 
guished by quickness of intellect, and t)3e rapidity of liis 
classical progress. From the pupil he b^^came t;he mvoiirite 
and the companion of bis iinstru^for, whose regard he ap- 
pears to have partici^Jarly conciliated jbj^, h?9 sk^l in ibe 
vernacular dialect of the Celtic tongue^ spokep in '^at 
island. When not seventeen, ,ypung^elly attempted .th^ 
difficult task of reducing to writing the grammatical ^ujes, 
and proceeded to compile a dictionary pf the tongu^. The 
obvious difficulties of such an. undertaking to>s^ school- boy 
foay be estimated by the refl^tioii. fhat tjiis w^i^ the very 

! Life at aboTe. 

2M K E L L Yi 

first dttcMofirt to en&bocfy, to arrange^ or to grammaticize^ 
this language:, that it was. made without any aid whatevejp 
from bookfl, MSS. or from oral communications; buit 
merely b^ dint of observation. on the conversation of hia 
unlettered codntrymen. It happened at this moment thal^ 
I>r. Hildesley, the then bisbpp of Sodor and Man,^ had 
1ir66gbt to mjaturity bis benevolent plan of bestowing on 
libe tiatives of. the inland a translation of the Holy Scrip- 
turesy of the Common. Prayer book^ and of some religious 
traots^ in t1!kdir own idtofp. His lordship most gladly availed 
himself 6£ the talents aiid attainments of this youtig mafii 
sod prevailed 06' him to dedicate severaL years of hi^ life 
1to faia lordship^i favourite .object. The Scriptures had been 
distributed in portions amongst the insular clergy, for each 
to translflite his part: on Mr. K« the serious charge waa 
kilposed of revi^ng, correcting, and giving uniformity to 
these teveral tratisliatiops of the Old Testament ; and also 
tbAt of condacting ^through the press the whole of these 
publications. In June 1 7^8 he entered on his duties : in 
April 1770 he transmitted the first portion tp Whitehaven^ 
where the vt'ork was printed ; but .whea. conveying the se- 
cond, he wds shipwrecked^ and narrowly escaped perish- 
ing. The MS. witib which .he was charged was held five 
^GTurs above water; and was nearly the only article on 
board preserved. In the course of ^Vhis labours in the 
vineyard,'' he jtranspribed,. with bi^ own hand, all the 
bobhs of the Old Testament three several times. The 
Ivholc impression, wa^ completed, under bis guidance, ill 
Decdmbefr. 177^2^ speedily aftfer the worthy bishop died. 

In 1776, Mr, Kelly received an invitation from the. Episr 
copal congregation at Air, in North Britain^ to become 
their jf^a^ tor. vOjn^ this title he was ordained by the bishop 
of Carlisle, before whom he preached th^ idrdination &er» 
moBi < f rohi that tihie he continued to reside at Air till 
177% whefivhe. vtas ^engaged .by his grace the duke of 
Gordon as tuioic to. his son <tbe n)ar(}uis of Huntley. Th^, 
ttndies of ihi^ gallant young .nobltemaQ Mr. K. continued 
td direct ;at Eton and. Cambr^ige ; and afterwards a,cqoiti* 
pafaied. him on a tour to the Continent. After his return^ 
in 17 91 J by tlie interest of his. noble patron, Mr, K. ob- 
taiued from* the ehaiicellor the presentatioti to the vjoaragi^ 
of Ai^leigh near Colchester, which preferment. he. conr 
tinned to hold till 1807. Being presented by the chancel- 
lor to the more valuable rettory of Copford in the sanie 


fieighbouchood, Dr. Kelly bad tbe satisfaetioo of being en* 
abled ^> resign bis vicarage of Ardleigh in favour of his 
friend and brother-in-law tb^ rev. Henry Bishop. 
. He was of St. Jobn's-coUege, Cambridge,, where be pro^ 
ceeded LL. B. 1794, LL. D. 1799. In 1803 he corrected 
and sent to the press tbe graimnatical notes oo bis. native 
dialect, above alluded to ; these weie printed by Nichols 
and Son^, with a neat Dedication to the doctor^s fotmeir 
pupil, under the title of ^^ A Practical Grammar of the an* 
cient Gaelic, or language of tbe Isle of Man, usually calLed 

In l8Cl5 he issued proposals for printing ^'A Triglot 
Dictionary of tbe Celtic tongue, as spoken in tbe High- 
lands of Scotland, Ireland, and tbe Isle of Alan ;*' and . 
bestowed considerable pains in bringing to completion this 
useful and curious work. It has been the misfortune of 
Celtic literature, that those learned perspns^ whose mater- 
nal tongue happens to have been one of these dialects, 
liave usually treated it with neglect : but it has been its 
still greater misfortune to be overlaid and made ridiculous 
by the reveries of many of those whose ^^ zeaP' is utterly 
*' without knowledge^^ of the subiect on which tbey descant. 
Dr. Kelly furnished the rare ana probably solitaxy example 
of a competent skill in these three last surviving dialects of 
the Celtic. With every aid which could be afforded by a 
well-grounded knowledge of tbe learned languages, and of 
the principal tongues now spoken in Europe, and with 
every attention to such prior memorials of the tongue as 
^re really useful. Dr. Kelly proceeded, am amorCy with bis 
task. As it advanced, it was transmitted to the press: in 
1808, 63 sheets were printed; and the first part of tbe 
Dictionary, English turned into the Uiree dialects, was 
nearly jqx quite completed, when the iir;e at Messrs. Ni- 
cbols^ which we have had such frequent occasion to lament, 
reduced to ashes the whole impression. The doctor's MSS. 
and some of tbe corrected proofs^ it is understood, remain 
with the family ; but whether the printing may ever be re- 
sumed, is doubtful. The doctor gave to the press aji 
Assize Sermon, preached at Chelmsford \ and a sermon for 
the benefit of a certa,in charitable institution preached like- 
wise at the same place. The former was printed sLt the 
instance of chief baron Macdonald ; the latter 91 tbe 
earnest request of the right boo. lord Woodhouse. 

*98 K E L L y. 

- In 1785 Dr. Kelly married Louisa, eldest daughter of 
Mr. Peter Dollond, of St. Paul's cburch-yard. A short 
memoir was printed in 1808 of Mrs. Kelly^s grandfatber, 
Mr^. John Dollond, which we h^ve already noticed in our 
liccount of that ingenious man. Whilst in possession of 
good health and spirits, with the prospect of many happy 
iand useful years yet to come, Dr. Kelly was seized by a 
typhus : after a short struggle, he expired Nov. 12, 1809, 
very sincerely regretted. To acuteness of intellect, sound 
«nd various learnings were added a disposition gendre, gene- 
rous, and affectionate. His last, remains, accompanied to 
the grave by his parishioners ifi a body, were interred on 
the i7th of November in his own parisn*church, when an 
occasional discourse was delivered from the pulpit by the 
rev. J. G. Ta^ylor, of Dedham near Colchester. Dr. Kelly 
left an only son, a fellow of St. John's*c<dlege, Cambridge.' 
KEMPIS (TfiOMAS^ A), a pious and learned regul^ 
canon, and one of the most eminent men in the fifteenth 
century, was4>ofu 1380, at Kemp, a village in the diocese 
ot Cologn, from whence he took his name. •He studied at 
Deventer, in the community of poor scholars established 
by Gerard Groot, made great progress both in learning 
and piety, and in 1399 entered the monastery of regular 
canons of Mount St. Agnes, near Zwol, where his brother 
was prior. Thomas h |Cempis distinguished himself in 
this situation by his eminent piety, his respect for his su- 
periors, and his charity towards his brethren; and died in 
^great reputation for sanctity, July 25, 1471, aged ninety- 
one. He left a great number of religious works, which 
breathe a spirit of tender, solid, and enlightened piety, of 
which a collection was printed at Antiyerp, 1615, 3 torn. 
8vo. The abb6 de Bellegarde translated part of his works 
into French, under the title of ^^ Suite du Livre de PImi- 
•tation,*' 24mo, and Pere Valeite, under that of ** Eleva- 
tion k J. C, sur sa vie et ses mysteries,'' 12mo. Tlie 
learned Joducus Badius Ascensius was the first who attri- 
buted the celebrated book on the Imitatioh of Jesus Christ 
to Thomas k Kempis, in which be hat been followed by 
Francis de Tob, a regular canon, who in favour of this 
opinion quotes the MSS. ^hich may still be seen in Thomas 
i, Kempis's own hand; On the other hand, Pere Poss^vin, 
a Jesuit, was the first who attributed this work to the 

} Gent Ma^. toL XJOa^Botler^s Vh of B^. Hildesky, ^. «3]|, 63^. 

K E M P I S, 299 

i^bbot John Gersen or Gessen, in his '^^ Apparatus sacer,^' 
M^hich opinidn has been adopted by the Benedictines of 
^be congregations de St. Maur. M. Vallart, in bis edition 
of the ^* Imitation/* supposes it to be more ancient tha^ 
Thomas k Kempis, and that it was written by Gersen. 
Those who wish to be acquainted with the disputes which 
arose on this subject between the Benedictines, who are 
for Gersen, and the V^gular canons of the congregation of 
St. Genevieve, who are for Thomas k Kempis, may coq- 
sult the curious account of them which Dom. Vincent 
Thuiiier has prefixed to torn. 1. of Mabillon^s and Rui- 
part's Posthumous Works, or Dupin's History, who has 
also entered deeply into the controversy. The first Latin 
edition is 1492, 12mo, Gothic. There was at that time 
an old French translation under the title of L'Internelle 
Consolation,** the language of which appears as old as 
Thqma) a Kempis, which has raised a doubt whether the 
book was originally written in Latin or French* The abb6 
Langlet has taken a chapter from this ancient translation, 
which is not in the Latin versions. Dr. Stanhope trans- 
lated it into Enelish, and there are numerous editions of it 
in every known language.^ 

KEN (Thomas), the deprived bishop of Bath and Wells, 
was descended from an ancient family seated at Ken- 
place, in Somersetshire, and born at Berkhamstead, in 
Hertfordshire, July 1637. At the age of thirteen he was 
sent to Winchester-school ; and thence removed to New- 
college, in Oxford, of which he became a probationer- 
fellow in 1657. He took his degrees regularly, and pur- 
sued his studies closely for many years; and in 1666 he 
renaoved* to Winchester-college, being chosen fellow of 
ihat society. Not long after this, he was appointed do- 
mestic chaplain to Morley, bishop of that see, who pre- 
sented him first to the rectory of Brixton, in the Isle of 
Wight, and afterwards to a prebend in the church of W^stT 
minster, 1669. In 1674 he made a tour to Rome, with 
his nephew Str. Isaac Walton, then B. A. in Ghrist- 
bhurcb, in Oxford ; ' and after his return, took his der 
grees in divinity, 1679. Not long after, being appointed 
chaplain to the princess of Orange, be went to Hol- 
land. Here his prudence and piety gained him the esteem 

I Cav€, toL 11.^— Dapin.— Moreri.*-Miich infomiatioa respectinir the edi* 
tioos and ths aiitJior ta a series of letters ia Gent. Maf. yoU « tXXJtIlt. an4 

3dO K ^ N. 


and confidence of bis ipistress ; but in. the course pf bi» 
pflBce, be happened to incur the displeasure of ber con- 
sort^ by obliging one of his favourites to perform a pr9niu$e 
of marriage with a young lady of th^ ppii\cess'& train> wbop^ 
be bad seduced by that contract Thi^ si;e,al ki Ken ^e 
offended the prioce, afterwards king William, that be vei»y 
warmly thresM:wed to turn bim away from tbi^ ^j^ryip^,; 
which Ken 9^ warmly reseating^ requested leave q£, tl|e 
pirincess to returci bog^e, and would not consi^ipit tQ stay 
till iutreated by. the pri^ice in person. Abqut a year afif^, 
boweverj^ he retiiuri>ed to England, and was appoini^d V^ 
quality of chaplain, to attend lord Dartmwtb with the 
royal commission to demolish the fortificatioipa of Tai^igier. 
The doctor returned with this nobleman April i§B4 ; and 
was immediately advanced to be chaplain to the kUxg^ by 
an order from. his majesty himself. Not only the nature 
of tbe post, but the gracious manner of qoaferring itjt evi- 
dently shewed that it was intended as a step to future fa- 
vours; and this was so well understood, that, upon thfc 
removal of the court to pass tbe summer at Winchester, 
the doctor^s prebendal house was pitched upon for tbe us^ 
of Mrs^ Eleanor Gwyn. But Ken was too pious even to 
countenance vice in his royal benefactor ; a^d therefore 
positively refused admittance to tbe royal mistress, wl^ich 
tbe king, however, did not take amiss, as he knew the 
sincerity of the man; and, previous to any appUciatipn, no- 
minated him soon after to the bishopric ^ Bath )^nd Wells. 
A few days after this, fhe king was seized with the illn^s^ 
of which be died ; during which, the doctor thought it his 
duty to attend him very constantly, and did his^ utmost to 
awaken his conscience* Bishop Burpet tells ps that h^ 
spoke on that occasion ^< with great elevation of thought 
and expression, a^d like a man inspired." This pious 
duty was the cause of delaying his adinission to the tem- 
poralities of the see of Wells; so that when king James 
came to the <;rown, new ipstruments were prepared for 
that purpose. 

When he was settled in bis see, be attepded closely to 
bis episcopal function. He published ^' An Exposition of 
the Church. Catechism'' in J 685, and' the same year, 
" Prayers for the Use of the Bath." Nor w^s he le^^^ 
zealous as a guardian of the national church in general, in 
opposing the attempts to introduce popery. He did not 
indeed take part in the popish controversy, then ag^ated 

K E K. 301 

?80 Warmfy ; for he had v6ry little of a controversial turn ; 
bdt Irom the pulpit, be frequently took occasion to uu^.k 
HBind confute the errors of popery ; nor did he spare, when 
his duty to the church of England more -especiaHy called 
for it, to take the opportunity of the royal pulpit, to set 
before the coutt their injurious and unmanly politics, in 
^ojeoting a coalition of the sectaries. For same time he 
%eld, in appearance, «the aame place in the £aivour of king 
Jamie& as he had holden in the former reign ; and some at- 
«ea»pts were made to gain him over to the interest of the 
popish ^party at court, but these were in vain ; (for when 
(he deoiaration of indulgence was strictly commanded to 
be read, b^* virtue 'of a dispensing power claimed by the 
"fcii^g, this^ bishop was one of the seven who openly opposed 
the Trading of it: for which he was sent, with bis siic 
brethren, to the Tower. Yet. though in this be ventured to 
disobey his -sovereign forthesake of his religion, yet he 
would not violate his conscience by transferring his alle- 
giance from hrrm, * When the prince of Orange therefore 
^ime-over, and the revolution took iplace, the bishop re- 
hired; and ZB soon as king -William wa» seated on the 
'throne^ atnd th& new oath of allegiance was required, he, 
'by hisretosal, suifered himself to be deprived. After bis 
^deprivation, he resided at Longleate, a seat of the lord 
viscount Weymouth, in Wiltshire ; wfaetyce he sometimes 
made a visit to his nephew, Mr. Isaac Walton, at Salisbury, 
whb was>a prebendary of that icihurch. In this retirement 
liecompoged many pious works, some of the poetical kind; 
ifor he bad an inelinatton for poetry, and had many years 
before written an epic poem of 13 books, en titled *^ Ed^ 
-mutfid," which was 'not published till after his death. 
'There is a prosaic flatness in this. work; but some of his 
Hymns aild other compositions, have more of the spirit of 
poi^t^y, and' give usan idea of that devotion which 'ani*- 
mated ' the author. It is said that when bewasaflieted 
with the o^e, to whioh he was very subject, he frequently 
-amused him^lf with writing verses. Hence some of his 
pious poems are entitled ^^ Anodynes, or the Alleviation ()f 

3tshop Kdn did not tnix in any of the disputes or 
'«ttea^ts of his party, though it is very probable he 
was earnestjy solicited to it ; since we find the deprived 
bishop of Ely, Dr. Turner, his particular friend, with whom 
he had begun an intimacy at Winchester school^ so deeply 

sea K £ N. 

engaged in it. He never concurred in opinion with those 
nonjurors who were for continuing a separation from the 
established church by private consecrations among them*- 
selves, yet .he looked on the spiritual relation to his diocese 
to be still in full force, during the life of his first successor. 
Dr. Kidder; but, after his decease in 1703, upon the 
nomination of Dr. Hooper to the diocese, he requested 
that gentleman to accept it, and afterwards subscribed 
himself << late bishop of Bath and Wells." The qoeen^ 
who highly respected him, settled upon him a pension of 
200/. per annum, which was punctually paid out of the 
treasury as long as he lived. He had been afflicuki from 
1696 with severe cholicky pains, and at length symptoms 
being apparent of an ulcer in hi^ kidneys, he went to 
Bristol in 1710 for the benefit of the hot wells, and there 
continued till November, when he removed to Leweston, 
near Sherborne, in Dorsetshire, a seat belonging to the 
hon. Mrs. Thynne. There a paralytic attack, which de- 
prived him of the use of one side, confined him to his 
chamber till about the middle of ]\$arch ; when beings 
as he thought, able to go to Bath, he set out, but died at 
Longleate, in his way Uiither, March 19, 1710*11. It k 
said that he had travelled for many years with his shroud iti 
bis portmanteau ; and that he put it on as soon as he came 
to Longleate, giving notice of it the day before his deatli| 
to .prevent his body from being stripped* 

His works were published in 1721, in four volumes ; and 
consist of devotional pieces in verse and prose. Various 
reports having been industriously spread that he was tainted 
with popish errors, and not steadfast to the doctrine of thie 
church of England, it was thought proper to publish the 
following paragraph, transcribed from bis will : ^' As for 
my religion', I die in the holy catholic and apostolic faith, 
professed by the whole church, before the disunion of East 
and West ; more particularly, I die in the communion of 
the church of England, a& it stands distinguished from all 
papal and ppritan innovations/rand as it adheres to the doc-* 
trine of the cross." * 

KENNEDY (James)^ bishop of St Andrew's, Scotland, 
and founder of the college of St. Salvator there, was the 
younger sqa: of James Kennedy, of Dunmure, by the lady 

' ' ' * * 

^ Life by Ilawk'ios, prefixed to his works.—- Gen. Diet,*— >Biog. Brit««**Blir* 
wt»» Own Times.-^-Qent Mag. vol. LXXXIV. 

I ' 


Mary, countet^ of Angus, his wife, daughter of Robert III. 
king of Scotland. He was bom in 1405, or 1406, and after 
some preparatory education at home, was sent abroad for 
his philosophical and theological studies. Entering into 
holy orders, he was preferred by James I. to the bishopric 
of Dunkeld in 1437. In order to be better qualified to re-- 
form the abuses which had crept into his diocese, he un** 
dertook a journey to pope Eugenius IV. then at Florence, 
Imt the schism which then prevailed in the church of Rome 
prevented his procuring the necessary powers* The pope, 
however, to show his esteem for him, gave him the abbey 
of S>coon in commendam. In 1440, while he was at Flo- 
rence, the see of St. Andrew*s becoming vacant, was con- 
ferred upon him : and .on his return, after being admitted 
in due form, be restored order and discipline throughout 
bis dioceser In 1444 be was made lord chancellor, but 
not finding his power equal to his inclination to do good in 
this office, he resigned it within a few weeks. The nation 
being much distracted by party feuds during the minority 
of James II. and bishop Kennedy 6nding himself unable to 
compose these differences, determined to go again abroad, 
and try what be could do in healing that schism in the pa- 
pacy which had so lone disturbed the quiet of the church. 
With this view he undertook a journey to Rome, with a 
retinue of thirty persons; and it being necessary to pass 
through England, he obtained a' safe conduce from Henry 
VI. dated May 28, 1446. 

It does not appear that he was very successful as to the 
objects of thisjouruey ; but on his return home he acbieted 
what was more easy and more to his honour. This was his 
founding a college, or university, at St. Andrew's, called 
St. Salvator's, which he liberally endowed for the main>- 
tenance of a provost, four regents, and eight bursars, or 
exhibitioners. He founded also the collegiate church with* 
in the precincts of the college, in which is his tomb, of ex- 
quisite workmanship : a few years ago, six magnificent 
silver maces were discovered within the tomb, exact modelii 
of it. One was presented to each of the three other Scotch 
universities, and three are preserved in the college. He 
founded also the abbey of the Observantines, which was 
finished by bis successor, bishop Graham, in 1478, but is 
now a ruin. During the minority of James III. he was ap- 
pointed one of the lords of the regency, but in fact was 
allowed the whole power^ and, according' to Buchanan and 

304 * KENNEDY. 

S^^tsMPood, c^onducted -himself witjb gi^eat prudence^. He 
died May 10, 1466., and was interred in his collegiate 
church. Jn<his prijirate character he was frugal, but aiagoi* 
ficent io his expeuces for the pihomotion of religion and 
learning. He (is said to have written some .poliucal advices, 
^Mtfonita PoUtica,'' and a History of his* own timesi both 
probably lost. * • 

KENNfiUDY (John, M. D.)) a native of Scotknd, who 
resided some time in Smyrna, And died at an advanced age, 
Jan. 26, 1760^ is recorded as an antiquary of some abilities^ 
although we know very little <of his history. He had a col- 
lection of about 200 pictures, amongst which were two 
beads of himself by Keysing ; he had also a very valuable 
collection of Greek and Latin coins, which, with the pic- 
tures, were sold by auction in 1760. Amongst the Roman 
coitis were 256 of Carausius, 9 of them silver, and 89 of 
Aleotus; these coins of Carausius and Aleotus were pur- 
i^ha^ad hyp. C. Webb, esq. the 256 for 70Z. aiid the 89 
for 16/. lOy. They were afterwards bought by Dr. Hunter, 
who added to the. number very considerably. Dr. Ken- 
nedy, ;in his ^^ Diss€artation on the Coins of Carausius," as- 
serted, that Oriuna was that emperor^ i^ guardian goddess. 
Df. :Stukeley, in bis ^< Palseograj^hia Britannica, No. III. 
.1752,^' 4to, affirmed she was his wife; to which Dr.^Ken- 
i>e4y replied in "Fai^dier Observations," &c. 1756, 4to; 
and, upon his antagonist's supporting bis opinion in his 
" History of Carausius," 1757 — 59, be abused .him in -a 
6il9penny ^to- letter. 

^* Oriuna, on the medals of Carausius," says Mr; Wal- 
pole, in his preface to .Historic Doubts, <^used to pass for 
the Moot>.; of late years it is become a doubt whether she 
was not hisxonsort. It is of little importance whether she 
(was moon or empress ; but how little must we know of those 
times, when those landrmarks to certainty, royal names, 
do not derve. even that purpose ! In the cabinet of .the 
hmg of Fmnoe are sev^eral coins of sovereigns whose coua- 
;try cannot be guessed ^at." ^ " 

•KEN NET (White), an English writer, and bishop of 
^Peterborough, was the son of the rev. Basil Kennet, rec- 
.tor of Dunchurcb, and vicar df Postling, near Hythe, in 
^Kent, and was born at Dover, Aug. 10, 1660. He was 
eailed White^ from his mother's father, one Mr. Thomas 

1 |if9ckfiuie's.LiTes.rr<<rt^ford'8.LiYe8 0f Statesmei^ * Nicholses Bowyer. 

K E N N E T. 305 

White, a wealthy magistrate at Dover,, who had formerly 
been a master shipwright there. When he was a little 
grown up, he was sent to Westminster-school, with a view 
of getting upon the foundation; but, being seized with 
the sinall-pox at the time of the election, it was thought 
advisable to take him away. In June 1678 he was entered 
of St. Edmund-hall in Oxford, where he was pupil to Mr. 
AUlam, a very celebrated tutor, who took a particular plea* 
sure in imposing exercises on him, which be would often 
read in the common room with great approbation. It was 
by Mr. Allam's advice that he translated Erasmus on Folly, 
and some Other pieces for the Oxford booksellers. Under 
this tutor he applied hard to study, and commenced an 
author in politics, even while he was an under-graduate ; 
for, in 1680, he published " A Letter from. a student at 
Oxford to a friend in the country, concerning the ap- 
proaching parliament, in vindication of his majesty, the 
church of England, and the university :'* with which the 
whig party, as it then began to be called, in the House of 
Commons, were so much offended, that inquiries were made 
after the author, in order to have him. punished. In March 
1681 he published, in the same spirit of party, "a Poem,'* 
that is, " a Ballad,^' addressed ^^ to Mr. E. L. on his majesty's 
dissolving the late parliament at Oxford,'^ which was printed 
on one side of a sheet of paper, and began, ^* An atheist 
now must a monster be,'^ &c. He took his bachelor's de- 
gree in May 1683 ; and published, in 1684, a translation 
of Erasmus's " Moris encomium,' » which he entitled "Wit 
against Wisdom, or a Panegyric upon Folly,'' which, as 
we have already noticed, his tutor had advised him to 
undertake. He proceeded M. A. Jan. 22, 1684; and, the 
S2Ltae year, was presented by sir William Glynne, hart, to 
the vicarage of Amersden, or Ambroseden, in Oxfordshire; 
which favour was procured him by his patron's eldest son, 
who was his contemporary in the hall. To this patron be 
dedicated *< Pliny's Panegyric," which he translated in 
1686, and published with this title, "An address of thanks 
to a good prince, presented in the Panegyric of Pliny upon 
Trajan, the best of the Roman emperors." It was re- 
printed in.l717 ; before which time several reflections hav- 
ing been made jon him for this performance, he gave the 
following account of it in a " Pastscript" to the translation 
of his "Convocation Sermon," in 1710. " The remark er 
aays, the doctor dedicated Pliny's Panegyrid to the late 
Vol. XIX. X 

306 K E N N fi T. 


king James : and, what if he did ? Only it appears he did 
not. This is an idle tale among the party, who, perhaps, 
have told it till they believe it : when the troth is, there . 
tvas no such dedication, and the translation itself of Pliny 
was not designed for any court address. The young trans«» 
lator^s tutor, Mr. Allam, directed his pupil, foy way of ex^ 
ercise, to turn some Latin tracts into English. The first 
was a tittle book of Erasmus, entitled, ^ Morise Encomium ;* 
which the tutor was pleased to give to a bookseller in Ox* 
ford, who put it in the press while the translator was but an 
under-graduate. Another sort of task required by his tutor , 
was this * Panegyric of Pliny upon Trajan,' whifcb he like- 
wise gave to a bookseller in Oxford, before the translator 
was M. A. designing to have it published in the reign of 
king Charles ; and a small cut of that prince at full length 
was prepared, and afterwards put before several of thQ 
books, though the impression happened to be retarded till 
the de^th of king Charles ; and then the same tutor, not 
long before his own death, advised a new preface, adapted 
to the then received opinion of king James's being a just 
and good prince. However, there was no dedication to 
king James, but to a private patron, a worthy baronet, who 
came in heartily to the beginning of the late happy revo* 
lution. This is the whole truth of that story, that hath 
been so often cast at the doctor ; not that he thinks himself 
obliged to defend every thought and expression of his 
juvenile studies, when he had possibly been trained up to 
some notions, which he afterwards found reason to put 
away as childish things." 

In 1 689, as he was exercising himself in shooting, he 
bad the misfortune to be dangerously wounded in the fore- 
bead by the bursting of the gun. Both the tables of his 
skull were broken, which occasioned him constantly to 
wear a black velvet patch on that part. He lay a consider- 
able time under this accident ; and it is said, that while he 
wa^ in great disorder both of body and brain, just after he 
had undergone the severe operation of trepanning, he made 
a copy of Latin verses, and dictated them to a friend at 
his bed-side. The copy was transmitted to his patron, sir 
William Glynne, in whose study it was found, after the 
author had forgot every thing but the sad occasion : and 
the writer of his life tells us, that *^ it was then in his pos- 
session, and thought, by good judges, to be no reproach 
to the author." He was too young a divine to engage itk 

K E N N E T. 307 

the fai]]0|i$ popUh controyeray ; bat be distinguished bim* 
self by preaching against popery. He likewise refused to 
read the declaration for liberty of conscience in 1683, and 
vrent with the body of the clergy in the diocese of Oxford, 
when they rgected an address to king James, reeommend- 
ed by bishop Parker in the same year. While he conti* 
Dued at Amersden, be contracted an acquaintance with Dr. 
Oeorge Hickes^ whom he entertained in his house, and 
was instructed by him in the Saxon and Northern tongues; 
though their different principles in church and state after- 
wards dissolved the friendehtp between them. In SepteiB* 
her 1691, he was chosen lecturer of St. Martinis in Oxford, 
having some time before been invited back to Ednund-haU, 
to be tutor and vice- principal there; where he lived in 
friendship with the learned Dr. Mill, the editor of the New 
Testament, who* was then principal of that house. Iti 
February 1692, he addressed a letter from Edmund-hall to 
Brome,. the editor of Somner's ^^ Treatise of the Roman 
Pixels iand Forts in Kent,'' containing an account of the 
life of that famous antiquary; which gave him an oppor- 
tunity of di^laying his knowledge in the history of the 
SaKon language in England. In February 1693, he was 
presented to the rectory of Shottesbrook, in Berkshire, by 
William Oherry, esq. the father of one of bis fellow-stu- 
dents at college, but be still resided at Oxford, where he 
diligently pursued and encouraged the study of antiquities. 
We have a strong attestation to this part of his character 
from Gibson, afterwards bishop of London, who publish- 
ing, in 1694, a translation of Somner's treatise, written in 
answer to Chifflet, concerning the situation of the Pdrtus 
Iccius on the coast of France, opposite to Kent, where 
Caesar embarked for the invasion of this island, introduced 
it to the world with a dedication to Mr. Kennet. 

On Majr 5, 1694, he took the degree of B. D. ; that of 
D. D. July 19, 1699 ; and in 1700, was appointed minister 
of St« Botolph Aldgate in London, without any solicitation 
of bis own. In 1701, he engaged against Dr. Atterbury, 
in the disputes about the rights of convocation, of which 
lie became a member about this time, as archdeacon of 
Huntingdon ; to which dignity he was advanced the same 
year by Dr. Gardiner, bishop of Lincoln. He now grew 
into great esteem by those who were deemed the low<«' 
church party, and particularly with-Tenison the archbishop 
of Canterbury^ He preached a sermon at Aldgatei Janusiry 

X 9 


-308 K E N N E T. 

30, 1703/ which exposed him to great clamour, and occft* 
. sioned many pamphlets to be written against it ; and in 
1705, when Dr. Wake was advanced to the see of Lincoln, 
was appointed to preach bis consecration sermon ; which 
was so much admired by lord chief-justice Holt, that he 
declared, <^ it had more in it to the purpose of the legal and 
Christian constitution of this church than any volume of 
discourses.'' About the same time, some booksellers, hav- 
ing undertaken to print a collection of the best writers of 
the English history, as far as to the reign of Charles I. in 
.two folio volumes, prevailed with Dr. Kennet to prepare a 
.third volume, which should carry the history down to the 
then present reign of queen Anne* This, being finished 
with a particular preface, was published with the other two, 
under the title of *^ A complete History of England, &c.'* 
in 1706. The two volumes were collected by Mr. Hughes, 
who wrote also the general preface, without any participa- 
tion of Dr. Kennet: and, in 1719, appeared the second 
edition with notes, said to be inserted by Mr. Strype, and 
several alterations and additions. Not long after this, he 
was appointed chaplain to her majesty ; and by the ma- 
nagement of bishop Burnet, preached the funend sermon 
on the death of the first duke of Devonshire, Sept. 5, 1707ir 
This sermon gave great offence, and made some say, that 
• '^ the preacher had built a bridge to heaven for men of wit 
and parts, but excluded the duller part of mankind from 
•any chance of passing it." Thb charge was grounded on 
the following passage ; where, speaking of a late repent- 
ranee, he says, that '^ this rarely happens but in men of 
, distinguished sense and judgmeot^ Ordinary abilities may 
<be altogether sunk by a long vicious course of life: the 
duller flame is easily. extinguished. The meaner sinful 
wretches are commonly given up to a reprobate mind, and 
"die as stupidly as they lived ; while the nobler SL^d brighter 
.parts have an advantage of understanding the worth of their 
.souls before they resign them. If they are allowed the 
benefit of sickness, they commonly awake o.ut of their 
(dresam. of sin, and reflect, and look upward. They acknow- 
.ledge an infinite being ; they feel theii* own immortal part ; 
.they recollect and relish the holy Scriptures ; tbey callrfor 
.the eiders of the church ; they think what to answer at a 
judgment-seat* Not th^t God is a respecter of persons, 
(but. the difference is in men ; and, the more intelligent 
.nature is, /th^, more susceptible of the diviue grftce.'\ Of 

K E N N E T. 309. 

this sermon a new edition, with ^' Memoirs of the Family 
of Cavendish,'* and notes and illustrations, was published* 
in 1797, which is now as scarce as the original edition, the- 
greater part of the impression having been burnt at Mr. 
Nichols's (the editor's) fire in 1808. 

Whatever offence this sermon might give to others, it 
did not offend the' succeeding duke of Devonshire, to whom 
it was dedicated, who, on the contrary, recommended the 
doctor to the queen for the deanery of Peterborough, which 
ke obtained in 1707. In 1709, he published "A Vindi* 
cation of the Church and Clergy of England from some 
late Reproaches rudely and unjustly cast upon them ;" and^ 
*> A true Answer to Dr. Sachevereii's Sermon before the 
JLord^Mayor, November 5 of that year." In 1710, he 
was greatly reproached, for not joining in the London: 
clergy's address to the .queen. When the great point in 
Sachevereii's trial, the change of the ministry, was gainedy 
and addresses succeeded, aO' address was prepared from 
the bishop and clergy of London, so worded that they, 
who would not subscribe it, might be represented as ene- 
mies to the queen and her ministry. Dr. Ken net, however^* 
refused to sign it, which was announced in one of the 
newspapers, Dyer's Letter of Aug. 4, 1710. This zealous 
conduct in Kennet, in favoiir of his own party, raised so 
great an odium against him, and made him so very ob- 
noxious to the other, that very uncommon methods were 
taken to expose him ; and one, in particular, by Dr. WeU 
ton, rector of Whitechapel. In an altar-piece of that 
church, which was intended to represent Christ and his .1 
(welve apostles eating the passover and the last supper, 
Judas, the traitor, was drawn sitting in an elbow-chair, 
dressed in a black garment, between a gown and a cloak, 
with a black scarf and a white band, a short wig, and a 
SEiark in his forehead between a lock and a patch, and with 
so miach of the countenance of Dr. Kennet, that under it, 
in effect, was written ^^ the dean the. traitor.". It was ge-. 
nerally said^ that the original sketch was designed for a 
bishop under Dr. Welton's displeasure, which occasioned 
the elbow-chair, and that this bishop was Burnet : but the 
painter being apprehensive of an action of Scandalum Mag* 
naiurn^ leave was given him to drop the bishop, and a)$ike 
the dean. Multitudes of people came daily to the church 
to admire the sighf; ; but it was esteemed so insolent a con- 
tempt of all that is sacred, that, upon the conoiplaint of. 


K E N N E T. 

others, (for the dean never saw or seemed to regard itf 
the bishop of London obliged those who set the picture up 
to take it down again. 

But these arts and contrivances to expose him, instead 
of discowaging, served only to animate him ; and he con<* 
tinued to write and act as usual in the defence of that causo 
which be hdd espoused and pushed so vigorously hitherto,- 
In the mean time, he employed his leisure-hours in things 
of a different nature ; but which, he thought, would be no 
less serviceable to the public good. In 17 IH, he made a 
large collection of books, charts, maps, and papers, at hia 
own expence, with a design of writing *' A full History of 
the Propagation of Christianity in the English American 
Colonies ;" and published a catalogue of all the distinct 
treatises and papers, in the order of time as they were first 
printed or written, under this title, " Bibliothec» Ameri** 
cans primordia." About the same time he founded **an 
antiquarian and historical library'* at Peterborough; for 
which purpose be had long been gathering up pieces, from 
tlie very beginning of printing in England to the latter end 
of queen Elizabetb^s reign*. In the rebellion of 1715, be 
published a sermon upon '^ the witchcraft of the present 
Kebellion ;*' and, the two following years, was very zealous 
for repealing the acts against occasional conformity and 
the growth of schism. He also warmly opposed the pro« 
ceedings in the convocation against Hoadly, then bishop of 
Bangor ; which was thought to hurt him so as to prove au 
effectual bar to his farther advancement in the church: 
nevertheless, he was afterwards promoted to the see of 
Peterborough, November 1718. He continued to print 
several things after his last promotion, which he lived to 
enjoy something above ten years ; and then died in his 
house in James's-street, December 19, 1728. His nume* 
rous and valuable MS collections, which were once in the 
collection of Mr. West, were purchased by the earl of 
Shelburne, afterwards marquis of Lansdowne, and sold 

* This collection, amounting to about 
1500 Tolumes and small tracts, was 
placed in a private room at Peterbo- 
roogb, with a view of being dmWy sup- 
plied and augmented by the care of 
the rev. Mr. Sparke, a member of that 
church, of very good literature* and 
'vvell (qualified to assist in the design, 
\rho published the oldest histories of 
tiie abbey, and witii Mr. Timothy Neve 

founded the Gentlemen's society at Pe- 
terborough. There is a large written 
catalogue of this eolleetiou, ittaoribed* 
" Inden librorum aliquot vetostorum 
quos in commune bonum congessit W, 
K. decan' Petriburgh. 1712." Thti 
library is now arranged in the chapel 
of St. Thomas Becket, over the west 
porch of the cathedral church* 

K E N N £ T. 311 

mtb the rest of his lordship^s MSS. to the Bfiiisb Museum, 
where they are now deposited. Among these are two vo-^ 
lumes in a large Atlas folio^ which were intended for pub- 
lication under the following comprehensive title : '^ Dip- 
tycha Ecclesias Anglicanae : sive Tabulae Sacree j in quibus 
facili ordine recensentur Arcbiepiscopi, Episcopi, eorum« 
que SufFraganei, Vicarii Generates, et Cancellarii ; Eciile- 
siarum insuper Cathedralium Priores, Pecani, ^besaurarii, 
Praecentores, Cancellarii^ Archidiaconi, & melioris not® 
Canonici| continua serie deducti a Gulielmi I. Conquestu,. 
ad auspicata GuL III. tempora." 

There is also in the British Museum, a curious Diary by 
bishop Kennety in MS. of which the following specimen, 
extracted for our last edition, may not be unacceptable : 

'^ Dr. Swift caiine into the coffee-house, and had a bow 
from every body but me, who, I confess, could not but 
despise him. When I came to the an ti- chamber to wait 
before prayers, Dr. Swift was the principal man of talk and 
business, and acted as a master of requests. He was soli- 
citing the earl of Arran to speak to bis brother the duke of 
Ormond, to get a chaplain's place established in the gar- 
rison of Hull for Mr. Fiddes, a*clergyman in that neigh- 
bourhood, who had lately been in gaol, and published ser- 
mons to pay fees. He was promising Mr. Thorold to un- 
dertake with my lord treasurer, that, according to his peti- 
tion, he should obtain a salary of 200/. per annum, as mi- 
nister of the English church at Rotterdam, Then he stopt 
F. Gwynne, esq. going in with his red bag to the queen, 
and told him aloud .he had somewhat to say to him from 
my lord treasurer. He talked with the sop of Dr. Dave* 
nant to be sent abroad, and took out his pocket»book and 
wrote down several things, as memoranda, to do for him. 
He turned to the fire, and took out his gold watch, and,, 
telling the time of the day, complained it was very late. 
A gentleman said, ^ he was too fast.' ^ How can I help it,' 
says the doctor, ^ if the courtiers give me a watch that 
won't go right ?' Then he instructed a young nobleman, 
that the best poet in England was Mr. Pope (a papist), who 
had begun a translation of Homer into English verse; for 
, which ^ he must have 'em all subscribe ;' for, says he, the 
author shall not begin to print till I have a thousand guineas 
for him. Lord Treasurer, after leaving the queen, came 
through the room beckoning Dr. Swift to follow him : both 
went off just before prayers. 

S12 K E N N E T. 


'^ Not. 8. I see and hear a great deal to confirm a doubt,, 
that the pretender's interest is much at the bottom of some 

hearts ; a whisper, that Mr. N n (Nelson) had a primq 

band in the late book for hereditary right ; and that one of 
them was presented to majesty itself, whom God preserve 
from the effect of such principles and such intrigues !'' 

Bishop Kennet took such an active part in the eccle- 
sifistical and pglitical controversies of his time, that who- 
ever examines into the state of these must expect to fin4 
his character very differently represented. Upon a fair 
examination of his conduct, however, as well as his writings, 
it will probably be found that he did not fall much short 
of his contemporaries as an able divine and an honest poli- 
tician. But it is as a historian and antiquary, that we feel 
most indebted to his labours, and could wish he had been 
enabled to devote more of his time to the illustration of 
literary history, to which he was early attached, and had 
every requisite to become a useful collector aqd biographer. 
As tp his character in pther respects, if we can rely on the 
rev. William Newton, the writer of his life, there was much 
that was exeniplary. He. was always indefatigable in the 
duties of his sacred function, had a great sense of the worth 
of souls, and was very solicitous to serve in the most effec* 
tual manner those committed to his care. 

He was a man of great diligence and application, ho( 
only in his youth, but even tp the close of his life; and 
like many other men of eminence, he began early that 
pursuit, which he more or less followed during the whole 
of his life. He assisted Anthony Wood in collecting ma- 
terials for the ** Athense," and would have probably given 
a valuable work of that kind to the world^ had he found 
leisure to methodize and complete his collections, by 
which, however, men of research may yet be benefited. 
He had a very extensive and valuable library, collected at 
a great expence, and many of his happiest hours were 
spent there. He had one practice, into which most men 
of literary curiosity have fallen ; that of writing notes, cor- 
rections, additions, &c. to all his books, many of which, 
thus illustrated, are now in various public and private 

His manners and behaviour were easy, affable, and 
courteous. He was accessible and communicative, much 
a friend to the younger clergy, recollecting how greatly 
he had himself been indebted to the kindness pf early 

RENNET. 3t3f 

patrons; and was always ready to assist tUem in tiieir sta-i^ 
dies; and, according to their merit, to promote them in . 
the church. He was also liberal to the poor, and generous 
to bis relations. 

Among his works, besides those already noticed, are his 
1. ** Parochial Antiquities, attempted in the History of Am- 
faroseden, Burcester, and other adjacent parts, in the 
counties of Oxford and Bucks," Oxford, 1695,- 4to. 2v 
** Preface to sir Henry Spelmas^s History of Sacrilege,** 
1698. 3. " Ecclesiastical Synods, and Parliamentary Con-- 
vocations in the Church of England, historically stated, and 
justly vindicated from the misrepresentations of Mr. Atter- 
bury," Lond. 1701, 8vo. 4. "An occasional Letter, on 
the subject of English Convocations," ibid. 1701. 5. " Xhe 
History of the Convocation summoned to meet Feb. 6y 
1700, &c." ibid. 1702, 4to. 6. " The case of Impropria- 
tions, and of the Augmentation of Vicarages, &c." ibidv 
1704, 8vo. 7. ** Preface to sir Henry Spelman's and Dr. 
Ryve's two tracts," ibid. 1704. 8. " Account of the So- 
ciety for propagating the Gospel in foreign parts," ibidw 
1706, 4to. 9. ** The Christian Scholar, in rules and di- 
rections for children and youth sent to English schools,*' 
ibid. 1708. 10. " The French favourite, or the severt 
discourses of Balzac's Politics," ibid. 1709. 11. **A Let- 
ter, about a motion in convocation, to the rev. Tbos. Brett, 
LL.TD." ibid. 1712. 12. "A Mem'orial for Protestants on 
the 5th of November, &c. in a letter to a peer of Great 
Britain," ibid. 1713. 13. *' A Letter to the lord bishop of 
Carlisle, concerning one of his predecessors, bishop Merks, 
on occasion of a new volume for the Pretender, entitled^ 
The Hereditary Right of the Crown of England assertedj^* 
ibid. 171-3. 14. *^ The wisdom of looking backwards to 
judge the better on one side and the other, by the speeches, 
writings, actions, and other matters of fact on both side^, 
for the JFour last years," ibid, 1715, 8vo. This is a very 
curious volume, and fills up a gap in our literary history ; 
but he rendered a more important service afterwards by bis 
•^* Register and Chronicle," 1728, folia; . Dr. Kennet p^b- 
lisbed also a great many sermons on occasional subjects.^ 

KENNET (Basil), younger brother of the preceding, 
vas bom Oct. 21, 1674, at Postling in Kent, th^ vicarage 

* Life by the Rev. W. Newton, 1730, 8yo.— Ath. Ox. vol. II.-rGent. Mag. 

lee Index, and vol. LXXV, p. 971.— Biog. Brit— Geu. Diet.— Nichols's Atler- 

. Vury tad Bowy«r* . » ; i . ; . 

" ' * ^ ii 

SU K E N N E T. 

of his fsther, who bred this son also to the church. He 
was sent to Corpus Cbristi college, Oxford^ iu 1690, where 
lie a<K>n distiuguisbed himself by his uncommon abilities^ 
and extraordinary advances in classical literature. He took 
ihe degree of M. A. in 1696, and comnrenced author the 
same year, by the publication of bis ^* liomsB Antiquse 
!Nutiu«, or, The Antiquities of Rome ; in two parts ; 1. A 
9bort History of the Rise, Progress, and Decay of the 
Commonwealth. 2. A Description of the City : an Account 
of the Religion, Civil Government, and Art of War ; with 
the remarkable Customs and Ceremonies, public and pri- 
vate ; with Copper Cuts of the principal Buildings, &c* 
To which are prefixed. Two Essays, concerning the Roman 
Learning, and the Roman Education," in 8vo. The dedi* 
nation is addressed to his royal highness William duke of 
Gloucester ; and the work must have been written for his 
use particularly, if any credit may be given to a report^ 
then at Oxford, that Mr. Kennet was to be appointed sub- 
fHreceptor to that darling of the nation. This book being 
very well received by the public^ he was encouraged to go 
on with his design of facilitating the study of classical 
learning; and with this view published, in 1697, ** The 
Lives and Characters of the ancient Grecian Poets," in 
SvQ, which he also dedicated to the duke of Gloucester. 
This, however, did not succeed so well as the ^* Roman 
Antiquities," which is scarcely yet superseded in common 
use. The same year he was admitted fellow of his college, 
and became a tutor. About this time he entered into 
orders ; and, some* years after, gave proofs of the progress 
he had made in the study of divinity. In 1705 be pub- 
lished ^' An Exposition of the Apostles Creed, according 
to bishop Pearson, in a new Method, by way of Paraphrase 
aiod Annotations," in 8vo, which was followed by '^ An 
£ssay towards a Paraphrase on the Psalms, in Verse ; with 
a Paraphrase on the third Chapter of the Revelations,'* 
3706, 8vo. 

The same year he was, by the interest of his brother, 
appointed chaplain to the English factory at Leghorn ; 
wbei^ he no sooner arrived than he met with great oppo- 
sition from the papists, and was in great danger of the 
inquiaition. This establishment of a church-of^ England 
chaplain was a new thing ; and the Italians were so jealous 
of the Northern heresy, that, to give as little offence as 
possible, he performed the duties of his office with the 

K E N N K T. 813 

litoiost' privacy and caution. But, notwichatandiug this^ 
great offence was taken at it ; and complaints were imme* 
diately sent to Florence and Rome. Upon this, the pope^ 
a^nd the court of inquisition at Rome, declared tbeir reso* 
lution to expel heresy, and the public teacbet of it, from 
ike confines of the holy see ; and therefore secret orders 
were given to apprehend Mr. Kennet at Leghorn, and to 
httn*y hioi away to Pisa, and thence to some other religious 
prison, to bury him alive, or otherwise dispose of him in 
(he severest; manner.. Upon notice of thi3 design^ Dr. 
Newton, the English envoy at Florence, interposed his 
office^ at that court ; where he could obtain no other 
answer, but that '^ be might send for the EngUsh preacher^ 
and keep him in his own family as his domestic chaplain ; 
otherwise, if he presumed to continue at Leghorn, he must 
take the consequences of it ; for, in those matters of reli* 
gion, the court of inquisition was superior to all civil 
powers.^' The envoy communicated this answer of the 
great duke to the earl of Sudderland, then secretary of 
state, who sent a menacing letter by her majesty's order ; 
and then the chaplain continued to officiate in safety^ 
though he was with much difficulty preserved from their 
intended fury till that letter arrived. 

He continued at Leghorn, and persevered with great 
steadiness in his duty, till the bad state of his health 
obliged him to think of returning to his native air. He 
arrived at Oxford in 1714 : he was also admitted D. D^ the 
same yean But he lived to enjoy these new honours a 
very short time; for, his health having been much impaired 
in Itajy, he died of a slow fever, Jan. 1714-l5« A little 
before bis death, be finished the pre&ce to a volume, which 
came out under the title of ** Sermons on several occa-r 
sions, preached before the Society of British Merchants in 
foreign Parts." Lond. 1715, 8vo. 

Besides this collection, and the pieces already mentioned, 
of his own composing, he published English translations of 
eminent authors, the chief of which are as follow : 1, '^ Puf« 
fendorf of the Law of Nature and Nations." 2i ^^ Placette^a 
Christian Casuist." 3. " Godeau's Pastoral Instructions.^* 
4. ^^ Pascal's Thoughts on Religion.'' To which he pre<p 
fixed an account of the manner in which those thoaghti 
were delivered by the author. 5, *^ Balsac's Aristippus ; 
with an Account of his Life and Writings." 6. *^ The 
Marriage of Thames and his ;" . from a Latin poem of 


K E N N E T. 

Mr. Camden. Dr. Basil Keniiet is said to have been ^ 
very amiable man ; of exemplary integrity, generosity, and 

KENNICOTT (Benjamin), a very learned divine, the 
son of Benjamin Kennicott, parish clerk of Totnes in 
Devonshire, was born April 4, 1718, at that place. From 
bis early age he manifested a strong inclination for books, ^ 
vrhich his father encouraged by every means within the 
Compass of his ability ; for he had from the scanty pittance 
of a parish clerk *, and the profits of a small school, saved 

^ * It is said that when Dr. Kennicott 
had takeirordersy he came to officiate in 
his clerical capacity in his native town : 
when his father as clerk proceeded to 
place the surplice on his shoulders, a 
struggle ensued between the modesty 
of the son and the honest pride of the 
parent, who insisted on paying that re- 
spect to his son which he had been ac* 
<!ustomed to shew to other clergymen : 
to this filial obedience was obliged to 
submit. A circumstance is added, that 
bis mother had often declared she should 
never be able to support the joy of 
bearing her son preach ; and that on 
her attendance at the church for the 
first time, she was so overcome as to be 
taken out in a state of temporary in- 

The following anecdotes are from 
Polwhele's History of Devonshire. ** In 
his younger days Dr. Kennicott was 
much attached to the study and prac- 
tice of music. I have at this time in 
my possession an anthem, to which the 
tenor and counter-tenor were added by 
liim. He also taught the choir at Tot- 
nes churchi and much delighted to walk 
into the fields with a few of the best of 
the singers, and would there join with 
them in the praise of that God to whose 
honour he has erected so lasting a mo- 
pument. I have been assured that his 
voice and manner far exceeded medio- 
ccity. He was also a ringer i and there 
is an inscription on a brass chandelier 
in the belfry, where his name is men- 
tioned as being one of its donors, to the 
ringers of Totnes church, for ever* I 
shall further add, that when the doctor 
^rst returned from Oxford, in orders, 
.he was thought by his benefactors to 
affect a little too much the gentleman, 
and even to assume so far as to pay 
his addresses to the sister of one of his 

> Biog. ^rit«^ 

subscribers : this gave offence, and the 
doctor desisted > but this repulse gave 
his mother an opportunity to say, 
' Truly, I think it a lucky thing ; for 
if my son had married Miss, he would 
have been a country curate all his life, 
but I now trust I shall live to see him a 

*< As I have already taken notice 
that the doctor was a ringer, some re- 
gulations, in his own hand-writing, for 
the establishment of a society for the 
cultivation of that amusement, are here 
copied. The disposition of a man is 
more strongly marked by trifles of this 
sort, than by matters of more weighty 
import, as the mind is here biassed 
neither by interest nor ambition.—^ 
" Totnes, Nov. 8th, 1742. Among th^ 
many recreations approved of by the 
sons of pleasure, ritsging is a diversion 
that may be emphatically said to bear 
away the bell, and so much does it en- 
gage the natives of Great Britain, be- 
yond all other nations, that it has even 
the distinguishing appellation of the 
' ringing isU,^ The art, then, for which 
this kingdom is renowned, shews a ju* 
dicious taste in those of its inhabitant^ 
who have, by their performances, con- 
tributed thereto: since this art wants 
00 foreign encomiast, but the harmo^ 
nious bells are the heralds of your own 
praise. The ingenuity required f6r» 
the diversion administered in, and the 
health subsequent upon, this exercise, 
give it a particular sanction among man- 
kind, and recommend it as an employ* 
ment at vacant hours, worthy the regard 
of all denominations. We, therefore^ 
whose names are snbscribed, taking 
into consideration the great pleasure 
that results from this manly employ- 
menV, the innocence with which it is 
performed, and the advantage enjoyed 

Geo. Dictt ' • • 

K E N N I C O T T. 817 

money to purchase a very good library. Dr/Kenuicott 
^vas placed as a foundation boy under the care of Mr. Ro% 
then master of the grammar-school at Totnes, where he 
.distinguished himself by industry and regularity of con*-: 
duct. At this school he continued about seven years, with 
a constant wish and expectation of one day being sent to 
the university. After he left Mr. Row^ he became master 
of the charity-school in Totnes, and ocQasionalJy added to 
the small emoluments of his school by writing for the 
attornies. A short poem which he wrote, entitled ^^ Bid- 
•welV recommended him to the attention of the neigb- 
(bouring gentlemen ; and before he was thirty, he published 
a poem on the recovery of Mrs. Courtenay of Painsford. 
This strongly entitled, him to her favour^ and subscriptions 
were solicited for his support, at Oxford, to the success of 
which scheme he now bent all his efforts ; but every exer- 
tion, on the first attempt, failed ; and a mind less firm than 
his, would, perhaps, have sunk under the disappointment 
Soon after^ however, another subscription was set on foot, 
under the auspices of the benevolent Mr. Allen of Bath^ 
in consequence of which, in 1744, he was entered of Wad- 
ham college, where he soon proved that he was deserving 
of the patronage conferred upon him. In 1747 he pro*- 
4iiced his first performance, entitled ^' Two Dissertations : 
the first, On the Tree of Life in Paradise, with some, oh- 
.servations on the Creation and Fall of Man: the second, 
-On the Oblations of Cain and Abel," 8vo, printed at the 
oiniversity press. To this work be prefixed a dedication, 

/rom -80 healthy an exercise of ourbo* tion, adjourn to any honse the corn- 
dies i aod also, 'havhig the peculiar sa- papy shall chuse, and there tarry tilt 
Aisfaction of rioging wiih ease a set of the hour of tjsn, and no longer. And 
eight bells, of established fame and whereas the stays supporting the bells 
applauded excellence, do hereby agree are liable to damage from unskilfiil 
<to meet together, in the asual plaee of hands, we agree, that whoevdr hurts, 
ringing, every Monday evening, at six shall repair the same at his own proper 
o'clock, for our improving this science : charge. We make no rules for con- 
and for the greater certainty of attend- versation, nor penalties for any mis- 
ance, we do hereby severally promise behaviour in it, resolving to render it 
to forfeit the sum of three-pence, if not innocently agreeable to .each otherj, 
attending at the hour aforesaid, and and whenever a breach of this rule fi 
sixpence if not present at seven o'clock, committed, that a reprimand be a^l- 
to be deposited in the hands of the mitted from the society. In all cases 
treasurer for the time being, aod spent and disputes not hereinbefore decided, 
as the major part of the society shall the majority of the company shall de- 
deem fit. And for the better regulation termine ; t^at so this society, amicably 
of this our fraternity, we do also here- begun, paay be amicably C|ifried on, 
by agree, that we remain in the bell fry and not meet the fate of others that 
during. pleasure, and then, for the fnr- have gone before it. 
■ther pleasure -and benefit of conversa- (Signed) Bsn'j. Kennicott^*' 



addressed to a numerous' list of benefactors^ to whom he 
ha,d been indebted for bis education, which speaks stron^y 
the language of an bumble and grateful heart ; and of this, 
-indeed, he exhibited many proofs in the course of bis life« 
The approbation bestowed on this performance was not 
without some mixture of opposition, and some answers 
appeared against it. It procured him, however, so much 
reputation at Oxford, that a vacancy for a fellowsdiip of 
Exeter college occurring before he could qualify himsidf 
to he a candidate by taking his first degree, the university, 
as a mark of favour, conferred his bachelor's degi^ee on 
bim before the statutable period, and withoi]>t fees« Sooh 
after, he was elected fellow of Exeter college, and on the 
4th of May 1750, took the degree of M. A. 

Pursuing his studies with great diligence, he in 1769 
published « The State of the printed Hebrew Text of the 
Old Testament considered. A Dissertation in Two Parts. 
Part the First confipares 1 Chron.xi. with 2 Sam. v. and 
xxiii. ; and Part the Second contains Observations bti 
seventy Hebrew MS8. with an Extract of Mistakes and 
'Various Readings;" Oxford, $va In this work he first 
jexhibited the utility and necessity of a collation of tfa0 
Hebrew Text with tiie varioivs ancient MSS. existing. 

At this period the university of Oxford was much tainted 
wkfa disaffection to the reigning family on the throne, and 
Tory, if not Jacobite principles, were very prevalent there, 
and met with much encouragemeirt. In the rage of party 
It was not likely that any active member should escape the 
disorders of the times. Mr. KennicQtt adhered to the sido 
of government, and in consequence much of the abuse 
then liberally distributed amongst the friends of what was 
called the new interest, or Whig party, fell to his share. 
He defended himself however with spirit and acuteness in 
his " Letter to Dr, King, occasioned by his late Apology'**, 

^ |>r. Kin;, in bis *' Apology, or 
Tindicatioo of Himself/' 1733, 4tQ, 
9d i^it. p. 42y upbraids our author as 
the 300 of a low mechanic, whom he 
afterwards sfylt^s a cobler. In answer 
to which illiberal sarcasm, Dr. Kenni- 
cott, after drawini: a portrait of Dr. 
JKmg with equal spirit and acrimony^ 
thus repells the attack on his parent, 
l>y the following contrast; *' But on the 
right hand (I am now drawing a real 
character)* 'l»ebQld a man barn to no 

fortune, yet above want; in yottth* 
industrious in the station assigned bim 
by providence; exact in his morals > 
exemplary in his religion ; at middl^ 
age, loyal in principle; peaceable in 
practice ; enabled to exchange the. 
more active life for a more contempla- 
tive ; ever warm for the glory of the 
church of England ; concerned for, yi^t 
charitable towards those who are not 
of her communion ; qualified by ui^- 
common readinjg; to jiidjge of bi» .swi^ 



and, as it was supposed, in a newspaper tben ptibUBbed^ 
entitled ** The Evening Adrertiser." About this tii»e be 
was appointed one of the preachers at Whiteball. In Ja- 
nuary 1757, he preached before the university of Oxford 
k sermon, which, being misrepresented, occasioned ita 
publication under the title of *^ Christian Fortitude/' Be-^ 
tween this period and 1760 he was presented to the vicar* 
age of Culham, in Oxfordshire. 

He bad now employed himself for several years in 
searching out and collating Hebrew MSS. It appears, 
when he began the st«dy of the Hebrew language, and 
for several years afterwards, be was strongly prejudiced itt 
favour of the integrity of the Hebrew text ; taking ijt -for 
granted that if the printed copies of the Hebrew Bible at 
all differed from the originals of Moses and tbe prophets, 
the variations were very few and quite inconsiderable. If4 
1748 he was convinced of his mistake, and satisfied that 
there were such corruptions in the sacred volume as to 
aff(^ct tbe sense greatly in many instances. The particular 
chapter which extorted from him this conviction, was re- 
commended to his perusal by the rev. Dr. Lowtb^ after^ 
wards bishop of London. It was the 23d chapter of tbe 
2d book of Samuel. Being thus convinced of his mistake, 
he thought it his duty to endeavour to convince otfa<ers; 
and accordingly in 1753 published the work already men^ 
tioned. In 1758 the delegates of the press at Oxford were 
recommended by the Hebrew professor to encourage^ 
amongst various other particulars, a collation of all those 
Hebrew MSS. of the Old Testament, which were pre- 
served in the Bodleian library ; and archbishop Seeker 
strongly pressed our author to undertake the task, as the 
person best qualified to carry it into execution. In 176^ 
he was prevailed upon to give up the remainder of his life 
to the arduous work, and early in that year published 
*^ The State of the printed Hebrew text considered, Dis- 
sertation the Second," Svo, in which he further enforced 

fi*|Sptiiett at a prote^taiit and an Eng- 
ligbman | and most effectually recom- 
mending to others (with zeal regulated 
by prudence) the important duties 
■arising frooi both these cbaraoters ; 
and now, in old age, I shall only say, 
anjoying the prospect of that awful pe- 
riod,' which, bowerer favourable to 
liiauelfi will cause deep distress among 

hisnumeroufl tnrriying frien<ls I Happjr 
would it be for you, sir, (addre>sing 
himself to Or; Kin^), were your latter 
end to be like his !" — Letter to Dr. 
King, occasioned by his late Apology, 
and in particular by sueh parts of it as 
arc meant to defame Mr. Kf^untcdtt, 
Fellow of Exeter-college^ 1755, Sro» 
p* 4h 


.the necessity of the collation he had so strenuously recomf 
mended. In the same year he published bis p'roposals^ 
and v^as immediately encouraged by a liberal subscription 
from the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin ; 
the archbishops of Canterbury, York, and Dublin ; many 
of the bishops ; some noblemen i the principal of the dis- 
senting ministers ; and various clergymen, as well as other 
encouragers of literature. . The time he proposed to be 
employed in the work was ten years, arid he set about to 
fulhl bis engagement with alacrity ; determining to exert 
the utmost of his endeavours to serve the public, and not 
at all doubting the generosity of the public for the reward 
of his labours. On the 6 th of December 176), he took 
the degree of B. D. and on the lOth of the same month 
that of D. D. In that year his majesty's name was adde(]( 
to the list of annual subscribers for the sum of 200/. ; an4 
about this time he was presented to his majesty at court. 

The importance of the work being generally acknow- 
ledged, numberless articles of information were receive^ 
from various parts of Europe, and the learned in every 
quarter seemed willing to promote the success of a plan so 
apparently beneficial to the interests of revelation. Some^ 
jhowever, doubted the necessity, and some the usefulness 
of the undertaking ;. and objections soon were started by 
different persons, some with a friendly view, and some 
^ith a petulant one. Amongst others, the professor of 
divinity at Cambridge, Dr. Rutherforth, published, "A 
Irctter to the Rev. Mr. Kennicott, in which his Defence 
of the Samaritan Pentateuch is examined, and his Second 
Dissertation on the State of the printed Hebrew Text of 
the Old Testament is shewn to be in many instances inju- 
'dicious and inaccurate. With a postscript, occasioned by 
his advertizing, befofe this Letter was printed, that he 
|iad an Answer to it in the press,** 1761, 8vo. To thjs 
Dr. Kennicott published an immediate reply, under the 
title of " An Answer to a Letter from the Rev. T. Ruther- 
forth, D. D. F. R. S." &c. 1762, 8vo, in the postscript to 
which he declared it to be his resolution not to be divertedT 
from his principal design by engaging in any further con- 

This resolution he was unable to persevere in. An an- 
.tagonist of superior order, whose influence was too mighty 
to be treated with neglect, made his appearance. This 
was Dn Warburton, bii^hop of Gloucester, then possessed 

' K E N N I O T T. «< 

#f ail hit powers, and exercising atidiority in tHe wot\A of 
lletters almost without controul. This learned writer, find*^ 
ttifi an e^pplanation of a passage in the Proverbs differcfni 
from bis own sentiments, attacked the Collation of thtf 
Hebrew MSS. in the Preface to brs Doctrine of Otatef^ 
}7b4y in a style not unusual with him, sAid calculated tcf 
wake an unfavourable impression on tbe public n(kind« Tdf 
repel the attack. Dr. Kennicott pnblished << A SeimCMIt 
preached before the university of Oxford at St. Mtfry^tf 
churchy on Sunday May 19, 1765/' 8vo, in tbe notes ttf 
which he defended himself with great spirit^ and even ttt* 
sailed his opponent, whose reflections, be observed, wiitt 
regard to his work, were a mere fortuitous concourse o^ 
woiids, of heterogeneous and incompatible meanings, wbicfaf 
were inedpable' of forming any regular system of oppbsi* 
lion, and bad therefore tbe benevolent faculty of destroying^ 
•ne flino&er. 

In the summer of 1766 he visited Paris for tbe pu)rpM«[ 
ef examinirtg the MSS. in that place, and was received 
with th^ honours due to him on account of bis learning andf 
dlligetfCe,. and of the utility of his undertaking. In No^*' 
tember 1767 he was appointed by the archbishop of Can^ 
terbufy> and the other electors, to tbe office of Radclife 
librarian. In 1768 he published ** Observations on the' 
First Book of Samuel, chap. vi. verse 19,*' 6vo. Thesd^ 
were dedicated to Dr. Lowth, the earliest and most stead/ 
encourager of the work. They were the fruit of his visit 
to Paris, and were soon after translated into French. 

At length, in 1769, the important work was concluded 
within the period of ten years, originally promised. Old' 
this occasion he published the ten annual accounts of thi^ 
progress of this laborious undertaking, by which it ap-' 
peared that the whole money received from the subscribers^ 
amounted to the sum of 9117/. 7s, 6d, on the recital ot 
which Dr. Kennicott exclaims, ^' Reader! What a sum i# 
here] Let foreign nations read with astonishment this sxorf 
of Britbns and their king, joined by one foreign princ^ 
and one foreign academy, voluntarily contributing for ten^ 
yea^s their severai bounties, with a degree of public spirit 
be)rond all example, for the accomplishment of a work 
pUfely subseifvi^nt to' the' honour of revelatioti ; a* work sft« 
ered to the glory of God, and the good of mankind ! An^ 
under the powerfitl influen^de of thisf view of my woi^, it H 
kipossible for me to be^ sufficieutlv tkimUM. ^^ Uf 

Vol. XIX Y 

$«3 K E N N I C O T T. 

tho^e who have honoured with their .patronage me, as tha 
bumble instrument' in beginning and completing it, or to 
Divine Providence for granting me life to finish it, as well 
as resolution to undertake it.'' He then states, that after 
deducting his income to live on during these ten years, 
the money spent in collations abroad, and assistants at 
home, there remained only 500/. all which was likely to 
i^e swallowed up in further expences, which he bad en- 
gaged to pay. His industry had been Unremitted; his 
general rule being to devote to it ten or twelve hours in a 
day, and frequently fourteen ; at least, he says, ^^ This 
was my ,practice, till such severe application became no 
longer possible, through the injuries done to my constitu- 
tion.^' In this final statement, he also, with proper indig** 
uation, notices some insinuations which had been thrown on 
him during the progress of the work. He bad declared at the 
outset of bis undertaking, that be had no doubt of receiving 
from the public the reward of his labours. Accordingly, 
on the death of Dr. Ballard, in June 1770, he was ap- 
pointed a prebendary of Westminster, which in October 
be exchanged for a canonry of Christ-church Oxford. 
His circumstances being thus rendered easy, he entered 
into the marriage state Jan. 3, 1771, with Miss Ann Cham- 
berlayne, sister to Mr. Chamberlayne, one of the solicitors 
of the treasury, a lady of learned accomplishments, who 
still survives him. 

In 1776 he gave the public the first fruits of his long and 
laborious task, by the publication of the first volume of the 
Hebrew Bible, with the various readings; and this was 
followed in 1780 by the second> volume, with a general 
dissertation, which completed the work. ' He bad enjoyed 
an extraordinary share of good health until near the con- 
clusion of his labours, when the infirmities of age impaired 
his exertions, and terminated bis life Aug. 18, 1783. He 
was buried in Christ-cjiurch cathedral. His last employ- 
ment was to prepare for the press, ^^ Remarks on select 
passages in the Old Testament; to which are added, eight 
sernipns ;" part was printed in his life*time, and the whole 
publisb«^d in 17S7. In the introduction he professes him- 
self a zealous advocate lor an authorized revisal of the 
English versioo of the Old ;Testament, and the great ob- 
ject of his work seems to be^ to demonstrate the necessity 
^nd facilitate the executipn^ of this project; but the pro- 
priety or necessity of such an interposition of authority 

K E Ijr N I C O T T. 328 

has not yet appeared sufficiently obvious, and indeed the 
objections to it have been generally thought insuperable. 
Dr. Geddes's attempt on the Old Testament, and a more 
receiit Socinian translation of the New, are unfortunatp 
examples of what may be done without autnority. Rtler* 
ring to the works quoted in the note for further informa- 
tion on the controversies in which Dr. Kennicott's labours 
involved him, we shall add, in the words of a judicious 
biographer, that if in brilliancy of genius, or elegance of 
taste, he had many superiors; if in the study of Oriental 
languages in general he was comparatively deficient ; and 
if in critical acumen, and felicity of conjecture, he stood 
not in the very iirst rank ; yet in a profound knowledge of 
liebrew, and in the persevering industry with wh'ich be 
applied it to the illustration of the sacred page, he had 
few equals. His collation of the Hebrew MSS. was a work 
wbicb added splendour to a great nation and an enlight* 
enod age. To the Hebrew scholar it unlocked the richest 
stores of sacred philology; while, by establishing the ge« 
neral purity of the Hebrew text, so'far as the essentials of 
religion are concerned, it has confirmed the faith and hopes 
0f every pious Christian. 

We have yet to add an anecdote very honourable to his 
memory. ' He was for many years possessed of Mynhen- 
yote, a very valuable living in Cornwall, in the gift of the 
dean and chapter of Exeter, and obtained for him by his 
steady friend bishop Lowth. It had been his avowed in- 
tention, as soon as his great work should be finished, to 
reside there, at least occasionally ; but when that period 
arrived, he was in such a state of health, that the measure 
was altogether unadvisable. He, therefore, with the con- 
sent of the friends of his wife, and of herself, freely and 
voluntarily resigned the living about a year or more before 
his death. Dr. Kennicott never seems to have forgotten 
the humble station from which ^the liberality of his friends 
first raised him ; and all his future preferments seem to 
have exceeded his wishes. ' Contentment, gratitude, and 
Bincerity, were the leading features of his character. * 

KENRICK' (William), the son of a stay-maker at or 
near Watford in Hertfordshire, is said to have been brought 
up to some mechanical employ m'ent in London, most proba- 

I European Mag. for 1799.— >Gent. Mag. LIX. 2S^v--Jonea't Life of Bishop 
Horne, p. 84, 95.—- Polffb«l«'i Hilt, of Devooshirc.— Mbnib. Btr. vol. LXXVlll. 
— Nicboli'f Bowyer, 

If ^^ 

524 a^it^iKiJL 

"^ly that of matliematical instrument ma'ker, or, as otbefs 
have reported, that of scale-imiaker. Whatever it was, he 
seems to have early abandoned it, and devoted his talents 
to the cultivation of literature, by which he supported him- 
self during the remainder of a life which, from his unhappy 
temper, and irritable vanity, may be said to have passed 
in a state of warfare, as he was seldom without an enemy 
to attack or defend himself from. One account informs us 
that he was for some time a student at Leyden, and there 
received a degree of LL. t). : it was, however, more gene- 
rally current that he had been indebted for this honour to 
some of the Scotch universities. In either case, it was hot 
unworthily bestowed, for Dr. Kenrick was really a man of 
talents, and deficient only in the knowledge of making a 
proper' use of them ; it was his misfortune likewise to settle 
upon no regular plan of study, and to fancy hiniself equad 
to any task which his necessities imposed upon him. 

The. first appearance he made as an author, as' far as we 
can trace him, was in a pamphlet, entitled *^ The gfan^ 
question debated, or an Essay to prove that the soul of 
man is not, neither can It be, immortal,? 1751, which was 
immediately followed by a ^^ Reply to the grand questibh 
debated, fully proving that the soul of man is, and must 
be, immortaL'' Both are superGcial enough, and seem in- 
tended as a trial of that author-craft which he afterwards 
so often practised, in attacking or defending himself, under 
anonymous signatures, when he found no one else disposed 
to do either. About the same time he piiblished'a poem 
entitled ^^Kapelion, or the poetical ordinary ;" which was 
followed in^l753^ by the first of those attacks on 'his bre- 
thren which kept him in perpetual warfare. It was entitled 
" The Pasquinade, with notes variorum, book the first,*^ 
'4to, and intended as an imitation of the Dunciad. Dr. 
. (afterwards sir John) Hill and Christopher "Smart were the 
chier heroes. This was immediately followed by another 
imitation, equally unsuccessful, of Dodsl'ey's *^ QSconomy 
6f^ Human Xife^' (which then passed for lord Chesterfield^s), ' 
entitled " The whole Guty of a Woman,'* I^mo. 

His '^Epistles, Philosophical and 'Moral,'* or '' Epistle 
to Lorenzo,*' appeared in 17^8, and ^may be reckoned 
among the best specimens of hb*poetry,^whichisnot with- 
out cttse and elBg^mce. As it was rather severely handled 
in the CHliaal Review, he defetMed hiodself/m a pni- 
phlet without his name^ entitled *^ A Scrutiny, or the Cii* 

K £ DT B I C 1^ 325 

11.' \ 

ticA ^riticU^d.'* It was not easy for bim» however; in any 
shape, to vindicate what was too plainly a defence of infide- 
lity, nor was it much excuse that it wasf written while under 
Confinement for debt. About this time he probably ob- 
tained an engagement as a writer in the Monthly Review, 
which ceased in 1766, silently on the part of the proprie- 
^rs of that work ; but Dr. Kenrick thought the rupture of 
U>9 ranch consequence to be concealed, and therefbre an- 
nounced, in the newspapers, in 1766, ^' that he declined 
to write any more in the Monthly Review ; that he had 
be^n author of the Appendix to that work, consisti^ig of a 
ireyiew of foreign publications, for the volumes 28 to 33 
inclusive ; and that he had formed connections with several 
;entiemen of the first rank in the world of letters, for esta- 
blishing a literary review on a new, liberal, and indepen- 
dent plan." 

This last threat he did not carry into effect for some 
Y^ars ; but, as a specimen of his *^ liberal and indepen- 
dent'' style, he published about this time (1765) <^ A Re- 
view of Dr. Johnson's new edition of Shakspeare,'' which 
beijpg apswered by a young man of Oxford, of the name of 
Bj^rclay, in a pamphlet called ** An Examination of Mr. 
ke.nrick's Review," 1766, he immediately published *^ A 
Defence of Mr. Kenrick's Review," under the name of " 4 
liViend," which was a very proper assumption, as he sel- 
dom had another. In this last year he produced his ^^ Fal- 
^taflPs Wedding," a comedy, in imitation of Shakspeare, 
^nd, as far as the language of FalstafF and his companions 
are concerned, not an unpleasant one, although rather 
approaching to the extravagant. It went through twd 
f^ditions, but was acted only once, for a benefit. This 
was followed by another comedy, ** The Widowf d Wife.** 
This, by Garrick's assistance, ran through its nine nights 
with some difficulty, which the author, with a degree of 
gratitude peculiar to himself, attributed to the very person 
to whom ne bad been most indebted. In 1768 he pub- 
lished ^< An Epistle to George Colman," ^^ Poems, ludi- 
crous, satirical and moral ;" and ^^ An Epistle to James 
Boswellj es<^, occasioned by hi§ having transmitted the mo* 
ral writings of Dr. Jphnson to Pascal raoli." By all these 
%^ acquired little reputation, and no enemies; for Col- 
.:fnan, Johnson, and Bos well, disdained to notice him. In 
1770 and )771 he published two pieces connected wit|i 
|)iia discovery, px preten<^ed discovery, of the perpetua^ 

326 K E N R I C K. 

motion ; the one, " An account of the Automaton, or Per* 
pecual Motion of OrflFyreus, with additional remarks, &c. ; 
the other " A Lecture on the Perpetual Motion," which 
he had delivered at a tavern. In all this, Dr. Kenrick was 
harmlessly, if not successfully employed, and certainly 
evinced a considerable knowledge of the science of me- 
chanics. About the same time he published a translation 
of the abb6 Milot's " Elements of the History of England," 
and advertised a translation of " De Lolme on the Consti- 
tution," which we presume he did not execute. 

In 1772 he disgraced his character by an atrocious at- 
tack on Garrick in a poem called " Love in the Suds," for 
which that gentleman commenced a prosecution in the 
court of king's bench. Kenrick immediately publishe4 
** A Letter to David Garrick, &c." in which he informed 
the public of the cause of his quarrel with him, and the 
motives of his writing " Love in the Suds." A public 
apology also appeared in the newspapers, Nov. 26, as 
mean and false as the libel itself. The issue of the prose-r 
cution we have not discovered. 

In 1773 he collected the works of Lloyd, 2 vols. 8vo, 
with a life of that unfortunate poet, remarkable for being 
written without any dates. In the same year, he produced 
"The Duellist," a comedy, acted only one night; and 
published a " Dictionary" of the English language, 4to, in 
the preliminary parts of which are many shrewd and use- 
ful discussions and remarks. The little credit he had with v 
the world at this time must, we think, have impeded the 
success of this work, in which he shews himself a philo- 
loger of no mean talents. In' 1774, we find him giving lecr 
tures at th^ Devil tavern, which he called " A School of 
Shakspear^ ;" and about the same time addressed the ar^ 
tists and manufacturers of Great Britain respecting an 
application to parliament for ascertaining the right of pro- 
perty in new discoveries and inventions. Fancying that 
be had discovered the perpetual motion, he was at this time' 
alarmed by the literary property bill ; but we hear no more 
afterwards of his discovery. 

In January 1775, he commenced his *' London Review," 
and along with his own name, placed in the title those of 
H. Reimarus, J. U. D. ;'R. Williams, M. D. ; E. Warner, 
A. M. ; and the rev. S. T. Maty. Except Reimai'us, we 
Relieve it will be difficult to find these names in any list of 
f * gentietoen of the first rank in the world of letters." Tb^ 

K E N R I C K. 327 


Review, however, went on for some years^ and contains, 
from the pen of its chief author, repeated attacks upon his 
brethren in every profession. It continued a few months 
after his death, and then sunk into oblivion. In the same 
year 1775, he began a translation of BufFon, to be pub- 
lished in numbers, and in 1778 a translation -of Voltaire^s 
works. His last dramatic attempt was <^ The Lady of the 
Manor," a comic opera, taken from Johnson^s '^ Country 
Lasses ;'* and his last original publications, both of some 
degree of merit, were " Observations on the marriage 
contract;" and "Observations on Jenyns's View of the 
Internal Evidence, &c." This last had formed an article in 
his Review, whence other articles of equal ability might 
be selected, were they not all contaminated by a style vitu- 
perative and malignant. In his latter days, his c9nstitu-< 
tion was so much injured by inebriety, that he generally 
wrote with a bottle of brandy at his elbow, which at length- 
terminated his career June 10, 1779, less lamented thati 
perhaps any person known in the literary world, yet po*s- 
sessed of talents which, under a steady and virtuous direc- 
tion, might have procured him an honourable place among 
the authors of his time.^ 

KENT (William), an ingenious artist, was born in 
Yorkshire, in 1685, and put apprentice to a coach-painter, 
but, feeling the superiority of bis talents, he left his mas- 
ter, and came up to London, where he soon proved himself 
worthy of encouragement and patronage. In 1710 he was 
sent, by the munificence of some gentlemen of his own 
country^ to Rome, whither he accompanied Mr* Tallman. 
There he studied under Cavalier Lutj, and in the academy 
gained the second prize of the second class. He also be- 
came acquainted with lord Burlington, whose sagacity dis- 
covered the rich vein of genius that had been hid even from 
himself; and, on their return to England in 1719, lodged 
him in his own house, and shewed for him all the marks of 
the most disinterested friendship. By his interesjt he wad 
employed in various works, both as a painter in history and 
portrait ; and yet there appear but very faint traces of that 
creative talent he displayed in a sister art. His portraits 
did not resemble the persons that sat for them. His colour- 
ing^ was worse than that of the most errant journeyman to 
the profession ; and his drawing wa^ defective, witness the J 

N 1 Gent. Mag. />«nm.-^MoDtb. Review.— 'EQcyclopsedia Britan. 

. saf K E If T. 

h^ M W^yNikeady luid his pictune at St. CiemebtV He 
4e^ig^€4 #Qin^ of the drawings pf Gay's Fables, the prints 
£or Sp^rv^r's ^aiiy Queen, and the vignettes to the large 
edition of Pope's works* In anchitecture, however, of the 
orpfunental Iiind, he was deservedly admined ; he executed 
tjaa ts^mple of Venus at Stowe ; the earl of Leicester's 
house ^ Holkhs^m in Norfolk ; the great hall at Mr. PeU 
k^si^iD^s, Arlington*street ; and the stair-case at lady Isabella 
^inqb's in Berkeley-square. JMlr. Walpole considers him 
likewise as the inventor of modern gardening, in which it 
|s certain that he excelled, and every thing in that branch 
jias been since his time more natural, graceful, and pleasing. 
:By the patronage of the dukes of Grafton and Newcastle, 
ilr. Pelham, and the earl of Burlington, he was made roas- 
ter-carpenter, architect, keeper of the pictures, and, after 
^be death 4>f Jervas, principal painter to the crown ; the 
' Ifholef including a pension of 100/. a year, which was 
givic^n him for bis works at Kensington, produced 600/. a 
year. In 1743 he was disordered in his eyes, but reco- 
yered, and in March 1748 an inflammation in his bowels 
put an epd to his life at Burlington-house, April 12, 1748, 
aged sixty- three years. He was buried in lord Burlington^s 
|rfiui|t at Chi9wick. ' 

KEN YON (LhOYDt Lord), lord chief justice of the 
KiogV fiepcb, was bom at Gredingtoh, in Flintshire, 
/L733 ; and was the eldest surviving son of Lloyd Kenjwn, 
^4< qrigioally of Bryoo in Jthe same county, and one of 
fhe, ypunger sons of the ancient family of Kenyon of 
P^ele ju Lanqashire. He received the elementary part of 
|iis education at Rutben in Denbighshire, whence he was 
take^, at ait early age, and articled to Mr. W. J. Tom* 
linson, an eminent attorney at Nantwich, in Cheshire. On 
^e expiration of his articles, Mr. Kenyoa determined to 
^nter into a Hue which afforded a more ample scope to his 
fndustjry and talents, and, accordingly, became a meodber 
pf the Society pf Lincoln's Inn, in Trinity Term 17i4, and 
fifter a sedulous application to the requisite studies; was 
p^Ued to the bar in Hilai^ Term 1761. In the early pari; 
pf hif proCe^sioiial career, his advancement was but slow; 
hfi was unassisted by those means which powerful connex- 
jion ^{^d interest afford. The branch of his profession to 

1 Walpole's Anecdotet,— 4Uid Ettav on 6ard€aiiis.«-fiowlei't Edition of 
Pope** Worki i lee Index, - - 

JJ B N Y H. W» 

mk\9h 'be chiefly vkffAi^i hims^f, tbi^t x)f ^onr^su^inf^ 
11^84 Bot cfilcul^fd to bring ^im fQrwar4 into public o^c^; 
but the ^t^luig iper^t of geagine abilities apd persievering 
industry w^re not to b^ overlooked' ^ jiie roise gradui^Uy 
into practice ; f?w apji^ions at tbe b^Cf ^t the time, carried 
more weight ai)d authority, and be was frequently recurs 
red to as an fidvv>cdte. In 1773, he formed a ^latrimoniat 
connei^ion with bia relative, I^ary, the third d^gbcer of 
George ^enyon, of Peele ; and, not long after, copti^ti^ 
9^n intitnacy with Mr. afterwards lord Thi^rlow and cbanr 
celjor, AbQ.ut this pi^iod too, and {qr bqwa yi^^ ft&er| 
bi? practice m thp Court of Chs^np^ry waif yery e^teosivf 
and of tbe most lucrviitive kind, by whiph, M i^eU ^ IP 1^9 
gtb/^r braopb^ of his prof/ession, hfs ^cq^ired a very c(^0t 
sidei:able property. La 1780, a circumstimce 9.Qcarr^4 
Itrhicb DQit |i little contributed to estoblisb hi9 repptaidop fM( 
^u advocate and a pj^bUc speaker, hift b^iqg employ)^ af 
Ieadin|r pom^^l for tb/e defence of th^ l^-te lord Oeorgf 
Gordon, on a cbarga of high tre^op ) pn this iajt^erestj^j; 
occasion b]# aecond was Mr. now lord Er^kip^y whp Off 
that day distinguished himself in such a mapn§r as iu f R^^^ 
^^gi'ei^ )#i4 the foundption of hi^ future fadjp?. Isf 4pri} 
1 782, foou ^fter tbp accession of the Y^pc^iog^W p^^ty tq 
mini^erial power, Mr. I^eoyop wiB|S, without aerviog tbe iqr 
termediate p^ce of ^hcitpr^ appointed to the ig^ppr^pt 
f ituatifM of aitoriiey-9;aper9J9 ^nd^ $^t thp f^ipe time^ cbi^f 
justice pf Chester; w the forgier p^ce h^ ^upceed.e4 |hf 
}^te Jameji WaUi^a esq. Th^ circi^fp^ti^nce of hif dlre^:^ 
pr9CRoti9n tp ^e Qi^cp pf attorney*gi^neral w^r^garde4 
)|9^ ^ipgular in.f^ce ; tbi§ ho^^ever if ferropeomt jEJnpilar 
'promotioniif havie before occprred, ipd ^h^ q^ qf sir ^4t^ 
w?r4 l^w (tbe Ut^ a^rney-gener^l, pp)y lord jEl^P- 
hQipugh, hhi successor as lord i^bief jpfticf?}| if ft r^^peoi 
instance. |q parliftipaept Ifir. }(^»ypp t^ofc a 4!PP><ted p^rt 

Jp pphttics, w^mly j^t^acbipg biips^lf tf^ tbe pwty pf m- 
?it^ ; and distinguishing h^mivelf pot $i litt)^ by h^ ^ppeches 
pp jl;b« W*ed affair pf the cpaljilon^ ^r. Fpx's <pdia-bill, 
^c. In fljarcb } 78f he wa^ appp^pTf ^ owter pf the rolU, 

W 9^9 ftf high j^^icial dignity, fiprf g^i)erally l^^ipg tp 
Hi^^ hiigh^ If^ hPQours ; y^^t i|ts fHVohuppnt^ fell very 

ihort pf tl^f ^hiph he ue<»ss^rily re|ii>q*M8hp4 by 4iaepri- 

tl^img hU pn^sioj)M pur^pit^ its ^ cQv^ps^. About tb)! 
tA(9§ hQ w§8 created a barpp^^. In (h^ «itu«^ipii air Lluyd 

M^fm 9m^^i vil the Imi^ e^d 9f Mi%y n^tiis vhp>?» 

8S0 K E N Y O N- 

/ on the resignation of the venerable earl of Mansfield, who, 

for the long interval of thirty-two years, had held the ho- 
nourable and very important office of chief justice of the 
court of King^s-bench, he was appointed to succeed>him, 
and at the same time was elevated to the peerage, by the 
title of lord Kenyon^ baron of Gredington in the coanty 
of Flint. He was now fixed in a situation, which, though 
not nominally the highest, is perhaps the most important 
office in the administration of the law of this country ; and 
lord Kenyon furnished au instance nearly as striking as 
that of the illustHous Hardwicke, that the profession of the 
law is that which, of all others, affords the fairest oppor* 
tunies for the exertion of genuine talents and persevering 
industry; whether the object be the gratification of am- 
bition in the attainment of the highest honours in the state, 
or the possession of abundant wealth. His conduct in 
those arduous and important situations attracted and 
fixed the applauses and gratitude of his countrymen. He 
was distinguished for his laudable, firm, and persevering 
exertions to keep the channels of the law clear and unpol- 
luted by low and sordid practices, which were particularly 
exemplified in the vigilant and salutary exercise of his au- 
thority over the attorneys of his own court, the utility of 
which has been experienced in a very considerable degree. 
Nor was he less distinguished for his zeal in the cause of 
morality and virtue, which most conspicuously appeared in 
his conduct with respect to cases of adultery and seduc- 
tion. On these occasions neither rank, wealth, nor sta* 
tion, could shield deliquency from the well-merited censure 
and rebuke of offended justice and morality. Though 
much, unhappily, remains to be done, yet his lordship's 
exertions^ combined with those of some of the most vir- 
tuous and exalted characters of the tipper House of Par- 
liament, have contributed greatly, notwitlistanding the ac- 
knowledged inadequacy and imperfection of the law in these 
respects, to restrain the fashionable and prevailing vices 
alluded to. What likewiSe redounded to the honour of his 
lordship^s magisterial character, was the strictness, not to 
say severity, with which he administered the justice of the 
law against the pernicious tribe of gamblers of every de- 
scription, who have for some years infested the metropolis. 
On these occasions, as well as in those above mentioned, 
the conduct of this truly virtuou« judge was such as incon- 
trovertibly shewed that '< the law is no respecter of pe^• 

KENYaW. S3l 

«dns;'' and his persevering exertions to restrain the de- 
structive vice of gaming have been attended with no incon- 
siderable degree of success. Nor should we omit to men- 
tion the very laudable spirit and firmness, which on all oc- 
casions he evinced in maintaining due order and decorum 
in his court. It was. justly said of him, that though he 
might not equal in talents or eloquence the pre-eminent 
character whom he succeeded on the bench of justice ; ne- 
verthelessy be possessed qualities more appropriate to, an(i( 
knowledge more connected with, the important office which 
he held. Profound in legal erudition, patient in judicial 
discrimination, and of the most determined integrity, he 
added no common lustre to his exalted station. He did 
not sacrifice his official to his parliamentary character; the 
sphere of his particular duty was the great scene of his 
activity, as of his honour ; and though, as a lord of parlia- 
ment, he never lessened his character, it was as a judge 
that he aggrandized it.^ In private life, the character of 
lord Kenyon was amiable and praise* worthy in the highest 
degree ; no man could excel him in the relations of hus- 
band and father ; in the former he may be considered as a 
pattern of conjugal virtue. In his mode of living he was 
remarkably temperate and regular ; while the gratuitous 
assistance in his professional capacity, which it was well 
known he had often afforded .to necessitous and injured in- 
dividuals, is a proof that a fondness for money was not a 
prevailing trait in his character. He died at Bath, April 
2y 1802, supposed to be worth 300,000/. all acquired by 
bis own professional exertions, and a rigid spirit of eco- 
nomy. Lord Kenyon had issue by his ladyj three sons ; 
Lloyd, born in 1775, whom' his father appointed to the 
office of filazer of the Court of King's-bench ; but who 
died in 1800. The* manner in which his lordship was af- 
fected by this melancholy event, is supposed, in some de- 
gree, to have accelerated his own dissolution. Secondly, 
George, the present lord Kenyon, born in 1776. His lord- 
ship was appointed by his lateYather to the very lucrative 
situation of joint chief clerk of the Court of King's-bench, 
on the demise of the late earl of Mansfield, better known 
as lord viscount Stormont, and joined in the patent with 
the late John Waye, esq. And, thirdly, the hon. Thomas 
JCenyon, born in 1780.* 

.1 G«Dt. Mag. LXXII,— Peerage by lir £. Brydgvt, 

353 K 5 P L E iU 

K£IFLEfi (J oqijr)^ tb^ ^^atest astrQiiQmer pi^haps that 
any 9ge b2\9 prodqcficlA was born ^t Wiel ip the dutchy of 
Wirt^mb^r^^ Peq. ?7, 1571. His father, Henry Kepler, 
W93 (t^sceuded from a family which had raised themselves 
Vnder the emperors by tbeir military fervices, and was 
biixii^lf an ofiicer pf rapk in (he ^rmy ^ but afterwards, ex« 
peri^ixcing ill fortun^^, was obliged tq s^li all be had, an4 
support him3elf ^nd bis f^Oiily by keeping a public-housie. 
He. died in 1590, an4 l^ft bis spi](John withoat provision, 
liis education bs^d been (ber^fore neglected, but, by th^ 
favour of bi3 prince, b^ wa3 en^b^^^ ^ ^ntex upon hif 
i|tl»die$ ill pbitosopby at TMbing^n, in^mediately upon hv; 
fatbejr'9 death, anq, two y<^ars ^ft^r^ pursued the mathe* 
IDa^ics in tb^ s^m^ i^niversity, und^r the faipous Michael 
^9e^lii)liSt ^n ai^trpnoiper of em^nenc^, and of the Coper- 
nican ^ebooli but fit tbis ti^ne Kepler infori^s us b^ b^^d no 

Savtjpular predilectioq for astronomy. Ijis passion wa^s ra^* 
\€^ (qx studies pior^ iW^tering to tb^ ^ofibition of a yoi^tb-r 
£i)l laind; ftad wbi^n bi^ pnnio^ s<sl^cted bin), in \B9.lf to 
fiU tb^ v^c^fU f^^trpnpipical <i?h^ir, it was purely from de- 
fereiH^e tfi bis ^nil^Qrity, and th^ persuasions pf Ms^stUnu^ 
yifhf> h^d bigb e;iPp^t^tions frpm his t^Jents^ that be re)uc- 
y^ntly gccepte<l of tbe 0%^, ' flj^ appears to have tbought 
^1 imswitabie tp bi^ prptensipnf ; and the stat^ of astrpnoo^y 
w^ besides io )pv^/unc^rtfil^ fUld ii| many respects visions 
VYf that bf^ M PQ bopi? of ^tt^inin|r to eminence in it. 
^Ut wbat b^ undertoolf with r^l^ctanc^^, an^ a^ a temp07 
T»ry prpvisioft cpij^r^d p» ^ d^pe^dfint by bis pripc^, 
spQQ cuijgaged his adrdpur^ i^nd engrossed almost his wbolf 
attention. The f^T$t fvyf^tf pf h^s applicatiofi to a^tronpmi* 
f^il studies ^ppe^red iq bis ^^ AJysjtierium Cpsffio^rapbipum,'^ 
pjdbli^^b^d WfQixt twp year^ a/t^r his ^(Ltlement in Gratz ; 
Wd b^lgty ^pd juvenile »s \hU production was, it displayed 
fP PlWy iwrk^ of gj^nius, ?i,pd sgch indefatigable pi^tienc^ 
in tb/9 tpil of cjftlcnli»tipn| that pn presenting it to Tycho 
^X^be, it ppcyr^^ hm t^i? f^^te^^ of that illustrious a:itro7 
ftxm^f a»a ^vipn ^fpi^efl bi? anxiety for the proper dir^cr 
tfm Qf talex^iv fp un.C99»Wfn. /^accordingly, not contented 
jprith #x^prting K^ley tP prefer tb^ rp^f of observation to 
tb^ mpre wnpertajin pnP of ith^pry, Tycbp fdd^d an invita- 
tion bo liyjp with hijpi «( Ur^i^ib»irg^ ^'bjpre b/s wbole obser- 
vations should be open to Kepler'si pjeru^aL jind those a4- 
vantages provided for making others, which his situation 
at Gratss denied, 7fai( dfyn some Jui« was .accepted. 

in 159Ty KepYer eht^riti int6 ih^ MttfrM Wtte, i^Mdh 
liit flm t^feated htm gfeat uheasifleftd, from a dispute 4frhioh 
arose about hi^ mfie*s fortilh^ ; iBindy the jnear alitser, h^ wiifs 
batii^hed froib Gttktsfc on account of bis religion, but iifter^ 
iirards fecSEiUfed, atid tektOred to his formei* dignity. Ho^<pw 
ever/th^ grdvrihg troubles ahd confusions of ctiat ptac^ 
inclinied iiite to tfrink of i residence telsevrbere ; and fal» 
ilov^ fleteriiiihed to accept T. Brahe^s invitation, and ac» 
cord^ngly left tbe university of Gi*atz, and remotfed int^ 
Bohehiia ^ithMs fatoily in 1600. In his journey be n$» 
Seized with a quartan ikgue, whith Continued seven or eigfMt 
months ; and •pi'^Vtented his profiting by Tyeho's kindness, 
tad, tvii^t was Worse, some petty differences interrupted 
their connection. Kepler was offended €tt Tycho, for nsk. • 
fusing some Services to his fitmily. Which he bad occasion 
for: he was also dissatisfied with 4iis m^rvediiess; for, 
Tydhb did not communicate to him all that be knew ;«and^ 
as he died ?n 'tfiOl, he did toot give Kepler titae to be verjr 
tisefbl to bini, or to i^ceiv^e any considemble advantaged 
Vrdm him. before Ins des^tb, however, he introduced hirii 
to the etop^ror Rodblphus at Pfagne (for, it was upoh 
'this condition thalt Kcfpler hfeid consented to leaire Oratz), 
who received him very kindly, and Amde him bis mAthe^ 
%iatician, upon condition that he sbonld serve Tycbo as an 
arithmetician. From that time Kepler enjoyed the title df 
mathematician to the en^peror all his life, and gained more 
find more reputation every year by his works. Rodolphils 
ordered h?ni to finish the tables begun by Tycho, which 
ifi^re to be called the ** Rodolphine Tables ;" and he ap- 
plied hinrtelf very vigorously to this work ; but such diffi- 
culties « arose in a short time, partly from the natm^ 
of it, and partly from the delay of the treasurers, thtt 
the tables were not finished and published till 1627, 
He complained, that, from 1602 and 1603, he was looked 
npon by the treasurers with a very invidious eye; ami 
Hyhen^ in 1609, he had published a nbble specimen ct 
(he woric, and the emperor had g^en orders ttet, belsides 
tbe expe^ce of the edition, he should immediately be 
^aid the tfrtlears of his pension, Which, be sard, amounted 
to 2000 browns, and likewise 2000 more; yet, that it was 
not till two years after, that the generous orders of Rodoi- 
t^hus, i^ liis fiiVour, Were put in e)cecutton. He met with 
no less discouragement from the flnancielfs tinder the em« 
petOT Matthhis^ thiin under Rodolptius; tad Itereforct 

394 KEPLER. 

after stnigglitig with poverty for ten years at Prague, be'-? 
gan to think of quitting his quarters agaio. He was then 
fixed at Lints by the emperor Matthias, who appointed 
Jiim a salary from the states of Upper Austria, which wan 
paid for sixteen years. In 1613 he went to the assembly 
at Ratisbon, to assist in the reformation of the calendar ; 
but returned to Lints,, where he continued to 1626. In 
I<Iovember of that year, he went to Ulm, in order to pub- 
lish the '^ Rodolphine Tables;" and afterwards, in 1629^ 
with the emperor's leave, settled at Sagan in Silesia,, where 
he published the second part of his ^' Ephemerides ;" for 
the first had been published at Lints in 1617. In 1630, he 
went to Ratisbon, to solicit the payment of the arrears of 
bis pension ; but, being seized with a fever, which, it is 
«aid, was brought upon him by too hard riding, he died 
there in November, in his 59th year. ' 

To this sagacious philosopher we owe the first discovery 
of the great laws of the planetary motions, viz. that the 
planets describe areas that are always proportional to the 
times ; that they move in elliptical orbits, having the sim 
in one focus ; and that the squares of their periodic times, 
are proportional to the cubes of their mean distances ; which 
are now generally known by the name of Kepler's Laws. 

Kepler had a particular passion for finding analogies 
and harmonies in nature, after the manner of the Pytha- 
goreans and Platonists ; and to this disposition^ we owe such 
valuable discoveries, as are more than sufficient to excuse 
his conceits. Three things, he tells us,' he anxiously 
sought to find out the reason of, from his early youth ; viz. 
Why the planets were six in number ? Why the dimen- 
sions of their orbits were such as Copernicus had described 
frongi observations? And what was the analogy or law of 
their revolutions ? He sought for the reasons of the two 
first of these, in the properties of numbers and plane 
figures, without success. But at length reflecting, that 
while the plane regular figures pay be infinite in number, 
the regular solids are only five, as Euclid had long aga 
demonstrated : he imagined, that certain mysteries in na- 
ture might correspond with this remarkable limitation in- 
herent in the essences of things; and the rather, as he 
^ found that the Pythagoreans had made great use of those 
five regular solids in their philosophy. He therefore en- 
deavoured to find some relation between the dimensions of 
these solids and the interv^Is^ of the planetary spheres ^ 

K E P L K R. »3» 

.tbus^ imagiaing that a cube, inscribed in the sphere of 
Saturn, would touch by its six planes the sphere of Jupi- " 
ter ; and that the other four regular solids in like mann^ 
fitled the intervals that are between the spheres of the 
other planets : he became persuaded that this was the true 
reason why the primary planets were precisely six in num* 
ber, and that the author of the world had determined their 
distances from the sun, the centre of the system, irom a 
regard to this analogy. Being thus possessed, as b« 
thought, of the grand- secret of the Pythagoreans, and 
greatly pleased with his discovery, be published it, as we 
have already observed, under the title of ^' Mysterium 
Cosmographicum;" and was for some time so charmed with 
it, that he said he would not give up the honour of having 
invented what was contained in that book, for the electo- 
rate of Saxony. Tycho Brahe, however, gave, him advice 
on the subject, which altered bis opinion, and to which we 
are indebted 4 for the more solid discoveries of Kepler. 
This great man, soon after the death of Tycho, found that 
astronomers had erred from the first rise of the science, in 
ascribing always circular orbits and uniform motions to the 
planets ; ancl be discovered that each of them moves in an 
ellipsis, which has one of its foci in the centre of the sun ; 
that the motion of each is really unequable, and varies in 
such a manner, that ^^ a ray supposed to be alway» drawn 
from the planet to the sun describes equal areas in equal 
times.^' It was some years later before he discovered the 
analogy that there is between the distances of the several 
planets from the sun, and the periods in which they com- 
plete their revolutions. He has, however, left it upon 
record, that on the 15th of May, 1618, he found that ^< the 
squares of the periodic times are always in the same pro- 
portion as the cubes of the mean distances from the sun/' 
When Kepler saw, according to better observations, that 
his disposition of the five regular solids among the planet- 
ary spheres was not agreeable to the intervals between their 
orbits, he endeavoured to discover other schemes of har- 
mony. For this purpose, he compared the motions of the 
same planet at^ its greatest and least distances, and of the 
different planets in their different orbits, as they would ap- 
pear viewed from the sun ; and here he fancied that he had 
found a similitude to the divisions of the octave in music. 
Of these notions, which are wholly unfounded in nature^ 
be was so fond, that hearing of the discovery of the fou^ 

S9t Jl E ]F l X IL 

ntelfitm of JufitAr by QA\i\tih h# d#ibi CbM Ilis tinC M^ 
flediotn were fronh; « concern boif Ihtf dotlld m^ bk fil<b 
ipourite scbtme, which was thfCMMeocid hff tbifl^ idditidh to 
the nomber of tbe plaoett. The smut aitacbmeni l^d bhn 
into a wrong jtidgment ooneeraing the spheitar of the fixed 
stars : for being oWiged^ by his doifctrifHei to allow a tait 
superiority to the sun its tbeuniteiMybe resfrAin^ the filled 
stars within very narrow limits ; Hof did be consider tbem 
a^ srnis |f»taced in the centres of their iief Ursd sysfems, baf * 
ing planets revehing round theflii« 

Kepler^s great sagacity, and cootiftual meditations on 
die planetary tnotions» suggested to bitn some tiews of the 
trne principles from which these motions flow. In his pre- 
face to the Commentaries concerning the planet lUars, fad 
speaks of gratity as of a power that was mutud between 
hodiesy and t^ us, that tbe earth and mooii tend towanrdi 
each other, wnd would meet in a poitit, so many timfel 
nearer to tbe earth than to the moOn, as the earth is gi^eaitet 
then the moon/ if tbetr motions did not hinder it He add% 
that tbe tides arise from the gravity of the waters towards 
ibe moon. But not having notions sufficiently just of the 
kHvs of motion, it seems he was not able to make the best 
use of these thoughts ; nor does it appear that he adhered 
to tbem steadily, since in his Epitome of Astronomy, pub- 
lished many years dfter^ be proposes a physical account of 
the planetary motions, derived from different principles. 

He supposes, in that treatise, that tbe motion of tbe sua 
on his axis, is preserved by some inherent vital principle ; 
that a certain virtue, or immaterial image of the sun, is 
diffused with his rays into tbe ambient spaces, and, revolv-* 
ing with the body of tbe sun on his a^is, takes hold of tbe 
planets, and carries them along with it in the same direcr 
tlon ; like as a loadstone turned round near a magnetio 
needle, makes it turn round at the same time. The pla« 
net, according to him, by its inertia, endeavours to con^ 
tinue in its place, and the action of the suir^s image and 
tUf inertia are in a perpetual druggie. He adds, thai 
this action of tbe sun^ like his light, decrease as tbe dis<» 
sauce increases ; and therefore moves the same pltfnet witit 
gvealter celerity when nearer tbe sun, than at a greater dis<« 
tensce. To account for the planfet^s approaching towardi 
the son as it deocends iVdm the apbeKon to tbe perifaeliobt 
said iwc0ding from the son white it ascends to the aphelioit 
aftio^ lie sufrposeis that tto Am sritfadii ont ^rt of eaellL 

K £ 1^ t E R. 3S7 

fitnety and repels the opposite part ; and that the part 
'attracted is turned towards the sun in the descent, and the 
other towards the sun in the ascent. By suppositions of 
this kind| he endeavoured to account for all the other va- 
fieties of the celestial motions; 

' But, now that the laws of motion are better known than 
in Keplier's time, it is easy to shew the fallacy of every 
part of this account of the planetary motions. The planet 
jloes not endeavour to* stop in consequence of its inertia, 
but to persevere in its motion in a right line. ''An attrac- 
tive force makes it descend from the aphelion to the peri- 
lielion in a curve concave towards the sun : but the repell- 
ing force, which he supposed to begin at the perihelion, 
^ould cause it to ascend in a figure convex towards 
the sun. It was shown afterwards, from sir Isaac New- 
ton, how an attraction or gravitation towards the sun, . 
ktlone produces the effects, which, according to Kep- 
ler, required both an attractive and repelling force ; and 
that the virtue which he ascribed to the sun^s image, pro- 
pagated into the planetary regions, is unnecessary, as it 
could be of no use for this effect, though it were admitted. 
For now his owh prophecy, with which he concludes his 
book, is verified ; where be tells us, that '* the dbcovery 
of such things was reserved for the succeeding ages, when 
the author of nature would be pleased to reveal the$t 

The works pf this celebrated author are many and valu- 
^lable; as, 1. his " Cosmographical Mystery," in I5SL6. 2. 
** Optical Astronomy,** 1604. 3. ." Account of a new Star 
1A Sagittarius,^' 1605. 4. " New Astronomy ; or, Celes- 
tial Physics/* in commentaries on the planet Mars. 5. 
^^Dissertations;** with the Nuncius Siderius of Galileo, 
WIO. 6. " New gauging of wine-casks/' 16 i5; said to 
,b^ written on occasion of an erroneous measureinent of the 
wine at his marriage by the revenue officer. 7. " New • 
Ephemerides/' from 1617 to 1620. 8. *' Copemican Sys- 
tem,** the three first books, 1618. 9. "Harmony of the 
World ;** and three books of ♦* Comets," 1619. 10. " Cosr 
mographical Mystery,* - second edition, with notes, 1621, 
II. ''Copernican Astronomy;** the three last books, 162^. 
i^. **^ Logarithms," l€24 ; and the "Supplement,** in i625. 
13.. His " Astrppproical Tables," called the. " Rpdolphine 
fables,** in honour of tlicj emperor EucjlQlpbu^, his great 
ind learned patron, in 1627. 14. ^^ Epitome of the Co- 

Voi. XIX- Z 

63« K £ P L E It. 

{lernic^n AstroDomy,'* 163£. Besides tbesei be; wrote sere* 
nl pieces on various other branches, as chronology, geor 
itaetry of sdlids, trigonometry, and an excellent treatise of 
Dioptrics, for that time.' 

KEPPEL (Augustus), a celebrated English admiral 
the second son of ^^lliam earl of Albemarle, was boni 
April 2, 1725. Reentered the sea*service while bewa^ 
young, accompanied commodore Anson round the worlds 
and by the 9seal which he manifested in his piofes9iop, was 
iraised to the fir/st honours which it bad to bestow. . The 
most important occurrence in his life took place in. 177 8|^ 
when he had the command of the channel fiee^ to wbicb 
be had. been appointed at the personal and urgent solicita- 
tion of the king, and whicb be readily accepted, thoqgliLbct 
coiild not help observing, ^ that '^his forty yearsVsc^rvic^s. 
were not marked by any favour from the crown, except 
tbat of its confidence in the time of danger.** On (he .I2tb 
of Jiily be fell in with the Fredch fleet, under count d^Qr- 
idlliers, off Ushant : an engagement ensued, wb^ch, though 
partial, was veiy warm while it lasted. It was nec^ssarj 
to take a short time to repair the damages : whicb, 'beins 
done, the admiral made proper signals for the vani andi 
rear division to lake their respective stations. This prde^ 
yifsa obeyed with great alacrity by sir Ilobert Har)and of 
^be van, but admind sir Hugh Palliser of the rear took no 
notice of the signal, and refused to join bis commander^ 
tiU night prevented a renewal of the battle. The Freuch,! 
taking advantage of (be darkness,, escaped to their owu.^ 
coast. Admiral Keppel, willing to excuse sir |I ugh Pal- . 
liser, at least to screen bim from public resentmeiH;, wrote 
home such a letter as seemed even to imply ^eat iqnpror 
priety of behaviour in the commander himself. The con* 
duct, however, of the rear-admiral was attacked in tbf^ 
public papers: be demanded of bis commander a furmajt^ 
disavowal of the charges broughl^ against bim, which Kep« 
pel indignantly refused. He immediately exhibited ard^' 
cles of accusation against the commander-in-cbief, for mis* 
conduct and . neglect of duty, although be had a second 
time sailed with him, and had never uttered a syllable J^ 
bis prejudice. The lords or the admiralty instantly fixed 
a.^ay for the trial of admiral Keppel, wbo was niost honour^ 

^^ SffiftlPsAcoooot of Kepler's Discoveries. ^^Hiitton's Diet— Reel's Cyclops^ ' 
^-*Mac!auno'f Account 9f Newton's Philoiophicd Discoveries, 

K E P P £ L m 

A\y acquitted^ and received the thanks of both bouses of 
parliament for his services* l^ailisef wis next ^. tried, and 
escaped with a censure only, but the resentment of th# 
public was so great^ that he was obliged to resign several 
offices which he held under government, and to v&c'ate his 
seat in parliament. The acquittal of Keppel was cel^- 
brfited with the most magnificent illuminations^ &nd bth^t 
inarks of rejpicing which had niever been known at thai 
tfine in this country; and the houses, of lord Sandwich^ 
first lord of the admimltyi and sir Hugh Palllser, wer^ 
with diiSicuI^ saved from destruction ; the windows and 
much of the furniture being demolished by the fury of thi^ 
populace. In 1782, admiral Keppel was raised to a peet- 
ttge, with the titles of viscount fceppel baron "Eldeo: he 
was afterwards, at two different periods, appointed. first 
lord of the admiralty. He died Oct. 3, 1786, unmarried^ 
and of course his titles became extinct He was a thofoiigh- 
seaman, and a man of great integrity and humauity.' 

KERKHERDERE (John Gerard), a learned prdfesspt 
of the university of Louvain, was born in the neighbour- 
liood of Maestricht, about ^he year 1678.^ He pursued his 
aPcademicai studies at Loyvain, and distinguished himself 
during several years for his accurate and comprehensive 
kupwledge of history and the belles-lettres. In l708 hei 
was appointed historiographer to the emperor Joseph I. 
an,d died in 1738. He was aiithor of tnany works in general 
history and tbeplogy, of which the principal are ^titled^ 
'*,De JVIonarcbia Romae Paganse secundum Concordiam 
inter S. S. Prophetas Danietem et Joannem,** &c. and M Pro*- 
dronftus Danieiicus, sive novi CohatiTs historic!, critici, ini 
celeberrimas difficultates Historiaft Veteris Testamenti.** 
These pieces are distinguished by profound erudition and 
great critical atcumen^ and are said to throw much light on 
n^any obscure passages in the Scriptures relating to history, 
chronology, jand geography. He also published a Latiti 
grammar, and a number of Latin poems.* ^ 

/KERSEY (John), deserves n\ention as having been the 
author of a book on " The Elements of ' Algebra,** one of 
t^e clearlest and niqst comprehensive of the kind in anjr 
lanj;uage ; but nothing is known of his personal history^ 
He al|0 published an improved edition of ^* Wingatei^ 
Autl^ipiietic ;*' and a.'^ Dictionariuna Anglo-Britannicum, ot 

> Sirjfe, Brydges's edition of CoUins*5 Peeragt. * Diet. Hist 

2 2 



General English Dictionary." He lived in the rdgh of 
Charles the Second ; and a head of him, by Faithorne) 
finely engraved, is prefixed to his/ algebra.' 

KETTLE WELL (John), an English divine, remarkaMift 
for piety and learning, was born at Nortb-Allerton In York* 
shire, March 10, 1653. He was grounded in classical 
learning in the free- school of that town, and sent to St. 
EdfnundVhall, Oxford, in 1670. Five years after, he 
ivas chosen fellow of Lincoln college, through the interest 
of Mr. George Hickes, who was fellow of the same, where 
be became ehiinent as a tutor. He enteried info orders as 
soon as he was of sufficient age, and distinguished himself 
early by an uncommon knowledge in divinity. • He waa 
yery young when he wrote his celebrdited book, entitled 
*' Measures of Christian Obedience :''• he composed it in 
l6?8, though it was not published till 1681. Dr. Hickes, 
to whom lie submitted it for correction, advised htto t^ 
dedicate it to bishop Compton, intending, by that ineans, 
£6 have him settled in London ; and, accordingly, it came 
out at first with a dedication to his lordship ; but when ^at 
jp»relate appeared in arms against James H. Kettlewell gavis 
orders to nave the dedication razed out of the copies tmsold, 
and also to have it omitted in the subsequent editions. lii 
the mean timei this book occasioned him to be «o much. 
taken notice of, that the 61d countess of Bedford, mother 
of the unfortunatiB William lord Russel, appointed bio), on 
t'hat account, 'to be one of her domestic chaplains ; and ^ 
greater favour hie received, upon the same consideriitioh, 
from Simon lord Digby, who presented htm, July IMS, 
to the vicarage of Coleshill in Watrwicfcshire. After *he had 
continued above seven years at this place, a greatalteratidn 
happened in his condition and circumstances ; for, kt ^he 
Revolution, being one of tliosfe con$dientioa!» meifiwho 
refused to take the oaths of allegiaYice and supremacy to 
king William and* queen Mary, he wa(s deprived of bis living 
;n 1690. However, he did ndt spend the remainder df his 
days in indolence ; but, retiring to London ^i&i his wKe, 
whom he had married in 1685,- he contrntied'td w¥it6-and 
publish books, as he had done during his tdiiidence in' the 
country. Xhere, amongst other learned men, he tvas 'par- 
ticularly happy in the friendship of Mr. Nelson, wif!h #hdm 
Ue concerted the ^* Model of a fulid 6f charity for the needy 

' 4!ranger« 

K E T T L E W E L L. S4l 

I V 

yuffi^ringy that i(, the nonjuring^ clergy :*' but being p^ty^r 
rally of a tender and delicate frame of body, and inclined 
to a oonsi^mptiont he fell .into that (jiisteroper in ni9.424 
year, ^nd ^ied April 12, 169J5i, at bis lodgings in ^rayS-in? 
IsLf^f He was buried, three d^^i after, in the ^ame grave 
where archbislxop Laud was before interred, in the paris^ 
i;burcb of Ajll^albws-B^rking, where a qeat marble monu« 
^xient is erected to his memory. Mr. Nelson, who mu^ 
fieeds have known him very well, has given this great aa^ 
lioble character of him, ii) a preface to his ^^ Five Dis- 
pourses,'V&c. f piece printed after his decease : " He w£)3 
learned withqut pride ; wise and judicious without cpnning; 
be served at th^ altar without either covetousness or ambi- 
tipn ; he was devout without affectation ; sincerely religious 
without, morpseness ; courteous and affable without flattery 
pr Diefii^ con^pli^Mces ^ just without rigour ; charit^blp 
without^ vanity ; ^pd heartily a;ealous for the interest of 
jreligipn without faction/' His, works were collected an4 
pointed in 17^8, in two volumes, Jfolio : they are all upop 

* religious subjects, uqIcss hi^ ^* Measures of Christian Obe^ 
fi^ence/' ai>d some tracts ^pop ^^ New Oaths,^^ and the 
f' Duty pf .^llegiance," &c. should be rather cpnsidered 9f 
of a polity:^! u^t:ure.' 

; KEySI^R (Jo^^ .G£0K6£), a learned antiquary oif 
penpany, and jPel^v^ pf^be royal society in London, waii 
borp ^n 1689, ^t Xhournau, a town belonging to the county 
pf Qiech. -HLis father, who was of the count's council, took 
fifi exM'aprdina^y care of his education; and, after a suitable 
pr(9paratipnj sent him to the university of Halle, where hp 
/Bipplied bipnself chiefly to the civil law.; not neglecting, ia 

. ^e i^eau tipie, the Latin, Greek, ai^d Hebrew languages, 
Jbistory, antiquity, and the sciences. Soon after he left 
jyEalle, he was i^i^vited to be preceptor to Charles Maxio^l- 
Jiau aQd Christian Cj^rles, counts of Giech-Buchau, with 
whom, in 17 13, he returned thither, and afterwards attended 
them in thei^ travels. The first place of note they visited 
was Utrecht, where he became acquainted with the learned 
^^qdy who, discerning bis uncommon capacity and partif- 
culartufo, advised him to undertake an accurate historj- 
of the antiquities of his<:ouutry. Keysler visited tb^ chreif 
pities of .Germany, France, and the Netherlands, with h^s 

^ Memoirs of the Life of, 1718, Svo, a very curious work, which comprizes 
ftiiistory of the nonguriog clergy and their proceediags. — Atb. Ox. vol. n.-«* 
6«Q. JM.r^Jk^, ^rit.-*6irch'^ TiMotsoa. 

34i K S % S L E B^ 

two yoting counts ; and gtined great reputation among the 
learned, by illustrating^ as be went along, sevenilinomi<i» 
menta of antiquity, particularly some fragments of Celtic 
idols, then lately discovered in the cathedral of Paris. 

Having returned ss^e with bis pupils, and acquired great 
bonour by bis care and manageoient of them, he was after** 
wards fixed upon as a proper person to undertake the 
education of two grandsons of bajron Bernstorf, first minister 
of state to his Britannic majesty, as elector; and accord!^ 
ingly be went to Hanover in 1716, and entered uponhb 
office. However, in 1718, be obtained leave to go over to 
£t>gland, where be distinguished himself so much as an 
antiquary, that he was complimented with being fellowof 
the royal society. This honour be particularly owed to » 
learned essay, ** De Dea Nebalennia numine veteruoi 
Walacbiorum topico.** He gave an explication also of the 
Anslo^Saxon monument of antiquity on Salisbury Plain^ 
called Stoneheiige ; and likewise a *^ Dissertation on the 
consecrated Jtf tisehoe of the Druids.** All these detached 
essays, wHh''0tb6r- setett discourses on the Celtic and 
;M<(Mhe]N) antiquities, be published soon after hif return to 
kHithfover; ita Latin, under this title, ^^ Autiquitates selectte 
Septentrionales et C^lticsB,** &c. Hanov. 1720^ l2mo. 

After the two young barons Bernstorf had been ten years 
tinder his care,- be went with them to Tubingen, at which 
:^niversity Chey remained a year and a half. Then they 
ilsft out on a ^rand tour, visiting the upper part of Ger^ 
fnany^' Switzerland, and Italy; and then returned to Vr» 
enna, wher^ they* spent three months. Their next pro* 
'Ifress was in Upper Hungary, Bohemia, and other parts 
4»f Germany, in I73rtbey passed through Lorrain into 
France, thence crossed the channel into England, and made 
Holland the last stage of their travels. From this toor p¥0« 
deeded a large and entertaining work, which has been 
translated into English, in 4 vols. 4to and 8vo^ and published 
under the following title, ^< Travels through Germany, 
Bohemia, Hungat^y, Switzerland, Italy, and Lort»tw; 
giving a true and just description of the present stat&tif 
those countries ; their natural, literary, and politieal 4iii« 
tory^, QMtnoers, laws, commerce, manufactures, punting, 
sculpture, architecture, c6ins, antiquitieisi, curiosities- of 
a^rt and nature, &c. illustrated with copper-plates engrav0n 
from drawings taken on. the spot. By John George K^s< 
ler, F. R. S. Carefully 'translated from the second 
oftbeGerman^ Lend, 1756." 

K C Y S JL E &. «4» 

"^^ •» 

ifeyvlery'' after bis returny spent ibe mnainder or bin 
^bys^ under the patronage and'protectioo of hh noble piipil^ 
who eommttted to bit care tiieir fine library and museiun^ 
and allowed bim a very bandsome income^ He led 9k 
iMppy tranquil life, declining all public employment, 
keeping himaelf single tbat be might not be incumbered 
vkb immily affairs, and chiefly conversing with the illiis* 
^oos dead, who were the companions of .bis retiremeiv^. 
fie died in his fifty-fourtb year, June 20, 1743, of im 
Mima, after viewing with intrepidity the gradual approa<^b 
isf death.^ 

" KIDD£R (Dr. Richabd), a very learned Englisbk bishops 
:was bom, as Wood says, at Brighthelmstone in Sussex, but 
Asodierssay, in Suffolk* la Juue 1649, he was adiakted 
.siaar in Emanuel -college, Cambridge, where betook bisdQ* 
gree of A* B. 1652, was elected fellow in 1655, and took b^s 
degree of A. M« in 1656. He was presented by his col- 
lege to the vicarage of Stanground, in. Huattngdonsbire ; 
ivom wbieb be was eiected for nonoonformiiyj in 1662, by 
Tirtue of the Bartbobmew act ; but conforwng.sooQ after, 
he was presentcU by Artbdr earl of Essex to the iwtory ^ 
Bsine^ in Essex, r664. ; Here be continued ti4 1674» 
when be was presented to the reetory of St* Martinis 0«i-^ 
sricfa, London, by the Mevcbant-tailors company. In 
fieptenber I6dl, he was initalled into a prebend of Nor- 
vncb; and in 14S9 made dean of PeterborougJA, in^ the 
room of Simon Patrick, promoted to the see. of Cbicbesit^* 
On this occasion be took the degteo of D.D. Upon tbe 
deprivation, of Ken,. bishop of Bath and WeUs^ fordiot 
vtaking tbe oaths to king William and qu^en 'IVbuy, jftM 
^JBevendge?s refusal of tj^t see^ Kidder was nooiioated in 
June 1691, and consecrated tbe August fotlQwing* }n 
1693 he preached the lecture founded by the bopouralije 
-^iRobert Boyle, being tbe second that preached it. v His 
i sermons oi» that occasion are inserted in his *^ Demonstra- 
tion of the Messias," in three parts; the .fir^ pf.whioh 
was publisbed in 1694, the second in 1699|u.and^tbe< thifd 
:in 1700, 8vo. It is levelled against the Jews, whom tli|e 
author was the better, enabled to combat from bis *great 
knowledge of the Hebrew and oriental laii^ua|p^%, for 
^ which be bad long been celebrated. He wioteaii^t '^^ A 
Commentary on the Five Books of Moses; wiCb a 

1 |4f« |refi]«e«( to tke Eo^lish* edition ol bU Trareli* 


tadon concerntDg At antbos or writer of the said; baofai, 
and « geMrai argument to each of tbam." This commeii^ 
tAry was published in 1694, in twovoluoies, 6^0 1 Mid the 
reader in the preface is thus acquainted with the eccateen 
of it : ** Many years are new pessed since a cansidecable 
ttomber of the London clergy met together, and agi*eed 
to publish some short notes upon the whole Biblie, fer the 
use of families, and of all those well-disposed peasont 
thatdesired to read the Holy Scriptures to their greatest 
advantage. At that meeting they agreed upon this werdly 
design, and took their several shares, and assigned some 
part to them who were absent. I was not present at that 
Aieeting ; but I was soon informed that they had asatgae^l 
to me the Pentateuch. The work was begun with common 
consent ; we did frequently meet ; and what wM .done 
was communicated from time to tiotie to those that q^t to«. 
gether and wetre concerned. The methods of proceeding 
had been adjusted and agreed to ; a specYmen was printedj^ 
and an agreement was made when it should be put to the 
press, i fiaisbed my part in order thereto; it fell 
eut, that soon after aU this, the clouds began t» gasbee 
apace, and there was great ground to fear that the pnpisii 
pwrty were attempting to ruin the church of £^giandL-«-*» 
Hence it came to pass that the dioughts pf phrsuing this 
design were laid aside ; and those that were cDnethmd ill 
it were now obliged to turn their studies and pebs agarasl 
that dangerous enemy. Dming this time, elisor some^of 
the persons concerned in this work were taken asray iyy 
^eath ; and thus the work was hindered^ that might leM 
have been finished long since. I, baring drawn s^my 
notes upon this occasion, do now think myself obliged so 
make them public,*' &c. To 4he first volume is pre&ned 
k dissertation, in which he sets down, and answers (all the 
objections made against Moses being the author of the 
Pentateuch; and having considered, among the rest, one 
objection drawn by Le Glerc, from (Sen. xaxvi. 3», and 
spoken in pretty severe terms of him, some letters passed 
between them, which were printed by Le Clerc in his 
^< Biblbtheque Choisie.*' Dr. Kidder had likewise iKirne 
it part in the popish controversy, during which he pob^ 
lished the following tracts: 1. << A Second Dialogud he^ 
tween a- ne^v Catholic Convert and ar Protestant; shewing 
why he cannot believe the doctrine of Transubstantiation, 
though he do firmly believe the doctrine of the Tridity.** 


2/<^ A« EKamiaation of Bellarmiae^s Tbiriietb Bale of t\m 
Cfavreb^ of the Confes^ioii of Adversariq^.V 3. << The 
Texts which Papists cite out of the Bible for the pruof of 
their Doctrine^ * oi the Sacrifice of the Mass,' examiaed.? 
4v *' Reflections on a French Testoment, printed aft Bonrr 
deanx, 1<^66, pretended to be traosjated out of the Lathi 
hf the dimes of Louvain." He pablished al^ seveial 
seroioiis and traeta of the deriotional kind* • 

This prelate died Ne?j no$, in bis palace at \Mh^ 
md was'.prifaieiy baried in the oathedrai Thiough a 
most unhappy accideiM| in tbei night between the Sfitli 
and 27tb^f that mouthy he was killed in his bed, with hia 
^y» ^y the fall of a stack of j^himneys^ occasioned by the 
great sterol. It is reported that hb heh'a were aned for d\r 
llbpidatiens ! He was a very clear, elegant^ learned wat«ri 
and one of the best divines of his- time.' < 

<. kiLLIGREW) an English name for many ingenious 
persons df both sexes, and of the same fiiibily toe. The 
first we meet with, is Catharine, the daughter of sir An^ 
Ihoay. Cooke, who was born at Giddy-ball, in EsseK, aboui 
IS99; and married to Henry v Kiiligrew, esq. a Cornish 
geatlem^B of good abilities, who, for the serFieebe did 
his -country in libe quality oF nn ambassador, waa knighted 
This lady having the advantages of an excellent' edncation^ 
joined to an elegant natural genius, became, like many 
ether ladies her contemporaries, very learned. She under* 
ttoed the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin tougues, and wak 
JMsous fof her skill in .poetry ; a small specimen of wbiok 
is preserved by air John Harrington, in his notes to the 
translation of>^ Ariosto ;" and by Fuller; in his ^^ Worthies.^ 
.' KILUGREW (William), descended from, this fam^y; 
iras tbei eldest son of sir Robert Kiiligrew, knt. and born at 
Hah worth in Middlesex, 1605; He became a gentleman^ 
eommoaerof St. John*8 college, Oxford, in 1622; wbere 
flontifliiiing about three years, he travelled abroad, and^ 
after bis return, was made governor of Pendennis castle^ 
SBid of Fatmouth haven> ih Cornwall. Afier this he was 
ealled to aeimd Charles I. as one o^ the gentlemen -ushert 
efhis privy-^chamber ; in which employment he continue 
tiU the breaking out of the civil w^^rs, and then had the 
eommand given him of one of the two great troops of hbrse 

1 . BjOf^f ^rU.— Bircb'ti T4llotioik— Gale's MS AtAxwm m ^riu Mas. 


that guarded the king's person. Re was in attendancik 
tipon the king when the coart resided at O^rford^ and wai 
created doctor of civil law in 1642; and^ when the' king^s 
affairs were ruined,, he saffered^as the other cavaKefs dtd^* 
and compounded with the republicans for his estate*. Upon 
the restoration of Charles IL he was made gentieiiHin* usher 
of the privj chamber agMn ; and, on that4LHig*s marriage^ 
was created his first vice-duunbeiiain, in which itatsoa he 
eonttnued twenty^^wo yearSi He died in l€9$f and was 
Juried in Westminster^abbey. He was the asthor of four 
plays, which were printed at Oxford, 16tM^ te.Mia^ ami 
have been applauded by men very emioent in poetry ; par* 
ticufaurly by Waller, who addresses m copy of verses to him 
upon his aheriug '' Pandora" from artragedy intpm^ oemedy, 
because not approved on the stage. - Thene.ts another play 
ascribed to him, called << The Imperial Ti^g^dyi'Vl^O, 
Folio* There is also a little poem of his extant, which was 
set to ouisic by the noted Hctnry, I^awes*^ Wood says, that 
after he retired from courts in his declining age, iie wrote 
'< The artless midnigh|t Thoughts of a gentleman at courts 
who for many years built op, sand, which every bla^ c^ 
cross fortune has defaced, but now has laid new foundationa 
on the rock of his salvation,'' 1684, Svo, of which tb|B 
second edition, with additions, was dedicated to Charles lU^ 
and another work entitled ** Midnight and daily ThoughtSi 
in prosQ and verse,** 1 6d4, Svo. .. . 

. KILLIGREW (Thoimas), brother of the former, waf 
bom4n; 1611, and distinguished also by uncommon natunU 
parts^ Hq was page of honour to Charles I,, and grooor of 
the bedr chamber tp Charles II, with whom be had ^u^ 
fetred many years exile. During his abode beyond aea^ 
he took a view of France, Italy^ and Spain; and wa^ hof^ 
noured by bis majesty with the employment of resident 4^^' 
^6 state of Venice, whither he was sent in Aug. 165U In 
this absence from bis country he applied his leiaure^hpuif 
to poetryt and the composition of several plays; of whic^ 
sir John Oenbam, in a jocular way, takes notice iOv bif 
poem on our author^s return from bis embassy to Venicew 
Thougfa JDenham menisons'1>ut six^ ^our author wrote nine 
p}ay# in his travels^ and two at Londoti ; all which were 
printed,' with his picture before them, in one volume folit^ 
at London^ 1664. There is^ besides , these pljfiya of bis^ 
^* A Letter opncerning the possfissing and dispossessing, of 
sey^al Nuns iq: tk^d Nunnery at Tours, in France.;'' cbitcd 

KI JL L I 6 R £ W* 347 

Orleans, Dec. the 7th, 1635, and printed in three sheietr 
Iblio. He died in 1682, and was buried in Westminster^' 
abbey. He bad been twice married. He was a man of an 
nncooHBOn Tein of humour, with which he used to divert 
Chairles IL ; who, on that account, was fonder of him than 
of bis best ministers, and would giW him access to his 
presence when he denied it to them. It -was itsually said 
of him, that, #faen be attempted to write, he vras^ nothing 
compared to what he was in conversation ; which was just 
the reverse of Con^ley, who shone but little ill compaoyt 
thougk lfe)(!exeelled so much with his pen. Hence Den*- 
bam, .wbo' 4new tbem both, has taken occasion thus/ t^ 
chairaetertxev their respective excellencies and delects i^- 

^ Hatd Cowley ne'er spoke, KilKgrew ne'er writ^ 
-. CombiQ*d hi one, they'd made a matchless wit.*' . 

XI tUGR£W(|]eNKY), brother of the former, was born 
in 1612, educated in grammar learning und^r the cele- 
brated Farhaby, and sent tp Christ Church, Oxford, iil 
1628. ' In 1638, having taken his degrees in arts, he wen^ 
into orders, and became a chai^Hiin in the king^s army. ' Iii 
1642 he was ereated doctor of divinity; and the isa'me yestr 
ihade chaplain to James duke of York, and pfebendary of 
Westminster. Afterwards he suffered as an adherent in 
the king^s causel; but, ^ at the restoration, was made al« 
Hioner to the duke of York, su^erintendant to the afiairs 
of his chapel, rector of Wheathamstead, in HertfordsUre^ 
Ifiid mastcfr Of the Savoy hospital in Westminster. He 
wrote, when only seventeen years of age, a tragedy ciilled 
'' The Conspiracy,*^ which was admired by sbnie wits of 
those times ;* pi^rticulariy by Ben Jonson, theii living^^ 
^ who gave a testimony of it (says Langbaine) evto to be 
envied,'' and by lord Falkland. An imperfect copy of this 
jiipp^aring in l638, he afterwards caused it to be repub^ 
ISshed in 1652, with the new title of ** Pallantus and Eii^ 
ifora.''^ He published a volume of sermons, which had 
been preached it court iii 1685, 4to ; and also two or 
khr^e Qctasional sermons. The year of hb death does not 
ippeari " . 

'^ KILETGREW (Annb), « a Grape for beauty, and a Mflse 
for wit,'* as Wood says, was the daughter of H^nry Ki(ii« 
grew, jifst recorded ; and born in London, a little before 
the restoration; She gave the earliest discoveries of ge« 
hius; which being improved by a polite education, she 
became ^ti^inciit in the arts of poetry an4 {tainting. Pry^ 

»4» K I L L I G R i; W. 

den leemi quite lavish in her commendation ^ but Wood 
•tfures us that he has not said any thing of her which she 
was not equal, if not superior to. She was a great pro- 
ficient in the art of painting, and painted a portrait of the 
duke of York, afterwards James II. and also of the duchess^ 
to whom she was a maid of honour ; which pieces are 
highly applauded by Dryden. She drew several history- 
l^ieces, also some portraits for her diversion, and hkewise 
•ome pieces of still-life. Mr. Becket did her picture in 
o^zzotioto, after her own painting, which is prefixed to 
her poems. To these accomplishments she joined an exn 
fmplary piety, and unblemished virtue. This amiable wo« 
man died of the small-pox, June 1685, when only in her 
125th year ; on which occasion Dryden wrote an ode to her 
memory. The year after were printed and published her 
** Poems,*' in a large thin quarto, which, besides the pqb* 
lisher's preface, and Drvden*s ode, contains an hundred 
pages. She was buried in the Savoy chapel, where is a 
very neat monument fixed in the wall, with a Latin inscrip- 
tion on it, commemorating her beauty, accomplishments, 
virtue, and piety. ' 

KIMBER (Isaac), a dissenting divine, was born at 
Wantage in Berkshire, Dec. 1, 1692, and was educated at 
a private grammar-school in Wantage, under the rev. Mr. 
*81oper, an excellent scholar, who was also tutor to bishop 
Butlen At this school, Mr. Kimber made considerable 
(>rogre^s in Greek and Latin, after which, turning his 
thoughts to the ministry, he went to London to complete 
his knowledge of the languages under professor Ward of 
. Oresham-coTlege, and also to attend the dissenting acade- 
my under the rev. John Eames. For some time after hi 
was admitted into the ministry, he had little encourage* 
ment; and having married, he found it necessary to em- 
ploy bis pen for a subsistence. One of his first producr 
(ions was ** The Life of Oliver Cromwell," 8vo, arid sooii 
after he was concerned with Messrs. Bailey^ Hodges, and 
Ilidpath, in compiling a '' History of England,** 4 vols. 
Svo, the third and fourth volumes of which were entirely 
bis. A few years afterwards he wrote '^ The Life of bishop 
Beveridge/' prefixed to the folio edition of his works, of 
which he was the editor. In 1724 he was called, in con- 

f As our authorities for tbfse KHIigretirs are nearly the name, we ehvll bere 
refer g^encrally to the Biog. Brit, new e4it» vol. JV, p. 99.— -Biog.JPtrAinaiifMi.— - 
Swift's Worli>6«— Cibber's Lives.k-^Gtans*'*-'^"*^^'* Worthies,— Ath. Oa^'voI. II. 

K I M B E R. . 84» 

junction with Mr. Samuel Acton, to the pastoral cAtrge o^ 
Natnptwich in Cheshire, but, owing to difFerences of opi* . 
iiion with his hearersj he was obliged to leave them a$ 
the latter end of 1727. On his return to London, he 
officiated, as morning preacher, or assistant, to Dr. John 
Kinch, in Old Artillery-lane, and occasionally, at PinnerV 
hall, for Dr. Hunt ; and was also engaged as a corrector of 
the press for Mr. John Darby, and others. About the 
same time he compiled a periodical pamphlet called '^The 
Morning Chronicle," which subsisted from Jan. 1728 te. 
May 1732, and was then dropped. In part of this period^ 
he was likewise concerned with Mr. Drew of the Uniom 
fire-office, as his assistant, and supported these varioui 
labours with a quiet and even temper, and a cheerful mind^ 
though visited with a heavy affliction in his ivife's being 
ileprived of her reason. During the remainder of his life^ 
he was chiefly supported by his firm friend Mir. Oharleto 
Akers, an eminent printer in London. In 1740 he'v^rote 
an account of the reiga of George 11. which is added te 
Howell's " Medulla Hist. Angl." and soon afterwards an 
abridgment of the History of England, in 1 vol. 8vo, 174S. 
He died in 1756, about which time a voliinie of fais " Ser* 
mons" was printed, with an account of his life, from whieh 
the preceding particulars are taken. He had a son Ei>*> 
WAiiD, i)^h6 was a compiler of various works for the bookr 
^ellers, and died in 1769. Among his compilations, art 
the Peerages of Scotland and Ireland, the Baronetage of 
England, in conjunction with R. Johnson, Svols. 8vo; a 
History of England, 10 vols. 8vo, &c.* 

KIMCHI (David), a celebrated Spaaish rabbi in the 
twelfth century, son of Joseph, and brother of Moses Kim* 
ehi. He lived at Narbonne 11'90, was appointed, 1235^ 
arbiter of the dispute between the Spanish and Frencjb 
synagogues respecting the books of Maimonides ; acquired 
great fame by his learning and writings, and died, in a 
very advanced age, about 1240. His Hebrew works are 
numerous^ and so much valued by the Jews, that Hhey- 
consider no one as learned who has not studied themi The 
principal are, an excellent * Hebrew grammar, entitled 
" Michlol, i, e. Perfection," Venice, 1545, 8vo; Leyden, 
1631, 12ind. This work has served as a m!odel to ail He»- 
brew grammarians. , A book of " Hebrew Roots," 1555, 

' ' LJfe as abo^e. 

SdO ]( K M C R I. 

•vo« or fet. mdiont date. ^ iNctionariuin Thalmuditum,^ 
Yenicei 1506, foL ^'Commeotaries'* on the Psalms^ Pro^ 
phets, and most of the other books in the Old Testament. 
Kimchi keeps chiefly to the literal and grammatical sense^ 
and not unfrequently cites Jewidi traditions. He discoteri 
much less aversion to the Christians than the other rabbinsV 
and Jiis Commentaries are generally considered as the best 
which have been written by the Jews. His style ii pure» 
clear^ and energetic. Father Janvier transited his Com* 
ment on the Psalms into Latin, 1669^ 4to, and his ar^u^ 
meuts against the Christians have been translated by Gene* 
brardi 1566, 8vo.* 

KING (Edward), an excellent youths whom we here 
mention ratber with a.view to gun than to give informationi 
was a fellow of ChristVeoUege^ Cambridge, in 1632 and 
1633. He was unfortunately drowned August 10, 1637, 
iff his passage from Chester to the Irish seas ; a' circum* 
stance which gave birth to the admirable ^^ Lycidas^* of 
Milton. How well 

"He knew 

to wag, aad build the lofty riiyme/* 

may be see by the admirable specimens exhtbite|d in the 
*' Collection^* whieii furnishes this brief memorial. It is^ 
not easy to determine whether his hexameters, his Alcaic 
odes, or his iambie% have the greatest share of merit. 
Even his epigrams, allowing the method of them to be 
truly epigrammatic, shew the hand of a master ; and the 
whole of his performances prove him tobe'possessed of a 
genius which was by no means over-rated by the attention 
and the friendship of Milton.* 

KING (Edward), a learned and philosophical antiquary, 
was a native of Norfolk, where he was bom in 1735, and' 
having inherited from an uncle, Mr. Brown of Exeter; an" 
ampl^ fortune, was early enabled to pursue bis inclinations,- 
wfaich led him chiefly to the study of antiquities. He was' 
partly educated at Clare»baII, Cambridge, but aftet ward$ 
entered of Lincoln's-inn, and, we presume, studied the 
law^ as he was afterwards chosen recorder of Lynn in Nor4' 
folk. He was elected RR.S. in 1767, and F.S. A. in I770v 
and to ^e Archsodogia made varibus^commnnications, wMcIi 
gatre him such reputation with the society; that iri^l7:^4> - 
on tbe demise of Dr. Milles, he was elected president, oi|' 


V « > < 

* Michols'8 PosBU.— Todd and Sjrfflmms'i Livei of MilUm^ 

KINO. 9S% 

mhidoL occasion be iotzddiiced » nuodier of new reg^IetJKHH^ 
Md the appoiotment of two regular seoretades, axid a 
draughtsmaoy to attend constantly. On St George's day 
fpllowingt however, he was obliged to resign the chair, ia 
fsYOHr of Georj^er lord de Ferrarsy afterwards earl of Lei? 
cestev aod.marquis Townseud, a majority of nearly two t^ 
one baying appeared against him. He afterwards printed 
a letter in Tindicatioo of hiaiseif, and reflecting upon. the 
npble early and from that period ceased to make any com- 
jnunicatiens to the society. . 

. :^ His. fir^t separate publication appeared in 1767, under 
the tide of *^ An Essay on the English Government ;** and 
bis second^ after, a long interval, in 1190^ withont his 
Aame, ^' Hymns to the Supreme Being, in imitation of the 
Eastern Songs." Of this pleasing puUication two editions^ 
were printed* , In 1784 he circulated, also without his name^ 
> ** Proposals for establishing, at sea, a Marine Sidbool, or 
seminary for seamen, as a means of improving the plan 
of the Marine Society,^' &c. His object was to fit up a 
man of war as a g^^ne schooL . In 1788 he published a. 
large 4to volumeii entitled ^<^ Morkels of Criti^sm^ tending 
tp itlusti^te aoqop few passages m idbei Hoiy Scriptures «ipontr< 
philpsoj^icfipriuciples and an enlat^^itviewof^bings.''' . 
The fate..o^ this woi^k was somewhat siagiilar. . The. author 
received ^xty copiea for presents; /md ^^^reatex pait of thia 
remaining impression, being little cathid wr, was coeiterMl : 
into waste papei^* Some time after,.; how^syer, the iao|iice 
taken |of it,]^ thai popular poenii ^f The., Pursuits of Ute^ 
r^^tufe,*' brought it agaM) into notice; a. second redttioii 
appeared in 8v6, and a second tvoiiime of the 4toin;180]r. 
This works singular opinions : among . others^ 
the author attempts to prove that John ;tbe Baptist was aa 
engel from heaven, and the same who<formerly appeared 
in the person of Elyah : that there will be a second appeaih. 
.ance of Christ upon earth (something like this, however, is'^^ 
'held hjf other writei») : that this gk^ is a kind of comely 
which is continually tending towards the sun, and will at - 
length approach so pear as to be ignited by the solas rays 
upon the elementaiy fluid of fire r and - ibat the place >of 
^punishment allotted for wieked mien is . the: centre of the. 
^eartb^ which is the bottomless pit^ &a >&c. It is unneoessaiy 
to add, tbat these r^eries. did not proc^e jMnXMig much 
^reputation as a philosophical commentator on the Scrip* 

S5ft XING. 

< Hit next pablioBtions indicated the variety of bis medi- 
tations and pursuits. Iii 1793 he produced >^ An Imitation 
of the Prayer of Abel/* and ** Considerations on the (Jti« 
lity of the National Debt.*' In t796 he amused biniself 
and the public with '^ Remarks concerning^ Stones said to 
have fallen from the Clouds, both in these days and in 
ancient times;" the foundation of which was the surprizing^ 
ahower of stones said, on the testimony of several persons, 
to have fallen. in Tuscany, Jane 16, 1796, and investigated 
in an extraordinary and full detail by the i^bate. SoJdanj, 
'|;>rofessor of stKatbemaitict in the university of Sienna. This 
subject has since employed other pens, but no deciuve 
conclusions have been agreed upon. Mr. Kind's ne^ 
pilbiication, liovwviQr, belonged to the province In which 
tie was best able to put forth his powers of research : 
^f Vestiges of Oxford Castle ; oV, a small fragment of a 
work intended to be published speedily, oj» the history of 
ancient castles, and on the progress of architecture," 1796, 
St tbin folio. This interesting memoir was accordingly fol- 
lowed by a large history of ancient castles, entitled ^^ Mu- 
flfiflsenta .Antiqua,*' of which 3 vols, folio have appeared^ 
and part of a fonrth. These voiomes^ although he main- 
tains some theories which are not much approved, undoubt^ 
edly entitle htm to the reputation of a learned, ' able, and 
indttstrieas antiquary. It was bis misfortune, however, to 
be perpetaaHy denatkig into speculations which he was less 
<}ualified to establish, yet adhered to them with a pertin«^ 
^ty which involved bim«in angry cpntrovetsfes.* In 179S 
lie published a pamphlet called ** Remarks on th^ Signs <^ 
4ihe Tines;" at>oot wliich other ingenious mer> were at 
that time inquiring, and very desireas to trace the* history 
snd progress of the French Revotatioa and war to the 
leeordsof sacred antiquitif ; but Mr. King ventured -bei^ 
to assert 'the genuineness of the second book of Esdras in 
tiia Apocrypha. Mr. GoUgh criticised tim work with much 
ireedoui and justice in the Greiitteindii^s ^Magasine, and 
Mr. Kingthouffbt himself insulted. On his -adding ^ A 
Supplement to his Remarks" in479a> he met with e move 
l^weffill antagonist in bishop Horsley, who published 
^ Oritieal Disquisitions on Isaiah xviii, in Ic Letter to 
Mr. Kingi^' While preparing a fourth volume of hts 
•» Mtmimenlay" Mr. iUng^'-diedy ApTiil€, |B07^ and was 
buried in the ohnrch-yavd' at Beck(Hihaaa,"wbere his coun- 
try-seat was. Mr. King was a man of extensive reading. 

KINO. 35S 

. . . . t 

and considerable learning, and prided himself particularly 
on intense thinking, which, however, was not alwaya 
under the regulation ,of judgment^ 

' KING (Ga^QokY), a heraldic and commercial writer, 
the son of a father of both his names, was born at Lich-r 
, fields Dec. 15, 1^48, and was educated at the grandmar- 
' school of that city, and at the age of fourteen bad been 
taught Greek, LatiOj and somewhat of Hebrew, At that 
age he was recommended by Dr. Hunter, of Lichfield, to 
sir. William Dugdale, then Norroy, who took him into hi» 
service, which was very acceptsible to his ikther, who had 
five other children to provide for ; arid Dr^ Hacket, bishop 
df Liclrfield, had intended to have sent him to ihe uni-* 
Versity, Had not this opening taken place. lie was at this 
time so small of his age, that when he becanie clerk to 
Dugdale, and for tWo years after, he was unable t6 mount 
a horse from the ground. Yet he accompanied that king 
of arms in his visitations, and tricked the arnis of Stafford- 
shire, which though not equal to what he afterwards did^ 
stin remain in the college. He at that time applied him- 
self to the Friench language, and painting of pedigrees^ 
and within a year or two, painted several for Mr, Dugdale. 
particularly a large one of Clav'erin, of Northumberland, 
and some tim^ after painting and engrossing the grants of 
arms 611ed up'thi^ greatest part of his tipie; but Dugdid^ 
gave him leave to take with him into the northern counties 
.blank escocheons on vellum, upon whiiih he depicted the 
arms orf those who desired an attestation of them under 
Dugdale^s hand ; and this he'was enabled to do, instead 
of an arms painter, who had usually attended that officer 
6f the college. He shewed uncommon attention to im-f 
pfovement during the time Dugdale visited his whole pro- 
vince, in 1662, and 1666, for be took prospects of th«i 
towns, castles, and other remarkable places in the coun- 
ttes through which he passed. In 1667 he passed into* 
the service of lord Hatton, who was a great lover of 
atitiquities, and the particular patron 6( Dugdale during 
the civil wax*; and ttow employed Mr. King until 1669, 
^hen be was dismissed with great promises of future! 
Jtrndncfss, He then went to Lichfield^ where he found 
hi^ fattier re -married; and here he supported htmself* 
tot some t\mk in the humble occupations of teaching 

J-. . . . ' Nicho)i'» Bo«y«r. 

Vot. XIX. A A 

354 KIN G. 

writing and arithmetic, painting coaches, iigns, and other 
kinds of work in oil colours^ as hatchmeDts, &c. and 
in instructing the registrar of the dean and chapter^ 
and some other inquisitive persons, to read anpient re- 
cords. At thi$ time Mr. Chetwynd of Ingestry, invited 
him to peruse and transcribe his family muniments, which 
he did in a fair velluiin book, tricking the most considerr 
able seals. 

At the end of this year, 1669, he became the steward, 
auditor, 'and secretary of the lady dpwager Gerard, of Ge- 
rard's Bromley, relict of Charles, and mother of Digby, 
lord Gerard. He resided with her ladyship^s father Geojtge 
Digby of Sandon, in Staffordshire, esq. until August^ 
1672, This task was somewhat arduous, for his predeces* 
sor, Mr. Chauncie, kept all his accounts, and other mat^^ 
ters of moment, in characters which he had to decipher ; 
and besides he drew and J3ainted many things for lady Ge- 
rard, whilst in her service. From* Staffordshire Ije went 
to Lgndon, where he renewed his acquaintance, at the 
Heralds^-college, paying a suitable attention to his old 
master, ^Dugdale. Here he becanae known to Hollar, the 
celebrated engraver. He recommended him Xo Mr. Ogil* 
vy, to manage his undertakings, who having his msyesty'i 
license to print whatever he composed or translated, 
kept a press in his house, and at that time waspriiiting 
sir Peter Leicester's " Antiquities of Chester." Mr. King 
made. his first attempt in etching some ancient seals iq 
that work. Giving satisfaction he, was employed in etching 
some sculpts^ in Mr. Dugdale's Esop (not the antiquary ),r 
which was reduced from the folio to 8vo size, and se- 
veral of Ogilvy's " History of Asia," vol. I. translated from 
De Meurs' impression at Amsterdam. He also assisted iti 
his new " Britannia," travelling into Essex with the surveyor^ 
Mr. Falgate, a native of that county. They in the middle 
of the winter, 1672, a very inclement one, took the ich*» 
nography of Ipswich, in Suffolk, and Maiden, in Essex, 
which were afterwards very curiously finished, and seht t^ 
those two places. He assisted and superiatended the oiap 
of London^ which Hollar engraved. He contrived and 
managed a lottery of books, to repay Mr. Pgilvy^s.grea^ 
expences in these concerns, and a lesser one pf .books foi; 
Bristol fair, which turned t9 good advantage, Mr. Kicfg. 
Attending thece. He then engaged in Ogilvy'a " Book of 
Roads," superintending, the whole, digesting the notefi 
directing the en^jraviogs, thcee or four of which h<» exe« 

KING. 855 

eoted^with his own hand, which was the first tin^e he atr 
tempted handling the graver. Mr. Og^lvy was so sensible 
of his merit and fidelity, that he treated him with peculiar 
attention on all occasions, and allowed him a music-master 
to testch him to play upon the violin, and offered to renew 
his place of cosmographer to the king, and put his name 
in jointly, or in reversion ; .this he declined, but accepted 
the offer to undertake, on his own account, the map of 
Westminster, which he completed in 1675, on the scale 
of 100 feet to an inch. He employed himself also in en* 
graving the letter-work of various maps. He laid out 
^ome of the principal streets of the metropolis, particularly 
those of Soho ; and most of the first building articles, or 
leases, were drawn up by him. At length his connexions 
with the heralds procured him to be created Rouge-dragon 
in Jfi77, but the fees of this office being small, he found 
it expedient to continue his employment of engraving and 
herald-painting. He designed a map of Staffordshire^ yet 
through sir Henry St. George, Norroy, and his old master, 
pu^dalet Garter, the duties of the office took a good part 
of his time. Being very useful to these kings at arms, 
they pressed him to remove to the college, which he did at 
Lady-day, 1 680, Dugdale accommodating him with a cham- 
ber, and some other conveniences, and St. George with a 
kitchen. He assisted St. George in his visitations, as one of 
his deputies^ in 1681 and 1682 ; and, upon the death of the 
duke of Norfolk, his successor nominated him registrar ii} 
the room of Mr. Devenish, York ; although opposed by 
the college as without a precedent. He was also trusted 
and consultetl about the burial of Charles H. the proclaiming 
and the coronation of bis successor, and took a part in the 
magnificent publication of the latter ceremony with Mr. 
Sand ford, Lancaster herald. The Revolution soon following, 
he became extremely useful in the ceremonial of William 
and Mary^s coronation. Mr. Sandford resigning his tabard 
to him, he became, for three or four months, LancaTster 
and. Rouge-dragon, the patent not passing until the follow- 
ing July. 

From this time his merit was so well known, and so en* 
tirely acknowledged, that he bore a deserved sway in the 
college, such as perhaps no other herald of his standing 
ever did; for being skilled in the languages, especiaUy 
the Latin and Fi'ench, and being intimately conversant in 
whatever related to the order of the Garter, he was fixed 

A A 2 . 

S56 X: I N ^. 

tjpoil to ht def>iity to sir Thomas 9t. George;^ <%firter, t» 
take tbe insignia to invest the eleetor of ^ratidt^tibtirgh : 
and was afterwards frequently employed in siinflar com** 
inissions and foreign installations. 

'Among his other literary laboari were* his composing a 
park of cards containing the arms of the English nobility, 
in imitation of " Claud Oronce Fine Brianllle ;" and ** the 
order of the installatron of prince George of Denn^ark^ 
Charles duke of Somerset, and George duke of Northum- 
berland, at Windsor, April 8, 1684," printed in London, 
in 1684, in folio. As also the ** InstaUatiori of Henry 
duke of Norfolk, Henry earl of Peterborough, and Lau-^ 
rence earl of Rochester, Windsor, July 22; 1685,^' printed 
in London in the same year, 1686, in folio. Besides these 
various occupations he afterwards became secretary to tha 
commissioners for settling the public accounts; ana secre* 
tary to tbe comptrollers of the army. In both he acquired 
the highest commendation. Mr. King was a man of great 
Taried powers, and as an herald and genealogist, be equalled 
his great master Dugdale. He also wrotd a valuable workp 
lately published from his MS. in the British Museum, by 
Mr. George Chalmers, entitled, " Natural and political 
obserrations and conclusions upon tbe State and Conditioti 
of England.'* Dying August 29, 1712, aged 63, he was 
buried in the chancel of St. Bennetts church, Paul's Wharf^ 
where is'^a handsome mural monument of marble. • He was 
twice married, but left no issue. * 

KING (John), a learned English bishopj was great 
nephew of Robert King, the first bishop of Oxford, atidt 
son of Philip King of Wormenhale or Wornall, near Brill 
in Buckinghamshire, by Elizabeth, daughter of Edmtind 
Conquest of Houghton Conquest in Bedfordshire. Hf 
was born at Wornall about 1559, educated in Westminster- 
school, and sent to Christ chilrcb, Oxford, in 1576 ; where 
he took, in due time, his degrees in arts. He was after* 
wards chaplain to queen Elizabeth ; archdeacon of Not- 
tingham in 1590 5 doctor of divinity in 1601 ; dean of 
Christ church in 1605; and bishop of London in 1611, 
Besides his ^' Lectures upon Jonah,'* printed in 1594, ht 
published several sermons. James L used to style him 
*^the AzVi^ of preachers;'' and lord chief justice Cokeoftert 

I Noble>9 CoUef e of Arms;— Oent. Mi^. Tol LXXI. 



'd^efor^d, thi|| '•' he was the best speaker iu the st^^chiaai- 
ber in his ttine." He was sp constaot in preaching, after 
-h^ was a bisbpp) |b(^ he never qiissed a Sunday, when hiis 
health permitted* He died March 30, 1621, and was in* 
^terred in St. Paul's cathednii. Soon after, the papists re- 
ported, that be died a member of their church, io a 
pampblet entitled *< The Bishop of London his Legacy ;*' 
but the falsity of this story was sufficiently exposed by his 
son Henry, in a seripon at, St. Paul's cross, Nov. 25, 1^2], 
and by bishop Grodwin, in the appendix to his '< Cpmmeu- 
tarius de Prssulibus Angliss.^' ' . 

KING (Henry), bishop of Chichester in the seventeenth 
century, was eldest son of the preceding, by Jane, daugh- 
ter of Mr. Henry Freeman of Staffordshire, and was born 
atWomall in Buckiughamshire In January 1591, and edu- 
cated in grammar learning partly in the free-school at 
Thame in Oxfordshire, and partly at Westminster-school, 
from which he was elected a student of Christ church in 
1608. On June the i9tb, 1611, he took the degree of 
bachelor of arts; and July the 7th, 1614, that of master. 
He then entered into baly orders, and becapae an eminent 
preacher, and chaplain to king James L He was after- 
wards made.arcbdeapon of Colchester ; residentiary of St. 
Paul's, and canon of Christ church. On May the 19tby 
1625, be took the degree of docto^r of diyinity. . He inras 
> afterwards chaplain to king Charles L and February the 
6th, 1638, was installed in the deanery of Rochester, Id 
1641. he was advanced to the see of Chichester, to which 
he was consecrated December I9th of that year. But 
though he was always esteemed a puritap, and had been 
promoted to that see in order to please that party ; yet 
upon the breaking out of the civil wars, and the dissolu* 
tioo of episcopacy^ be was treated by them with great se** 
verity ; << nor was he suffered to live quietly at his friend^^ 
house (for some time, at least), when they coqld discover 
him." He lived for the most part with sir Richard Hobarty 
who had married his sister, at Lungiey io Buckinghamshire! 
by whom he was supported. At the restoration he reco* 
vered his bishopric. Wood tells us, that ^' he was es- 
teemed by many persons of his neighbourhood and diocese^ 
the epitome of all hpnours, virtues^ and generous noble-^ 

* Atb. 0«. ▼ol. I.— Oen. Diet.— Bibliogrnpher, rol. I. p. 506.— Dodd's Ch. 
Hist. roU I. whejr« is a discusti«a oa the rtyot t of hit turniof papist. 

/ • 


mss, and a person never to be forgotten by his tenants and 
by the poor." He died October the 1st, 1669, and was 
interred on the south side of the choir belonging to his 
cathedral of Chichester, where a monument was erected 
to him, with an inscription, in which it is said, that he 
was ^^ antiqiid, e&que regiSi Saxonum apud Danmonios in 
Agro Devoniensi prosapial oriundus,^' and that be was 
" natalium splendore illustris, pietate, doctrinl. fevirtuti- 
bus illustrior," &c. He married Anne, daughter of sir 
^William Russel of Strensham in Worcestershire, bart who 
after the bishop's decease married sir Thomas Millington 
the physician. 

He published several works, viz. I. "Serrrions,** printed 
atdiSerent times. 2. " Exposition of the Lord's Prayer,** 
1628, and 1634, 4to. 3. " The Psalms of David, from the 
new translation of the Bible, turned into Metre, &c.*' 1651, 
12mb. 4. " A deep Groan fetched at the Funeral of- the 
incomparable and glorious mdnarch king Charles I." 1649, 
in one, sheet. 5. " Poems, Elegies, Paradoxes, Sonnets," 
1657, 8vo. 6. Various Latin and Greek poems, published 
in several books. 7. There is a letter of his to Mr. Isaac 
Walton, concerning the three impecfect books of Hooker^s 
Ecclesiastical Polity; dated Nov. 17, 1664, and prefixed 
to Walton's " Life of Hooker." The merit of his poems, 
with extracts, has been ably discussed by Headley, Ellis, 
and Park, as appears by our authorities. He had a brother, 
John, who became a student of Christ church in 1608, 
and was afterwards public orator of the university^ canon 
of Christ church in 1624, and the year following doctor of 
divinity and canon of Windsor, and about that time pre- 
bendary of St. Paul's, and rector of Remenham in Berk* 
shii;e. He died January 2, 1638-9, and was interred at 
Christ church in Oxford. He published a single sermon, 
and one or two Latin orations.^ 

KING (John), rector of Chelsea, was bom at St. Co- 
lumb in Cornwall, May 1, 1652, He was educated at Exe«» 
ter college, Oxford, but took the degree of D. D. at €a- 
therine-hall, Cambridge, where his friend sir William • 
Uawes was master. When first in orders, he had tlie cu- 
racy of Bray, in Berkshire. By his second wife he ac- 
quired the patronage of Pertenhall, in Bedfordshire, and . 

» Ath. Ox. vol. II.— Gen. Diet.— Nicho!s»8 Poems.— Gibber's LiTe».-^Topo- 
^rapber, vol. I. p. 408. — Headley's Beauties.— Censora Lit. vol. V. mmI VI,-4* 
Eilw'8 Specimens, vol. III.-»^Ushei*8 Life and Letters/ p. 567. 

KING. ' 359 

was instituted to that rectory in June 1690; but in 1694, 
exchanged it for Chelsea^ the value of which he consideN 
ably advanced by letting out the glebe on lives for building. 
In 1731 he was collated to the prebend of Wightonin 
York cathedral^ by sir William Dawes, archbishop. He 
died May 30, 1732, and was buried at Pertehhall. Besides 
two occasional sermons, he published, 1. ^< Animadversions 
on a pamphlet entitled A Letter of advice to the churches 
of the Nonconformists of the EngUsh nation ; endeavour- 
ing their satis&ction in that point, Who are the true church 
of England ?" 2d edit. 1702, 4to. 2. " The case of John 
Atherton, bishop of Waterford in Ireland, fairly repre- 
sented against a partial edition of Dr. Barnard's relation 
and sermon at his funeral, &c." 1716, 8vo. In the appen- 
dix are two anonymous letters ; but it appears by inter- 
lineations in Dr. King's own hand, that the first was from 
Dr. Thomas Mill, bishop of Waterford, and the second 
was to that bishop from the rev. Mr. Alcock, chancellor of 
Waterford. 3. *• Tolando-Pseudologo*mastix, or a curry- 
comb for a lying coxcomb. Being an answer to a late 
piece of Mr. Toland's called Hypatia," Lond. 1721, 8vo. 
There is also in the British Museum, a small quarto volume 
in MS. by Dr. King, containing a supplement and remarks 
on the life of sir Thomas More ; a letter on sir Thomas 
More's house at Chelsea, and other miscellanies. 

Dr. King's eldest son, John, was born Aug. 5, 1696, 
and from Eton school was sent to King*s college, Cam- 
bridge, of which be became fellow, and took the degree of 
*M. A. He afterwards settled at Stamford in Lincolnshire^ 
and practised physic there with great reputation, but was 
cutoff by a fever, Oct. 12, 1728. He published " Epis- 
tola ad virum ornatis. Joannem Freind, &c. in qua D. W« 
Trilleri, Phil; et M. D. epistolam medico-criticam super 
primo et tertio epidemiorum, a viro ornatissimo editis, ad 
examen revocavtt J. King," Cambridge, 1722, 8vo ; and 
an excellent, and now rare, edition of ^^ Euripidis Hecuba, 
Orestes, & PhoenissaB," ibid. 1726, 8vo.' 

KING (John Glen), a learned English writer and anti- 
quary, was born in the county of Norfolk in 173 U He 
was educated at Caius doUege, Cambridge, where he took 
bis degrees of B. A. and M. A. in 1752 and 1763, and at 

» * 

- 1 Preface to Martyn's Dissertations on the iEaeid8.-—Nichol8*s Botvyer.'- 
Faulkaer's Hist, of CheUea.*-Hiirwood'8 Alumni Etonenses. 

*80 K 1 N 6. 

subsequent periods he was admitted to the degree of D. D» 
and received a member of the royal society, and of the 
society of antiquaries. In 1764, be obtained the appoint- 
ment of chaplain to the English factory at Petersburgb. In 

, this situation be was led to inquire into tbe^ ceremonies of 
jtbe Russian churchy which he continually saw practised^ 
and determined to give a faithful descriptioil of the same 
in his own language. He accordingly published, in 1772, 
in a handsome quarto, illustrated with engravings, a work» 
entitled ^^ The Rites and Ceremonies of the Greek Church 
in Ru9sia ; containing an account of its doctrine, worship, 
and discipline.^* In 1778, he wrote and published a letter 
to the bishop of Durham, containing some observatiof)s,oii 
the climate of Russia, and the northern countries, with a 
view of the flying-mountains at Zarsko Sello, near St. Pe* 
tersburgb» Soo{5- after his return to bis native country, hie 
was |jresented to the rectory of Wormley, in Hertfordshire^ 
in 1783 ; and in 1786 he purchased Dr. John Warner's qha* 
pel in Broad^court, Drury*lane, in which he officiated as' 
preacher. While he resided at Petersburgb, the empress 
of Russia had appointed him her medallist, and he was en* 
gaged in a medallic work at the time of his death, which 

. happened Nov. 2, 1787, in the fifty-sixth year of his age, 
i^nd was buried at Wormley. Besides the works already 
mentioned, Dr. King was author of ^* Observations on the 
Barberini Vase,** which are printed in the eighth volume 
of the Tran^ctions of the Antiquarian Society.^ 

KING (Peter), chancellor of England^ and £»mous for 
bis ecclesiastical learning, as well as his. knowledge in the 
IaW| was born in 1669 at Exeter, Devonshire, . where his 
father, an eminent grocer and salter in that city, though a 
man of considerable substance, and descended from a good 
{amily^ determined^ to bring up his son to his own trade. 
With this view, he took him into his business; and kept 
bim at bis shop for some years : however, the son*s incli« 
nation being strongly bent to learning, he took all oppor* 
tunities of gratifying his passion, laying out all the money 
he could spare in books, and devoting every moment of his 
leisure hours to study \ so that he became a scholar of very 
great accomplishments, which were hid under the appear- 
P;nce of an attention to the business of the shop, This^ 

^ Oent Mag. LVII. And LtX.-— llis Letter to the Bishop of. Durham if In tlM! 
Wctmiiiisfcer Magazine f^r nsO^^^^-Nichols's Bowyer, 

however, was discoyered hy tii» ceJ^bf^Mid l^ocl^e» who wm 
his uncle by his ^loti^fsr'ft fid^ ^nd who^ aft^ sofl»e dia* 
course, being greatly sMrprtsed wd pleaaed mth ihe prcf* 
digious advances bis nfpberav bad oaadQ in literature» ad- 
vised him to Gommence a regular ^our^^'of study ai Ley^ 
dea: and it is said to have been by bis advice, that 
Mr« King afterwards entered htdBelf a student at khp In*- 
Ber-Temple, and applied himself to the law; in which 
profession his talents i^pd industry Siopn rendered him 

In the mean time, be attracted the notiee of the learned 
woi^ld^ by a publication on a sul^ect spmewbat foreign 
from those which were connected with hi9 professioQtl 
studies, but which occupied' no spaall. portion ctf the time 
which ha could spare from them< When be was in his 
twenty^second year, h0 publisbed tb^ first part of a irork 
entitled^ '< An Inqmiry into the Constitution, Discipline, 
Unity, ^nd Worship, of tl)e Primitive Church, that floit^ 
rished within the fisst three b»pdred years after Christ, 
faithfully collected put of the extant wrkings of tho^e ages,-' 
169 1, Svo. This was written with a view to promote what 
was then thought very promisiing, the sc^heme of a eom- 
prehension with the dissenters : and the author had at least 
the merit of showing that spirit of peaoe> unity, and mode* 
ration, which would have done honour to all parties con* 
cerned ; but his attempt to prove bishops and presbytem 
of the same order was not successful. He afterwards pub» 
lisbed the second part of the " Inquiry into the Consti*^ 
tutiqn, &c,;'' and having solicitedy in a modest and unaf-» 
fected way to be shewn, either publicly or privately, any 
mistakes he might have made, that request was first com'* 
pUed with by Mr. £dmuad Elys; between whom and our 
author severar letters were exchanged upon the subject 
in 1692, which were published by Mr. Elys in 1694, 8vo. 
under the title of ^^ Letters on several subjects.'' But the 
most formal and elaborate answer tp the ^^ Inquiry" ap-^ 
peared afterwards in a work entitled ^^ Original draught of 
tbe^ Primitive Church,'' by a Mr. Sclater, which is said to 
have made a convert of Mr. King himself. 

Mr. King had not been nsany years at th^e Temple, wfhen 
he bad acquired as. high a reputation for his knowledge in 
law, as he had before for his knowledge in divinity ; iMAd^ 
in 1699, obtained a seat in the House of CpnuBoas^ atire* 
presentative for the borough of Beer-Aktpn,: i^ Deiioftf 

46« KIN G. 

shire ; and the same honour was continued to biai, not 
only in the ensuing and last parliament of king William, 
but in the five succeeding parliaments of queen Anne. In 
the mean time he published his inquiries into church 
history, and the history of early opinions, and having com- 
pleted some collections he had already made, and digested 
them into proper order, he published, in 1702, ^' The His- 
tory of the Apostles' Creed, with critical Observations on its 
several articles,*' 8vo; atreatise written with judgment and 
learning. Peter de Coste, who. sent an abstract of it in 
French to Bernard, to be published in his ^* Nouvelles de 
U Republique de Lettres*' for November and December, 
1702) has related a very remarkable particular concerning 
it. He tells us that an English prelate, distinguished for 
bis erudition, fancying it could only be a compilation from 
several discourses already printed, or perhaps an abridg- 
ement ot Pearson's '^ Exposition of the Creed," who seemed 
to have exhausted the subject, began to read it with this 
disadvantageous prepossession ; but was quickly convinced 
of his mistake, and- surprized to find so many curious 
things, not to be met with in Pearson, and to observe so 
^little borrowed from that writer's ^^ Exposition." 

From this time, however, our aut);ior found himself 
uinder a necessity of relinquishing pursuits of this kind, on 
-account of the increasing, and urgent business which his 
abilities as a lawyer brought into his hands; and in a few 
•years his merit in the law was distinguished by the highest 
•honours. July 1708, he was chosen recorder of London ; 
and knighted by queen Anne September following. In 
1709, he was appointed one of the managei*s of the House 
of Commons, at the trial of Sachevereli. Upon the acoes* 
'aion of George I. he was appointed lord chief-justice of 
the court of common-pleas, and soon after sworn of the 
privy-council. He was created a peer May the 25th, 
1725, by the title of lord King, baron of Ockhatn, in t$ur- 
rey ; and the great seal being taken from lord Macclesfield, 
was delivered to him the 1st of June following. He did 
not, however, make that figure as chancellor, which was eit- 
pected from the character that raised him to it ; and it is 
said that more of his decrees were repealed by the House 
of Lords than of any other chancellor in the same space of 
time. Yet it is allowed that he took extraordinary pains 
in the discbarge of his office, which, impairing his constij 
cmion by degrees, brought on at last a paralytic disorder ; 

KING. *'63 

And his distemper increasing, be resigned the seals the 
26th Nov. 1733, and died July the 22d following, at his 
seat at Ockham, leaving behind him two sons and two 
daughters, and a widow, the daughter of Richard Seys, 
of Bov^rton, in Glamorganshire, esq. Lord King was a man 
of great integrity, knowledge, and diligence, although not of 
transcendant abilities. He Was interred in Ockham church, 
Surrey, where a monument was erected to his membry.' 

KING (Dr. William), a learned archbishop of DaMin, 
was descended of an ailcient family, and bom at Antrim, 
in Ireland, May the 1st, 1650. At twcive years of age, 
he was sent to the grammar-school at Dungannon, ii^ th« 
county of Tyrone ; and at seventeen, to Trinity-college, 
near Dublin, where he took the degrees in arts, when be 
became of proper standing. In 1674 he was admitted into 
priest's orders by abp. Parker of Tuam, who, taking him 
for his chaplain in 1676, presented him the same year to a 
prebend, and afterwards to the precentorship, of Tuam. 
In 1679, he was promoted by bis patron, then arthbishop 
of Dublin, to the chancellorship of St. Patrick, and to^the 
parish of St. Warburgh in Dublin. He bad the repiitatibn 
of uncommon abilities and learning; and a season was 
now appriiaiching which gave him a fair opportunity of dis« 
playing them. Accordingly, in the reign of James !L 
when popery began to raise her head, he, following the 
example of his English brethren, boldly undertook the de- 
fence of the Protestant cause in Ireland, against Peter 
Manby, the dean of Londonderry, ' who had lately gone 
over to the Catholic faith. lu 1687, Manby having piik- 
Ifthed a pamphlet in vindication of his conduct, entitted 
^* Considerations which obliged him to embrace the Ca- 
tholic religioii," our author drew up ** An Answer," and 
printed it at Dublin the same year in quarto. Manby, en- 
couraged by the court, and assisted by the most learned 
champions of the church of Rome, published a reply^ 
called ^ A reformed Catechism, &c." ; and our author 
soon after rejoined, in " A Vindication of the Answer to 
the Considerations, 1688,** 4to. Manby dropped the con- 
troversy, but dispersed a sheet of paper, artfully written, 
with this title, '* A Letter to a Friend,* shewing, tbe vanity 
of this opinion, that every man's' sense «nd reason are td 
guide hiqi in matters of faith ;** but our author did.not6of« 

* Biog. Brit— Whiftoa's Lifc.-rGent. Ma*. rolULll and hXL [[ , 


564 K t N ^. 

fer this lo pass without confuting it, in *^ A Vindic4tlioii o£ 
itbe Christian Religion au4 Reformation^ against the at- 
tempts of a late letter, &c. 168 i,'' 4to. 

The deanery of St. Patrick^s becoming vacant at this 
timC) Dr. King was elected to it ; and appeared so active 
in supporting the Revolution, which bad now taken place, 
tfaaty after the landing of king Jamek in Ireland in 1689^ 
be was twice confined in Dublin*castle. He was attacked^ 
not long after, in a weekly pappr called ^* The Ahhor- 
rence," with an intent to render him more obnoxious i 
and was also assaulted in the street, where a musket wiibh 
a lighted match was levelled at him. He was likewise 
disturbed in the performance of divine service at bis cfaurch 
ieveral timesi particularly on Candlemas*day ; when seven 
officers who were there swore aloud that ihey would cut 
bis throat All this did not discourage him ; but he sttli 

Cersisted, and took his doctor's degree this same year, 1699 
Fpon king James's retreat to France, after the battle of 
tbe Boyne in 1690, he preached a tbanksgiving^sermon oa 
ikateccasion in November; and, January foliowimg, was 
proflsoted to the bishopric of Derry. In 169 1 be published 
U London in 4tOy ** The State of tbe Protestants in Irer 
landy uader tbe late Kitig James's Government; in which 
th^if carriage toward^ him is justified ; and the absolulae 
neeeasity of their endeavouring to be freed from bis go- 
vernoienty and of submitting to their present majesties^ is 
demonstrated." The third edition, with additions,^ was 
printed at London tbe year after, in 8vo. Burnet speaks 
of this book in the following terms : ^* This copious history 
is do well received, iand so universally acknowledged to be 
as truly as it is finely written, that I refer my readers to 
tbe account of those matters, which is fully and faithfully 
given by that learned and zealous prelate." It was au 
tacked, however, tbe same year, by Mr. Charles Lesley) 
who asserted, that ^* there is not one single fact be has in- 
quired into, hot be found it false in whole or in part> 
aggravated or misrepresented, so as to alter tbe whole ^e 
of tbe story, and give it perfectly another air and turn) 
iusomuch that, though many things he says were true, yet 
be has hardly spoke a tru^ word, that is,' told truly and 
Q^kedly^ without a warp." Though few, as we imagine. 
Will fQvm their judgment of King's book from this acooimt 
of it by Lesley ; yet all rtiay allow, that there is a kind 
^ ibf cotovmhg peculiar to, and characteristic of, each party; 

K I N G, 


^nd that tlie vefy saine facts, when related hy tn historian 
pf different political principl'es, shall have a very diffe'tedl^ 
appearance, and also ihake a very different impression tipOik 
^ reader. 

Tt'he public tranquillity b^ing how perfectly rie^tored, tbe 
bishop a[jplied himself more particularly to the duties of his 
pastoral care ; and, reviewing the state of his diocese, prer 
sently discovered, that, by tbe great number of colonies 
lately transported from Scotland, many of his people Wer^ 
dissenters from the established church, which they opposed 
%ith as much zeal as the Papists. As he had therefore 
employed his pen, against the Papists when danger was 
lipprehended from them, so now he took it up agaitist the 
1?resbyterians, whom he endeavoured to persuade to con- 
formity, in a piece entitled " A Discourse concerning the 
rnveritioris of Men in the Worship of God," Dublin, 1694, 
4to. But this attempt only served to engage him in a 
second controversy with these dissenting adversaries, ofte 
of whose ministers, Mr. Joseph Boyce, presently published 
** Remarks^'* &c. in which, however, be allows, that the 
bishop's discourse was written with an air . of seriousness 
^nd gravity, becoming the weight of the subject, ds well 
$L3 the dignity of his character. Upon this, the bishop 
j'etui^ned an answer, und^r the. title 6f " An Acimonitibn to 
the Dissenting Inhabitants of the Diocese of Derry^ con- 
cerning a book lately published by Mr. J. B. entitled 
iRemsurks, &c." 1695, 4toj to which Mr. fibycp replying, 
the bishop rejoined in " A Second Admoni|:i6n to the Dis- 
senting Inhabitants, &c." published the, same year a^ 
Dublin, ]n.4to ; and thus the controversy ended. [ ' / 

In 1^02 he published at Dublin, in 4to'^' his celebrated 
treatise "De Origine Mali,** which was republished the 
«ame year at London in 8vo; in which he. endeavours to 
«hew hovy all the several kinds of evil with which the world 
abounds, are consistent with the goodness pf Gpd^ and may 
t>e apcouhted for without the supposition of an evil prfn^ 
ciple. We do not find that any exceptions were mstde al 
Ifirst to this work at home ; but it fell under the cogAisraiice 
of some verv eminent foreigners. Mr. Bernard having: 
given an abridgment of it in his** Nouvelles qe la^ R6- 
pubtique des Lettres** for May and Jun'e 170^^ that 
abridgment fell into the bands of Mr. Bayle, wh(?^ bbsetv- 
ing his Manichean system to be iri dalnger fronfi it^ did not 
itay till he could see and cpnsult the boo^ itself, '^l^ut; ^hu 

i66 KING. 

mioed tbe bxpotbesU of our author as it was represented 
in Bernard^s extracts, and in a passage cited by the writers 
of the ^' Acta Eruditorum Lipsise," which had been 
omitted by Bernard. Bayle was blamed for this by Ber-* 
nard, and not without reason, as he had manifestly mis- 
taken the prelate's meaning in many particulars, and at* 
tacked him upon principles which he would hare denied ; 
but the dispute did not end so : Bayle afterwards replied 
to Bernard ; and, having procured the bishop's book, made 
several new observations upon it, which were published iii 
the fifth tome of his ** RtSponse," &c. Leibnitz also wrote 
*' Remarks'* on this work, which, however, he styles ** a 
w6rk full of elegance and learning." These remarks, 
which are in French^ were published by DeaMaizeaux, in 
the third volume of the ^' Recueil de diverses Pieces sur la 
Philosophic, &c. par Mess. Leibnitz, Clarke, Newton, &c.'* 
at Amsterdam, 1720, in three vols. 12mo. In the mean 
time, the bishop, though be did not publicly and formally 
reply to these writers, left a great number of manuscript 
papers, in which he considered their several objections tp 
his system, and laboured to vindicate it These papers 
were afterwards communicated to Mr. Edmund Law, M. A. 
fellow of Christ's college in Cambridge, afterwards bishop 
of Carlisle, who had translated the bishop's book, and 
written notes upon it ; and who theii printed a se.con4 
edition of his translation, in the notes to which he inserted 
the substiapce of those papers. The whole capae out with 
this title, ** An Essay on the Origin of Evil, by Br. William 
King, late lord archbishop of Dublin : translated from the 
Latin, with Nptes, and a Dissertation concerning th& 
Principle and Criterion of Virtue, and the Origin of the 
Passions. The second edition. Corrected and enlarged 
from the author's manuscripts. To which are added, two 
Sermons by the same author; the former concerning 
Divine Prescience ; the latter on the Fall of Man.*' Lond. 
1732, 2 vols. 8vo. A third edition was published in 1739^ 
and it was for some years a book in great vogue at Cam* 
bridge, but its repuution has been declining for a much 
longer period. 

The same year al^p that he published his book *^ De 
Pngine Mali," viz. 1702, he was translated to the arch^ 
bishopric of Dublin. . He was appointed one of the lords 
justices of Ireland in 1717, and held the same office twicO 
afterwards, in 1721 and. 1723. He. died a,t bis palace ia 

KING. 367 

Dublin^ May 8, 1 729. Besides the works above«*ineiitioiied| 
be published several occasional Sermons. Tliat ^* Con^ 
cf^rning Divine Prescience," which was printed by Mr, 
Law, wa^ preached and published in 1709, with this title: 
^^ Divine Predestiiiation and Fore-knowledge consistent 
with the Freedom of Man!s Will :'' and as the bishop, in 
this, discourse, had started a doctrine concerning the moral 
Attributes of the Deity, as if different from the moral 
qualities >of the same name in man, he was attacked upon 
this head by writers of very unlike complexions ; by Dr. 
John Edwards, in a piece called ^^1"^^ Divine Perfections 
vindicated," &c. ; and by Anthony Collins, esq. in a pam- 
phlet:*ientitled <' A Vindication of .the Divine Attributes,'* 
&c. both in 1710. The archbishop did not enter into i^ 
controversy, -yet endeavoured to reipove all objections to 
his general scheme, with; which this. was intimately con* 
n^cted, in those papers; the substance of which, as wa 
have observed, was printed in Mr. Law*s notes, after hia 
death. Archbishop King, as appears by bis correspond* 
ence with Swift, was a man of humour, and many of bi« 
bans mots were at one time* current.' 

KING (Dk. William), an ingenioua and humourous 
English writer, was born in London, 1663, the son of 
Ezekiel King, a gentleman. He ivas allied to the noble 
families of Clarendon and Rochester. From Westminster 
school, where he was a scholar on the foundation under 
the. care of Dr. Busby, he was at eighteen elected* to 
Christ-church, Oxford, and admitted a student there in. 
Michaelmas term, 1681. \ ' 

. £arly in life Mr. King became possessed o( a small pa- 
ternal estate in Middlesex. From his occasionally men- 
tioning ^^ his tenants in Northampton and Leicestershire," 
bis biographers have supposed him to have been a land* 
holder also in those counties ; but there is little authority 
for stich a supposition. However, from his going out 
coippoupder when he took bis first degree, it is plain that' 
he had a tolerable fortune, which enabled him to indulge 
his genius and inclination in the choice.and method of his. 
studies. He took his first degree in arts Dec. 8, 1685.; 
proceeded regularly to M. A. July 6, 1688 ; and the same 
year commenced author. A religious turn of mind, join^^ 

'' Biog. Brit. — Swift's Works, lee Index. — Burnet's Owp Tiotes.— Jones's 
life of bigbop Horde, p. 92.— Bowles's ediUoA of Pope's Works.-— Bardy's ' 
l^e «f SkeltOB, p. 134. \j 

m K I N O. 

tb the #iiitt[^t i^dgird for tht bonour of hin country, pro^ 
tiiot^d hiih to rescue the character and name of Wicklifie, 
oor first referiher, froto the calumnies of mons. Varillas. 
The thing had been (Publicly requested also, as a proper 
ilndertaking for ^c^h as w^ere at leisure, and would take 
the trouble. Mr. King, therefore, deenling himself to be 
thus called fetth tO' the charge, rettdily entered the lists ; 
afnd with a proper mixture of wit and learnings hatidsomel^ 
exposed the blundei^ of that French author, in ** Reflec- 
tions upon Mons. Varillas* History of Heresy, book I. torn. I. 
so far a» relates to English matters, more^ especially tbosCL 
of WicklifFe." About thi« time^ having fixed oti the civil 
law as his prbfession, he entered upon that study in the 

In 1 690 he trttnslated from the Frisnch of Monsieur and 
Madaitoe Dacier, '* The Life of Marcus Aurelius Antoni«» 
Kus, the Roman Emperor; together with some' select re- 
tilarks on the said Antoninus's Meditations concerning him* 
self, treating of a natural man's happiness, &c. as also 
Upon the Lifie of Antoninus." About the sam^ time he 
wrote ** A Dialogue shewing the way to Modern Prefer- 
itient,*' a humourous satire, which contains some solid truths^ 
under the disguise of a conversation between three illus- 
trious personages; the tooth-drawer to cardinal Porto* 
Carero; the corn'>cutter to pope Innocent XL ; and the 
receiver-general to an Ottoman mufti. On July 7, 1692, 
betook bis degree of B. and D. LL. and Nov. 12; ihtii 
year, by favour of abp. Tillotson, obtained a Jlaty wfaicbj 
admitting him an advocate at Doctor's trommons, enablca 
himi to plead in the courts of the civil atid ecciesiksti^al 
Jaw. In 1693 he published a translation of " New' Man- 
ners'aud Characters of the two great Brothers, the Duke of 
Bouillon and MarescbalTurenne, written in French by Jktnes' 
|]e Langdale, Baron of Saumieres.^' Either in this, or early 
ifrdie following year; appeared avery extraordinaiy morfeaUj 
iHider the title of" An Answer to a Book which will be pub-' 
liftbed next week entitled A Letter to the Rev. Dr; Sotfth; 
|}pon occasion of a late Book entitled Animadv^sidnsbn DK 
Sherlock^s Book, entiiled A Vindication of the Holy atfd* 
Ever-blessed Trinity. Being a Letter to the^Autbdr;*' lii' 
August 1694, Mr. Molesworth publishing^ His *^ Accchrht'of- 
Denmark as it was in the year 1692," in which he troatt 
the Dimes and their iBoiiareb with great contempt, and' 
takes the opportunity of insinuating those WiU pTindjAttr;* 

K I.N G. 3i6f 

Jby w,bicb he supposes liberty to be established^ «nd by which 
his adversaries suspect that all subordination and govern- 
ment is endangered. Dr. King therefore took up bis pen 
once more in his country^s cause, the honour of which was 
thought to be blemished by that account, Mr. Scheel, the 
Danish minister, having presented a memorial against it. 
Animated with tbis spirit, Dr. King drew up a censure of 

.it, which he printed in 1694, under the title of ^^ Animad- 
versions on the pretended Account of Denmark.*' This was 
so much approved by prince George, consort to the prin- 
cess Anne, that the doctor was soon after appointed secre- 
tary to her royal highness* 

In 1697 be took a share with his fellow-collegians at 
Christ-church, in the memorable dispute concersung the 
authenticity of Phaiaris^s Epistles. His firi>t appearance 
in that controversy was owing to his being accidentally 
present at a conversation between Dr. Bentley and Mr. 

. Beunet the bookseller, concerning the MS. of Pbalaris in 
the King's library. Mr. Boyle, when answering Bentley*s 
Dissertatipn, applied to our author Tor the particulars of 
what passed on that occasion ; which he received in the 
short but expressive letter which Boyle has printed in his 
book, in 1698, with the testimonies of Mr. Bennet and 
Air. Gibson (who had been employed as the collator). 
>Stung by these stubborn facts, Dr. Bentley, in the en- 
larged edition of his Dissertation, 1699, endeavoured to 
invalidate their force, by an attempt to weaken the credi- 
bility of the witnesses. On Dr. King, in particular, he 
has condescended to bestow near eight pages of his pre- 
face, a short specimen uf which is annexed to the Letter 
^e have last referred to. In a second letter to Mr. Boyle, 
our author with, great modesty refutes the groundless ca- 

. lumny, and proves that Dr. Bentley himself has Confirmed 
his testimony in every particular, except having omitted 
the great critic's beautiful similitude of *^ a squeezed 

In the progress of the controversy, Dr. King published 
Ills ^^ Dialogues of the Dead,'' written (as he says) ^ irt 
self-defence,^' and replete with that species of banter 
which was his peculiar talent, and which must have greatly 
mortified hjs adversary. How much Dr. King had thi^ 
controversy at heart, may be seen by the. various memo-* 
randa concerning it which are scattered up and down ia 

' Vol. XIX. Eb 

*< * 

370 KIN G. 

liifl froHks. At the end of 169S, or eaily in 1699, came 
out *^ A Journey to London in the year 1693, after the 
ingenioos method of that made by Dr. Martin Lister the 
same year;^ which he designed as a Tindicatioo of his 
country. This was an excellent specimen of that parti- 
cular humour in which he excelled. Dr. King thought it 
better than any of hb former works, as he fiequendy wrote 
afterwards under the name of *' The Author of the Journey 
to London/' 

It has been generally allowed that Dr. King, though he 
could not endure his business as an advocate, made an ex- 
cellent judge in the court of delegates, as often as he was 
called to that bench. The fatigue, however, of a civilian's 
duty was too great for his natural indolence ; and he re* 
tired to his student's place at Christ- church, to indulge 
his predominant attachment at better leisure. From this 
time, giving way to that /uga negotii so incident to the 

' poetical race, he passed his dayji in the pursuit of the 
same ravishing images, which, being aptly moulded, came 
abroad in manuscript, in the form of pleasant tales and 
other pieces in verse, at various times, as they happened to 

' be finished. Many of these he afterwards collected, and 
published, with other pieces, in bis '* Miscellanies." In 
1700 he published without a name, a severe satire on the 
credulity of sir Hans SIbane, entitled " The Transac- 
tibneer, with some of bis philosophical fancies, in two 
dialogues.'' The irony in this tract is admirable; and it 
must be acknowledged, notwithstanding the deservedly 
liigb character of sir Hans as a physician and a naturalist, 

' that our author has in many places discovered the vulner* 
able heel of Achilles, and that his satirical observations are 
Tax general well-founded. 

Early in 1701, Dr. King was recalled to the busy scenes 
of life. His friend James the third earl of Anglesea (who 
had succeeded to that title April 1, 1690), married Oct. 
28, 1699, the lady Catharine Darnley, natural daughter 
to king James II. by Catharine countess of Dorchester, 

' and had by her one daughter. After living together little 
more than a ye^r, a dispute arose between them, which 
ended in a separation. Lord Anglesea solicited the as* 
sistance of Dr. King ; and the force of friendship prevailed 
over bis natural aversion to the wrangling of the bar. He 
' complied with the request; took abundant pains for his 
old friend, more than he was ever known to do ; and dis- 

KING. 371 



tinguished himself so in the earl's defence, as shewed him 
to have had abilities in his profession equal to any occa- 
sion that might call for them, and effectually established 
his reputation in thie character of a civilian, as he bad al" 
ready done in that of a polite writer. 

Notwithstanding the reputation acquired by Dr. King in 
this caus^, he never afterwards attained any striking emi* 
nence in a profession where constant assiduity and a long 
course of years are requisites for the acquisition of fame. 
Captivated by the ntuses, he neglected business, and by 
degrees, as is natural to such tempers, began to dread and 
abhor, it Heedless of those necessary supplies which a 
due attention would actually have brought to his finances, 
they were so much impaired by his neglect, and by the 
gay course of life which he led, that he gladly accepted 
the offer 'of preferment in Ireland ; a sure sign that his 
practice was then not very considerable, as he is perhaps 
the only civilian that ever went to reside in Ireland after 
once having experienced the emoluments of a settlement 
in Doctors Commons. The exact period of his quitting this 
kingdom cannot now be ascertained, h has been generally 
supposed that he went with the earl of Pembroke, who 
was appointed lord lieutenant in April 1707. But he was 
certainly in Ireland much earlier, as we have a correct copy 
of*' Mully of Mountown," in 1704, from theauthor him- 
self, with a complaint that, before that time, some spurious 
copies had crept into the world. It is probable, therefore, 
that his preferment was owing to the united interests of the 
earl of Rochester, his relation (lord-lieutenant of Ireland 
from Dec. 12, 1700, to Feb. 4, 1702-3), and his noble pa- 
tron the earl of Pembroke (lord high admiral of England 
and Ireland from Jan. 1601-2 to May 1702), . If this con- 
jecture be allowed, the date is fixed clearly to the begin- 
ning of 1702, and the thread of the history is properly 
connected. Dr. Kinsf was now in a new scene of action. 
He was judge of the high court of admiralty in Ireland, 
sole Commissioner of the prizes, and keeper of the records 
in Bermingham's tower. The latter, indeed, was rather a 
matter of honour than profit ; the salary being at that time 
but ten pounds a year, though afterwards advanced to 400. 
He was likewise appointed vicar-general to the lord pri- 
mate, Dr. Narcissus Marsh. With these honours he was 
v^ell received and countenanced by persons of the highest 
N rank, and might have made his fortune, if the change of 

' B B 2 

372 K I N a 

V « 


climate , could have wrought a change in his dispbsitioi^. 
But so far was be from treasuring up the money in a man- 
ner thrown into his lap, that he returned to England with 
no other treasure than a few merry poems and h^jmourous 
essays. Such indeed was his profusion, that he might have 
said with Virgil's shepherd, non unquarn gravis are donium 
mihi dextra redibat, 

Ou Nov. 25, 1708, the earl of Wharton was appointed 
lord lieutenant. ^ His secretary, Mr. Addison, immediately 
on his arrivaLin Ireland, was made keeper of the records ; 
and Dr. King returne^d to London, where he almost imme- 
diately gave the world those admlratle instances of the 
humour so peculiarly his own, by publishing " Useful 
transactions in philosophy and other sorts of Learning." 
The last of these, containing " A Voyage to the Island of 

'Cajamai in America," is one of the severest and most hu- 
nipurous satires that ever was written in prose. . 

He next employed himself in finishing his "Art of Love,*' 
with a preface containing the " Life of Ovid." The doc- 
tor's virtuous disposition is nowhere more remarkably dis- 
tinguished than in this piece; in which both the subject 
and the example so naturally lead into some less cbdstie 
images, some looser love which stands in need of a remedy. 
It is divided into fourteen books, most of them ending with 
some remarkable fable and interesting novel. In 1709 he 
also published, " The Art of Cookery, in imitation of Ho- 
race's Art of Poetry ; with some letters to^ Dr. Lister and 
others, occasioned principally by the title of a book pub- 
lished by the doctor, being the Works of Apicius Caelius, 

.Concerning the soups and sauces of the ancients. With 
an ejctract of the greatest curiosities Contained in that 
book." Neither the poem nor any of the letters has a 
date; nor has " The Art of Lpve." 'Whether we should 
impute this to our author's indolence, or to a(fectation (for 
he has treated such exactness in his " Dialogues of the 
Dead" with some contempt), is uncertain ; but he carried 
it to great excess. Even the volume of " Miscellanies^" 
which he collected himself, is without a date, either in the 
general title-page, or in that of any particular tract. , 

On Aug. 3, 1710, appeared the first number of "The 
Examiner," the ablest vindication of the measures of the 
queen and her hew ministry. Swift began witb No. 13, 
and ended by writing part of No. 45 ; wh^n Mrs. Manley 
took it upy and fiinisbed the first volume : it was afterwards 

KING. 373 


resun^ed by Mr. Oldisworth, who completed four volumes 
more, and published nineteen numbers of a sixth volume, 
when the qnee?i*s death put an end to the work. The 
original institutors of that paper seem to have employed 
Dr. King as their publisher, or ostensible author, before 
they prevailed on their great champion to undertake that 
task. It is not clear which part of the first ten numbers 
were Dr. King's 5 but lie appears pretty evidently the 
writer of No. 11, Oct. 12 ; No. 12, Oct. 19 ; and No. 13, 
Oct. 26 ; and this agrees with the account given by the 
publisher of his posthumous works, who says he untlertook 
that paper about the lOth of October. On the 26th of 
October, no Examiner at all appeared 5 and the next num* 
ber, which was pablished Nov. 2. was written by Dr. Swift. 
Our author's warm zeal for the churchy and his conteqnpt 
for the whigs (" his eyes," says Dr. Johnson, " wefe open 
to all the operations of whiggism")^ carried him naturally 
on the side of Sacheverell ; and he had a hand, in his dry 
sarcastic way, in many political essays of that period. He 
published, with this view, " A friendly Letter from honest 
Tom Boggy, to the Rev. Mr. Goddard, canon of Windsor, 
occasioned by a sermon preached at St. George's chapel, 
dedicated to her grace the duchess of Marlborough," 1710; 
and " A second Letter to Mr. Goddard, occasioned by the 
late Panegyric given him by the Review, Thursday, July 
13, 1710.*' These were succeeded by " A Vindication 
of the Rev. Dr. Henry Sacheverell, from the false, scan- 
dalous, and malicious aspersions, cast upon him in a late 
infamous paniphlct entitled * The Modern Fanatic;' in- 
tended chiefly to repose the iniquity of the faction in ge- 
neral, '^"' out taking any partici.!-^' notice of their poor 
nnad tool, Bisset, in particular : in a dialogue between 
a tory and a whig*.'* This masterly composition had 
scarcely appeared in the world before it was followed by 
" Mr. Bisset's Recantation ; in 3^ letter to the Rev. Dr. 
^Sacheverell ;" a singular banter on that enthusiast, whom 
our author once more thought proper to lash, in ^^ An Au« 
swer to a second scandalous book that Mr. Bisset is now 
writing, to be published |ts soon as possible.^' Dr. White 

. * Dr. King was undoubtedly assist- presented and srt in a clear' light. la 

ed ia ibis severe treatise by Charles two dialogues between a sceptic and 

jLarobe, M. A. and by Sacheverell bim- 9. deist, 1708," 8vo; an adinirable 

self; and there is good reason to be- defence both of natural and revealtd 

lieve that they were also jointly authors religion, 
•f '* The Principles of Deism truly re- 

374 KING. 

Kennefs celelirated sertnon on the death of the first duke 
of Devonshire, occasioned, amongst ^many other publica- 
tions, ajeu d^esprit of Dr. King, under the title of *^ An 
Answer to Clemens Alexandrinus's Sermon upon * Quis 
Dives salvetur ?' * What rich man can be saved ?' proving 
it easy for a camel to get through the eye of a needle.^' In 
1711, Dr. King very diligently employed his pen in pub- 
lishing that very useful book for schools, his ^' Historical 
account of the Heathen Gods and Heroes, necessary for 
the understanding of the ancient Poets;'* a work still in 
great esteem, and of which there have been several edi« 
tions. About the same time he translated ^^ Political con- 
siderations upon Refined Politics, and the Master-strokes 
of State, as practised by the Ancients and Moderns, writ- 
ten by Gabriel Naude, and inscribed to the cardinal Bag- 
ni.*' At the same period also he employed himself on 
^' Rufinus, or an historical essay on the Favourite Ministry 
under Theodosius and his son Arcadius; with a poem 
annexed, called * Rufinus, or the Favourite.'* These were 
written early in 1711, but not printed till the end of that 
year. They were levelled against the duke of Marlborough 
and bis adherents ; and were written with much asperity. 
Towards the close of 1 7 11 his circumstances began to re- 
assume a favourable aspect ; and he was recommended by 
his firm friend Swift to an office under government. ^^ I 
have settled Dr. King," says that great writer, ** in the 
Gazette ; it will be worth two hundred pounds a year to. 
him. To-morrow I am to carry him to dine with the se- 
cretary.'* And in another letter, he tells the archbishop 
of Dublin, *^ I have got poo